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1.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106307, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892894

RESUMO

In Japan, the radiocesium activity concentration in milk must be less than 50 Bq/kg-fresh to meet shipping standards, and the radiocesium concentration of the diet fed to dairy cattle must be less than 500 Bq/kg-dry. After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, we conducted two experiments to investigate whether Prussian blue (PB) could suppress the radiocesium (134Cs + 137Cs) activity concentration in Japanese cattle' milk. In experiment 1, four cattle were fed a diet with a radiocesium activity concentration of 175 Bq/kg-dry, with or without PB supplementation. The PB intake ranged from 0 to 3.0 g/day, and the average radiocesium intake was 3.42 kBq/day in all treatments. The radiocesium activity concentration in milk decreased from 16.4 to 8.6 Bq/kg-fresh, and the transfer coefficient of radiocesium from diet to milk (Fm) decreased from 4.77 × 10-3 to 2.61 × 10-3 with increased PB intake. In experiment 2, three cattle were fed another diet including a radiocesium activity concentration of 927 Bq/kg-dry of with or without PB supplementation. The PB intake ranged from 0 to 18.9 g/day, and the average radiocesium intake was 15.2 kBq/day in all treatments. The milk's radiocesium activity concentration decreased from 24.3 to 4.2 Bq/kg-fresh, and the Fm decreased from 1.68 × 10-3 to 0.28 × 10-3 with increased PB intake. Our results suggest that both the radiocesium activity concentration in milk and Fm can be reduced by PB, and that Fm is affected by diet. We recommend cattle should be fed absorbents such as PB to minimize the risk of milk radiocesium activity concentration exceeding 50 Bq/kg-fresh even if the diet has a radiocesium activity concentration of less than 500 Bq/kg-dry.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Leite , Monitoramento de Radiação , Animais , Bovinos , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Dieta , Ferrocianetos , Japão , Leite/química
2.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111054, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854875

RESUMO

While milk is a major agricultural commodity, dairy farming also supports a large share of global beef production. In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies of dairy farming systems, dairy-beef production is often ignored or 'allocated off', which may give a distorted view of production efficiencies. This study combines LCA with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to develop an indicator of eco-efficiency for each of 738 UK dairy farms (3624 data points in 15 years) that aggregates multiple burdens and expresses them per unit of milk and dairy-beef produced. Within the DEA framework, the importance (weight) of dairy-beef relative to milk is iteratively increased to quantify the environmental losses from heavily focussing on milk-production, via e.g. higher yields per cow, with consequent lower burdens per unit of milk, yet with lower dairy-beef production levels, where burdens for beef production are externalized. Then, the relationship between DEA eco-efficiency and a series of indicators of dairy farming intensity at animal- and farm-levels was studied with Generalized Additive Models (GAM). For all sets of DEA weights (proportion of deviance explained ranged between 68% and 82%) indicate that milk yield per cow and forage area, and larger dairy herds all have a positive effect on eco-efficiency, while concentrate fed per unit of milk and the forage area both have a negative effect (p < 0.05 for all modelled relationships). These findings suggest that more intensive and consolidated dairy farms can positively impact on eco-efficiency. However, as the DEA weight for dairy-beef relative to milk increases, the relationship between environmental efficiency and farming specialization (expressed as L milk per kg dairy-beef produced) reverses from positive to negative. In conclusion, dairy-beef production is pivotal in determining the wider environmental efficiency of dairy (and ruminant food) systems, and its under-representation in efficiency studies has generated a misleading approach to meeting emission targets.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Leite , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Feminino
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461364, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797843

RESUMO

A new type of restricted access media-imprinted nanomaterials (RAM-MIPs) were successfully prepared on the surface of metal-organic framework by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization technology. Then it was applied as a dispersed solid phase extraction (DSPE) material in analysis of fluoroquinolones (ofloxacin, pefloxacin, norfloxacin, enrofloxacin and gatifloxacin) in untreated milk and river water by HPLC-UV detection. The resulted material has a good binding amounts (60.81 mg g-1), rapid binding kinetic (15 min) and satisfactory selectivity as well as has a good ability to eliminate matrix interference. Several major factors affecting DSPE efficiency, pH of sample solution, dosage of RAM-MIPs, adsorption time and volume ratios of elution solvent were primarily optimized. In optimization conditions, RAM-MIPs-DSPE was combined with HPLC-UV to enrich fluoroquinolones in untreated milk and river water, achieving satisfactory linear correlation (R2 > 0.9988), good limits of detection (LOD, 1.02-3.15 µg L-1 for milk and 0.93-2.87 µg L-1 for river water) and better recoveries (80.7-103.5% and 85.1-105.9% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of not higher than 5.3% and 4.7% for milk and river water samples, respectively). The research results illustrate that it provides a simple and efficient method for the direct detection of FQs in complex samples.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Leite/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Rios/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fluoroquinolonas/isolamento & purificação , Impressão Molecular , Polimerização
4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1888, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849647

