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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1259: 155-170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578176

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicle (EV) shedding is a biologically conserved cellular process across virtually every cell type. In cancer, EVs shed from tumor and stromal cells to the tumor microenvironment play a major role in determining tumor fate, which to a large extent is dictated by the biologically active cargo contained in EVs. Current understanding of various cancer-associated EVs has enabled the outlining of mechanistic connections between cargo and tumor-promoting functions. In this chapter, we describe examples of EV-mediated communication between tumor cells and stromal cells, highlighting the molecular constituents responsible for pro-tumorigenic effects. Furthermore, we discuss the roles of matrix-degrading EVs in cell invasion. Finally, we summarize research on the potential use of EVs as a novel approach to cancer therapeutics.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Neoplasias/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Células Estromais
2.
Ann Hematol ; 99(7): 1515-1523, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506245

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening systemic hyperinflammatory disorder. We found recently that repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment induces HLH-like features in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP1/TA-1) but not in senescence-resistant control mice (SAMR1). In this study, we analyzed the dynamics of hematopoiesis in this mouse model of HLH. When treated repeatedly with LPS, the numbers of myeloid progenitor cells (CFU-GM) and B-lymphoid progenitor cells (CFU-preB) in the bone marrow (BM) rapidly decreased after each treatment in both strains. The number of CFU-GM in SAMP1/TA-1 and SAMR1, and of CFU-preB in SAMR1, returned to pretreatment levels by 7 days after each treatment. However, the recovery in the number of CFU-preB in SAMP1/TA-1 was limited. In both strains, the BM expression of genes encoding positive regulators of myelopoiesis (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interleukin (IL)-6), and negative regulators of B lymphopoiesis (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α) was increased. The expression of genes encoding positive regulators of B lymphopoiesis (stromal-cell derived factor (SDF)-1, IL-7, and stem cell factor (SCF)) was persistently decreased in SAMP1/TA-1 but not in SAMR1. Expression of the gene encoding p16INK4a and the proportion of ß-galactosidase-positive cells were increased in cultured stromal cells obtained from LPS-treated SAMP1/TA-1 but not in those from LPS-treated SAMR1. LPS treatment induced qualitative changes in stromal cells, which comprise the microenvironment supporting appropriate hematopoiesis, in SAMP1/TA-1; these stromal cell changes are inferred to disrupt the dynamics of hematopoiesis. Thus, hematopoietic tissue is one of the organs that suffer life-threatening damage in HLH.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Hematopoese/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/fisiopatologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Contagem de Células , Células Cultivadas , Microambiente Celular/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Células Estromais/patologia
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1263: 1-11, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588319

RESUMO

From a general perspective, in the context of solid tumors, we can distinguish metabolic alterations of cancer cells from those of the stroma. These two components interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix (ECM), and these interactions can take the form of either metabolic competition or metabolic symbiosis. The aim of this chapter is to overview the canonical metabolic alterations of tumor and stroma cells and to present specific examples of metabolic competition and symbiosis. We will also discuss the complexity and plasticity of metabolism, which pose indeed a serious threat to our ability to target selective metabolic features of tumor microenvironment with drugs. Finally, we will highlight some limitations of state-of-the-art techniques used to study tumor metabolism and propose some innovative solutions to investigate the clinical relevance of metabolic alterations for patient management and treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1263: 175-202, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588328

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is an evolutionally low-level and embryonically featured tissue comprising heterogenic populations of malignant and stromal cells as well as noncellular components. Under radiotherapy (RT), the major modality for the treatment of malignant diseases [1], TME shows an adaptive response in multiple aspects that affect the efficacy of RT. With the potential clinical benefits, interests in RT combined with immunotherapy (IT) are intensified with a large scale of clinical trials underway for an array of cancer types. A better understanding of the multiple molecular aspects, especially the cross talks of RT-mediated energy reprogramming and immunoregulation in the irradiated TME (ITME), will be necessary for further enhancing the benefit of RT-IT modality. Coming studies should further reveal more mechanistic insights of radiation-induced instant or permanent consequence in tumor and stromal cells. Results from these studies will help to identify critical molecular pathways including cancer stem cell repopulation, metabolic rewiring, and specific communication between radioresistant cancer cells and the infiltrated immune active lymphocytes. In this chapter, we will focus on the following aspects: radiation-repopulated cancer stem cells (CSCs), hypoxia and re-oxygenation, reprogramming metabolism, and radiation-induced immune regulation, in which we summarize the current literature to illustrate an integrated image of the ITME. We hope that the contents in this chapter will be informative for physicians and translational researchers in cancer radiotherapy or immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413029

RESUMO

Bone marrow stroma influences metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) progression, latency, and recurrence. At sites of PCa bone metastasis, cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumor-associated macrophages interact to establish a perlecan-rich desmoplastic stroma. As a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan (HSPG2) stores and stabilizes growth factors, including heparin-binding Wnt3A, a positive regulator of PCa cell growth. Because PCa cells alone do not induce CAF production of perlecan in the desmoplastic stroma, we sought to discover the sources of perlecan and its growth factor-releasing modifiers SULF1, SULF2, and heparanase in PCa cells and xenografts, bone marrow fibroblasts, and macrophages. SULF1, produced primarily by bone marrow fibroblasts, was the main glycosaminoglycanase present, a finding validated with primary tissue specimens of PCa metastases with desmoplastic bone stroma. Expression of both HSPG2 and SULF1 was concentrated in αSMA-rich stroma near PCa tumor nests, where infiltrating pro-tumor TAMs also were present. To decipher SULF1's role in the reactive bone stroma, we created a bone marrow biomimetic hydrogel incorporating perlecan, PCa cells, macrophages, and fibroblastic bone marrow stromal cells. Finding that M2-like macrophages increased levels of SULF1 and HSPG2 produced by fibroblasts, we examined SULF1 function in Wnt3A-mediated PCa tumoroid growth in tricultures. Comparing control or SULF1 knockout fibroblastic cells, we showed that SULF1 reduces Wnt3A-driven growth, cellularity, and cluster number of PCa cells in our 3D model. We conclude that SULF1 can suppress Wnt3A-driven growth signals in the desmoplastic stroma of PCa bone metastases, and SULF1 loss favors PCa progression, even in the presence of pro-tumorigenic TAMs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas de Heparan Sulfato/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Sulfotransferases/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo
6.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(1): 93-100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400148

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a gynecological health problem for women of reproductive stage. Kallikrein 4 is a proliferative factor and has important roles in cancer development and progression. To explore the role of Kallikrein 4 in endometriosis, we detected the expression of Kallikrein 4 in ectopic and normal control endometriosis tissues. Moreover, the underlying influence of Kallikrein 4 on migration and invasion of endometrial stromal cells was investigated. Furthermore, the correlations between this gene and E-cadherin and N-cadherin were also evaluated. The results demonstrated that the expression level of Kallikrein 4 in endometrial tissues was significantly increased compared to normal endometrial tissues, and over-expression of Kallikrein 4 up-regulated expression of N-cadherin but down-regulated E-cadherin in endometrial stromal cells. The ability of migration and invasion of endometrial stromal cells in vitro was increased by up-regulating Kallikrein 4 expression, suggesting that Kallikrein 4 might be involved in the development of ovarian endometriosis.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Endometriose/fisiopatologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Calicreínas/metabolismo , Células Estromais/citologia , Caderinas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Endométrio/citologia , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos
7.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 151: 102907, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408009

RESUMO

It has become clear that carcinogenesis goes beyond tumor cell biology. Cancer research has acknowledged the importance of biological functions of the tumor-microenvironment, wherein not only cellular components seem to hold valuable information but also structural components like collagen fibers. Several studies have focused on the significance of stromal collagen fiber organization and reported on its role in cancer progression, invasiveness and treatment response. In this review, we discuss the different imaging methods for stromal collagen organization, followed by an in-depth discussion of current literature on in-vitro and animal experiments and human studies, highlighting its importance with respect to cancer progression, prognosis and prediction. We can conclude that collagen organization contains valuable information with regard to metastatic potential and clinical outcomes in cancer. However, the significance of an aligned versus disorganized collagen morphology differs between cancer types, implying more research is necessary before steps towards clinical implementation can be made.