RESUMO

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes severe respiratory tract infections in humans (COVID-19), has become a global health concern. Currently, several vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 are in clinical trials but approval of these vaccines is likely to take a long time before they are available for public use. In a previous report, the importance of passive immunity and how immunoglobulin (Ig)G collected from recovered coronavirus patients could help in the protection against COVID-19 and boost the immune system of new patients was reported. Passive immunity by immunoglobulin transfer is a concept employed by most mammals and bovine IgG has a role to play in human therapy. IgG is one of the major components of the immunological activity found in cow's milk and colostrum. Heterologous transfer of passive immunity associated with the consumption of bovine immune milk by humans has been investigated for decades for its immunological activity against infections. This short review focuses on passive immunity and how microfiltered raw immune milk or colostrum collected from cows vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 could provide short-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and could be used as an option until a vaccine becomes commercially available.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Ingestão de Líquidos/imunologia , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Leite/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Vacinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Bovinos , Colostro/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
5.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111127, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810684

RESUMO

Recently, consumers concerns towards an environmental friendly food production are growing. The dairy sector contributes to the production of important greenhouse gases such as methane. The life cycle assessment (LCA) method enables to quantify the emissions and the use of resources throughout the entire life cycle of a product. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of performance parameters on the level of important environmental impacts (global warming potential (GWP), freshwater eutrophication (FE), terrestrial acidification (TA) and agricultural land occupation (ALO)) associated with milk production. Therein, the environmental impacts were analyzed using LCA considering two separate datasets (total, continuous) from Northern German farms throughout the years 2004-2013. Therefore, the performance parameters determining the level of environmental impacts were identified using the partial least square method. Thereby, a differentiated analysis among regions with various soil characteristics (Heath, Hill, Marsh) was conducted additionally. Further, linear mixed models were applied to each of the environmental impact categories. Energy-corrected milk yield (ECM), ECM from roughage, feed efficiency and the use of concentrates were identified as the most important determinants of environmental impacts. In general, an increase in productivity, especially an increase in ECM per cow and an increase in the amount of ECM produced per area of agricultural land accompanied with an improvement in environmental efficiency. The type of feed used had the major impact on the level of environmental impacts, whereby both concentrates and roughage had disadvantages. These results were in line with previous studies. Although, this study provides additional information relating the most important determinants of different environmental impacts, including a differentiated consideration of the relationship between performance parameters and environmental efficiency among regions. Further analyses on specific soil characteristics and their impact on environmental efficiency are recommended. In line with the concept of eco-efficiency, useful mitigation strategies in practice need to be applied depending on individual framework conditions.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Eutrofização , Fazendas , Feminino , Alemanha
6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4774-4781, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744986

RESUMO

Three strains of a Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultative anaerobic, and coccoid species were isolated from German bulk tank milk. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains (WS4937T, WS4759 and WS5303) constitute an independent phylogenetic lineage within the family Aerococcaceae with Facklamia hominis CCUG 36813T (93.7-94.1 %) and Eremococcus coleocola M1831/95/2T (93.5 %) as most closely related type species. The unclassified strains demonstrated variable growth with 6.5 % (w/v) NaCl and tolerated pH 6.5-9.5. Growth was observed from 12 to 39 °C. Their cell-wall peptidoglycan belongs to the A1α type (l-Lys-direct) consisting of alanine, glutamic acid and lysine. The predominant fatty acids were C16 : 1 ω9c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1 ω9c and in the polar lipids profile three glycolipids, a phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoglycolipid and diphosphatidylglycerol were found. The G+C content of strain WS4937T was 37.4 mol% with a genome size of ~3.0 Mb. Based on phylogenetic, phylogenomic and biochemical characterizations, the isolates can be demarcated from all other genera of the family Aerococcaceae and, therefore, the novel genus Fundicoccus gen. nov. is proposed. The type species of the novel genus is Fundicoccus ignavus gen. nov., sp. nov. WS4937T (=DSM 109652T=LMG 31441T).