Assuntos
Colágeno , Neoplasias , Animais , Humanos , Prognóstico , Células Estromais , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(14): e19561, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243373

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. Many studies have shown that tumor microenvironment cells, immune cells, and stromal cell infiltration have an important impact on prognosis, so it is important to identify biomarkers for achieving better treatment and prognosis.To better understand the relationship between immune and stromal cell-related genes and prognosis, we screened patients with breast cancer in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and divided them into high and low groups based on immune/stromal scores. We next identified differentially expressed immune-related genes that are significantly associated with the prognosis of patients with breast cancer for functional enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction networks, respectively. Finally, we selected a separate breast cancer cohort in gene expression synthesis (GEO) for validation.Both immune scores and stromal scores are meaningful in the correlation of subtype classification. Disease-free survival of cases with the high score group of immune scores is statistically longer than the cases in the low score group. Differentially expressed immune-related genes extracted from the comparison can effectively evaluate the prognosis of patients with breast cancer and these genes are primarily involved in immune responses, extracellular matrix, and chemokine activity. At last, we obtained a series of verified tumor immune-related genes that predict the prognosis of patients with breast cancer.Combining the Estimation of Stromal and Immune Cells in Malignant Tumor Tissues using Expression database and the TCGA database to extract the list of tumor microenvironment related genes which may help to outline the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. Some previously overlooked genes have the potential to become additional biomarkers for breast cancer. Further research on these genes can reveal a new understanding of the potential relationship between tumor microenvironment and breast cancer prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Células Estromais/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Prognóstico , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/fisiologia
9.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(8): 1549-1564, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and their subsets contribute to breast cancer prognosis. We investigated the prognostic impact of CD3+, CD8+ and FOXP3+ TILs in patients with early intermediate/high-risk breast cancer treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy within two randomized trials conducted by our Group. METHODS: We examined 1011 patients (median follow-up 130.9 months) and their tumors for total, stromal (s) and intratumoral (i) CD3, CD8 and FOXP3 lymphocyte density (counts/mm2) on tissue-microarray cores by immunohistochemistry. Morphological sTIL density on whole H&E-stained sections was also evaluated. RESULTS: The majority of TILs were CD3+. Total CD3 and CD8, sCD3 and sCD8, iCD3 and iCD8, sFOXP3 and iFOXP3 were strongly correlated (Spearman's rho values > 0.6). High individual lymphocytic subsets and sTIL density were strongly associated with high tumor grade, higher proliferation and HER2-positive and triple-negative tumors (all p values < 0.001). Higher sTIL density (10% increments), high density of almost each individual marker and all-high profiles conferred favorable prognosis. However, when adjusted for sTIL density, stromal and intratumoral lymphocytic subsets lost their prognostic significance, while higher sTIL density conferred up to 15% lower risk for relapse. Independently of sTIL density, higher total CD3+ and CD8+ TILs conferred 35% and 28% lower risk for relapse, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Stromal and intratumoral CD3+, CD8+ and FOXP3+ TIL density do not seem to add prognostic information over the morphologically assessed sTIL density, which is worth introducing in routine histology reports.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Antígenos CD8/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Células Estromais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Células Estromais/imunologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(8): 1577-1588, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306077

RESUMO

HLA-DR, an MHC class II molecule that mediates antigen presentation, is a favourable prognostic indicator in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the dynamics and location of HLA-DR expression during CRC development are unclear. We aimed to define HLA-DR expression by immunohistochemistry in colorectal epithelium and stromal tissue at different stages of cancer development, assessing non-neoplastic colorectal adenocarcinoma-adjacent tissue, adenomas and carcinoma tissues, and to associate HLA-DR levels with clinical outcomes. Patients with higher than median HLA-DR expression survived at least twice as long as patients with lower expression. This association was significant for HLA-DR staining in the colorectal carcinoma epithelium (n = 152, p = 0.011, HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.15-3.15) and adjacent non-neoplastic epithelium (n = 152, p < 0.001, HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.59-4.66), but not stroma. In stage II cases, however, the prognostic value of HLA-DR expression was significant only in adjacent non-neoplastic tissues, for both epithelium (n = 63, p = 0.015, HR 3.6, 95% CI 1.279-10.25) and stroma (n = 63, p = 0.018, HR 5.07, 95% CI 1.32-19.49). HLA-DR was lower in carcinoma tissue compared to matched adenomas (n = 35), in epithelium (p < 0.01) and stroma (p < 0.001). HLA-DR was further reduced in late-stage carcinoma (n = 101) compared to early stage (n = 105), in epithelium (p < 0.001) and stroma (p < 0.01). HLA-DR expression was lower (p < 0.05) in the adjacent non-neoplastic epithelium of patients with cancer recurrence. We demonstrate a progressive loss of HLA-DR in epithelial and stromal tissue compartments during CRC development and show prognostic ability in carcinoma-adjacent non-neoplastic tissues, highlighting the importance of this molecule in the anti-cancer immune response. These findings may have wider implications for immunotherapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenoma/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenoma/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2054, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345968

RESUMO

Classical dendritic cells (cDCs) are rare sentinel cells specialized in the regulation of adaptive immunity. Modeling cDC development is crucial to study cDCs and harness their therapeutic potential. Here we address whether cDCs could differentiate in response to trophic cues delivered by mesenchymal components of the hematopoietic niche. We find that mesenchymal stromal cells engineered to express membrane-bound FLT3L and stem cell factor (SCF) together with CXCL12 induce the specification of human cDCs from CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Engraftment of engineered mesenchymal stromal cells (eMSCs) together with CD34+ HSPCs creates an in vivo synthetic niche in the dermis of immunodeficient mice driving the differentiation of cDCs and CD123+AXL+CD327+ pre/AS-DCs. cDC2s generated in vivo display higher levels of resemblance with human blood cDCs unattained by in vitro-generated subsets. Altogether, eMSCs provide a unique platform recapitulating the full spectrum of cDC subsets enabling their functional characterization in vivo.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL12/farmacologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Colágeno/farmacologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Laminina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/farmacologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estromais/citologia , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estromais/metabolismo
12.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(2): 122-127, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of porcine acellular cartilaginous matrix (pACM) on the proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs). METHODS: pACM was prepared from porcine articular cartilage through decellularization treatment. hADSCs were isolated from human adipose tissues and cultured with different pACM concentrations. No pACM was used as the control group. The effect of pACM on hADSCs proliferation was detected by CCK-8 method. Moreover, the effect of pACM on hADSCs chondrogenic differentiation was analyzed through fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. RESULTS: hADSCs proliferation rate in 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg·mL⁻¹ pACM groups was not significantly different from that in the control group, whereas that in 4.0 and 8.0 mg·mL⁻¹ pACM group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). The expression levels of pACM chondrogenic genes, including SOX-9, collagen type Ⅱ alpha 1 chain (COL2A1), and aggrecan (ACAN) and cell adhesion-related gene LAMININ in 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg·mL⁻¹ pACM group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05), but that of a stemness-related gene Notch-1 was lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). No statistical difference was found in the expression of a lipogenesis-related gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAr-γ) (P>0.05). The expression levels of chondrogenic proteins (SOX-9, COL2A1, and ACAN) were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate pACM con-centrations do not affect hADSCs proliferation but can induce hADSCs chondrogenic differentiation.


Assuntos
Adipócitos , Células-Tronco , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Condrogênese , Humanos , Células Estromais , Suínos
13.
Prostate ; 80(6): 508-517, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a rare subtype of prostate carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has not been studied extensively and thus lacks systematic molecular characterization. METHODS: Here, we applied single-cell genomic amplification and RNA-Seq to a specimen of human prostate BCC (CK34ßE12+ /P63+ /PAP- /PSA- ). The mutational landscape was obtained via whole exome sequencing of the amplification mixture of 49 single cells, and the transcriptomes of 69 single cells were also obtained. RESULTS: The five putative driver genes mutated in BCC are CASC5, NUTM1, PTPRC, KMT2C, and TBX3, and the top three nucleotide substitutions are C>T, T>C, and C>A, similar to common prostate cancer. The distribution of the variant allele frequency values indicated that these single cells are from the same tumor clone. The 69 single cells were clustered into tumor, stromal, and immune cells based on their global transcriptomic profiles. The tumor cells specifically express basal cell markers like KRT5, KRT14, and KRT23 and epithelial markers EPCAM, CDH1, and CD24. The transcription factor covariance network analysis showed that the BCC tumor cells have distinct regulatory networks. By comparison with current prostate cancer datasets, we found that some of the bulk samples exhibit basal cell signatures. Interestingly, at single-cell resolution the gene expression patterns of prostate BCC tumor cells show uniqueness compared with that of common prostate cancer-derived circulating tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study, for the first time, discloses the comprehensive mutational and transcriptomic landscapes of prostate BCC, which lays a foundation for the understanding of its tumorigenesis mechanism and provides new insights into prostate cancers in general.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Biópsia por Agulha , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Amplificação de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Células Estromais/patologia , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
14.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 685: 108333, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194044

RESUMO

This study summarizes the available evidence from systematic reviews on the in vitro effects of photobiomodulation on the proliferation and differentiation of human bone and stromal cells by appraising their methodological quality. Improvements for future studies are also highlighted, with particular emphasis on in vitro protocols and cell-related characteristics. Six reviews using explicit eligibility criteria and methods selected in order to minimize bias were included. There was no compelling evidence on the cellular mechanisms of action or treatment parameters of photobiomodulation; compliance with quality assessment was poor. A rigorous description of laser parameters (wavelength, power, beam spot size, power density, energy density, repetition rate, pulse duration or duty cycle, exposure duration, frequency of treatments, and total radiant energy), exposure conditions (methods to ensure a uniform irradiation and to avoid cross-irradiation, laser-cell culture surface distance, lid presence during irradiation) and cell-related characteristics (cell type or line, isolation and culture conditions, donor-related factors where applicable, tissue source, cell phenotype, cell density, number of cell passages in culture) should be included among eligibility criteria for study inclusion. These methodological improvements will maximize the contribution of in vitro studies on the effects of photobiomodulation on human bone and stromal cells to evidence-based translational research.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Osteócitos/efeitos da radiação , Células Estromais/efeitos da radiação , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0219275, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163417

RESUMO

Pathogenic bacteria often damage tissues by secreting toxins that form pores in cell membranes, and the most common pore-forming toxins are cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. During bacterial infections, glutamine becomes a conditionally essential amino acid, and glutamine is an important nutrient for immune cells. However, the role of glutamine in protecting tissue cells against pore-forming toxins is unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that glutamine supports the protection of tissue cells against the damage caused by cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Stromal and epithelial cells were sensitive to damage by the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, pyolysin and streptolysin O, as determined by leakage of potassium and lactate dehydrogenase from cells, and reduced cell viability. However, glutamine deprivation increased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and reduced the viability of cells challenged with cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Without glutamine, stromal cells challenged with pyolysin leaked lactate dehydrogenase (control vs. pyolysin, 2.6 ± 0.6 vs. 34.4 ± 4.5 AU, n = 12), which was more than three-fold the leakage from cells supplied with 2 mM glutamine (control vs. pyolysin, 2.2 ± 0.3 vs. 9.4 ± 1.0 AU). Glutamine cytoprotection did not depend on glutaminolysis, replenishing the Krebs cycle via succinate, changes in cellular cholesterol, or regulators of cell metabolism (AMPK and mTOR). In conclusion, although the mechanism remains elusive, we found that glutamine supports the protection of tissue cells against the damage caused by cholesterol-dependent cytolysins from pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/toxicidade , Glutamina/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Bovinos , Células HeLa , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Estreptolisinas/toxicidade , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Nat Immunol ; 21(4): 369-380, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205888

RESUMO

Lymph nodes (LNs) are strategically positioned at dedicated sites throughout the body to facilitate rapid and efficient immunity. Central to the structural integrity and framework of LNs, and the recruitment and positioning of leukocytes therein, are mesenchymal and endothelial lymph node stromal cells (LNSCs). Advances in the last decade have expanded our understanding and appreciation of LNSC heterogeneity, and the role they play in coordinating immunity has grown rapidly. In this review, we will highlight the functional contributions of distinct stromal cell populations during LN development in maintaining immune homeostasis and tolerance and in the activation and control of immune responses.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Células Estromais/imunologia , Animais , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Homeostase/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1290, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157087

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that cancer cell metabolism can be regulated by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), but the mechanisms are poorly defined. Here we show that CAFs regulate malignant cell metabolism through pathways under the control of FAK. In breast and pancreatic cancer patients we find that low FAK expression, specifically in the stromal compartment, predicts reduced overall survival. In mice, depletion of FAK in a subpopulation of CAFs regulates paracrine signals that increase malignant cell glycolysis and tumour growth. Proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis in our mouse model identifies metabolic alterations which are reflected at the transcriptomic level in patients with low stromal FAK. Mechanistically we demonstrate that FAK-depletion in CAFs increases chemokine production, which via CCR1/CCR2 on cancer cells, activate protein kinase A, leading to enhanced malignant cell glycolysis. Our data uncover mechanisms whereby stromal fibroblasts regulate cancer cell metabolism independent of genetic mutations in cancer cells.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/enzimologia , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicólise , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1435, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188843

RESUMO

Regeneration of corneal stroma has always been a challenge due to its sophisticated structure and keratocyte-fibroblast transformation. In this study, we fabricate grid poly (ε-caprolactone)-poly (ethylene glycol) microfibrous scaffold and infuse the scaffold with gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel to obtain a 3 D fiber hydrogel construct; the fiber spacing is adjusted to fabricate optimal construct that simulates the stromal structure with properties most similar to the native cornea. The topological structure (3 D fiber hydrogel, 3 D GelMA hydrogel, and 2 D culture dish) and chemical factors (serum, ascorbic acid, insulin, and ß-FGF) are examined to study their effects on the differentiation of limbal stromal stem cells to keratocytes or fibroblasts and the phenotype maintenance, in vitro and in vivo tissue regeneration. The results demonstrate that fiber hydrogel and serum-free media synergize to provide an optimal environment for the maintenance of keratocyte phenotype and the regeneration of damaged corneal stroma.


Assuntos
Substância Própria/fisiologia , Gelatina/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Metacrilatos/farmacologia , Poliésteres/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Regeneração , Animais , Substância Própria/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoesqueleto/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Limbo da Córnea/citologia , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Mecânico , Células Estromais/citologia , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Vimentina/metabolismo
19.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 4(3): 298-313, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165732

RESUMO

The heterogeneity and continuous genetic adaptation of tumours complicate their detection and treatment via the targeting of genetic mutations. However, hallmarks of cancer such as aberrant protein phosphorylation and calcium-mediated cell signalling provide broadly conserved molecular targets. Here, we show that, for a range of solid tumours, a cyclic octapeptide labelled with a near-infrared dye selectively binds to phosphorylated Annexin A2 (pANXA2), with high affinity at high levels of calcium. Because of cancer-cell-induced pANXA2 expression in tumour-associated stromal cells, the octapeptide preferentially binds to the invasive edges of tumours and then traffics within macrophages to the tumour's necrotic core. As proof-of-concept applications, we used the octapeptide to detect tumour xenografts and metastatic lesions, and to perform fluorescence-guided surgical tumour resection, in mice. Our findings suggest that high levels of pANXA2 in association with elevated calcium are present in the microenvironment of most solid cancers. The octapeptide might be broadly useful for selective tumour imaging and for delivering drugs to the edges and to the core of solid tumours.


Assuntos
Anexina A2/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Células A549 , Animais , Anexina A2/genética , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fosforilação , Proteômica , Células Estromais , Transplante Heterólogo
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