Assuntos
Aerococcaceae/classificação , Leite/microbiologia , Filogenia , Aerococcaceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110908, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800243

RESUMO

Chinese milk vetch is an efficient approach to reduce Cd accumulation in rice, nevertheless, its reduction mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the rice grain Cd, soil properties and microbial community in a Cd-polluted paddy field amended with milk vetch residue (MV) or without (CK) during rice growth period. We found that milk vetch residue averagely decreased the Cd content in rice grain by 45%. Decrease of Cd in rice mainly attributed to the inhibition of Cd activation by milk vetch residue at heading stage probably by the formation of HA-Cd (Humic Acid) and CdS. Increased pH and organic matter (OM) promoted the reduction of available Cd. In addition, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis revealed that microbial community structure was significantly different between MV and CK treatment (r = 0.187, p = 0.002), and the core functions of differentially abundant genera were mainly associated with N-cycling, organic matter degradation and sulfate-reducing. The application of milk vetch residue increased the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by 8-112% during the rice growth period, which may involve in promoting the transformation of Cd to a more stably residual Cd (CdS). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and mantel test analysis indicated that available K (p = 0.004) and available N (p = 0.005) were the key environmental factors of shaping the SRB. Altogether, changes in soil properties affected microbial structure and functional characteristics, especially the response of SRB in MV treatment would provide valuable insights into reducing the bioavailability of Cd in soil.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta)/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Animais , Astrágalo (Planta)/microbiologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Grão Comestível/química , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Resíduos Industriais , Microbiota , Leite , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235952, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary protein supplementation combined with resistance exercise (RE) may counteract declines in muscle strength, mass, and function (sarcopenia), but the role of whole foods rich in protein, such as milk, is less well understood. In the MIlkMAN study, we aimed to examine the feasibility and acceptability of milk+RE as an intervention for muscle function in community-dwelling older adults, and provide exploratory pilot data for future substantive research in population at risk of sarcopenia. METHODS: In a parallel groups design, 30 older adults (71.7±3.6 years; 12 women) were randomised into three groups: WM (whole milk 3.6% fat)+RE, SM (skimmed milk 0.3% fat)+RE, and C (isocaloric carbohydrate drink)+RE. RE was performed twice-weekly over 6 weeks in a community gym, followed by the consumption of 500 ml of milk (~20 g protein) or carbohydrate drink immediately after exercise and a further 500 ml at home within the following 4-5 hours. The feasibility and acceptability of the study was determined by calculating recruitment and attendance rates, compliance with the intervention, rating participants' experiences, and recording adverse health events. RESULTS: The response rate was 49% (out of 400 invitations sent), and the recruitment rate was 73.2% (30 participants recruited out of 41 screened for eligibility). Twenty-nine participants completed the intervention-an attendance rate of 97.1%; 89.7% rated their experience as 'excellent'/very good'. Compliance with taking the drinks was 97.1% (WM), 98.3% (SM), and 95.0% (C); 93.1% rated their drink intake as 'easy'/'very easy' with no adverse effects. Collection of exploratory pilot data to inform future trials was successful. Mean change in grip strength, 5-chair rises, and gait speed were 0.9±3.4 kg, 1.8±2.2 s, 0.1±0.1 m/s, respectively with no differences between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This community-based milk+RE intervention was feasible and acceptable to older adults. The study successfully collected pilot data for future substantive research.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Leite , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Idoso , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Treinamento de Resistência
9.
Food Chem ; 332: 127413, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652410

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry-based methods coupled with stable isotope dilution have become effective and widely used methods for the detection and quantification of food allergens. Current methods target signature peptides resulting from proteolytic digestion of proteins of the allergenic ingredient. The choice of appropriate stable isotope-labelled internal standard is crucial, given the diversity of encountered food matrices which can affect sample preparation and analysis. We propose the use of concatemer, an artificial and stable isotope-labelled protein composed of several concatenated signature peptides as internal standard. With a comparative analysis of three matrices contaminated with four allergens (egg, milk, peanut, and hazelnut), the concatemer approach was found to offer advantages associated with the use of labelled proteins, ideal but unaffordable, and circumvent certain limitations of traditionally used synthetic peptides as internal standards. Although used in the proteomic field for more than a decade, concatemer strategy has not yet been applied for food analysis.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Arachis/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Corylus/metabolismo , Ovos/análise , Marcação por Isótopo , Espectrometria de Massas , Leite/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/química , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/química , Proteômica/normas , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Food Chem ; 332: 127371, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622188

RESUMO

A simple and sensitive salting out-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method using deep eutectic solvent combined with back extraction and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (SO-DLLME-DES-BE-MECC) was developed for the determination of fluoroquinolones in milk, honey and water samples. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency including DES volume, vortex time, centrifugation time, salt type and amount, sample pH and volume, etc. were investigated. Good linearity were obtained for fluoroquinolones in a range of 0.020-3.200 µg mL-1 and 0.030-4.800 µg mL-1 with LODs less than 0.010 µg mL-1. The recoveries were in the ranges of 95.0-104.9%, 90.1-110.2% and 87.8-114.1% for water, honey and milk samples, respectively. The relative standard deviations for reproducibility were all below 7.6%. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors for analytes were achieved in the range from 531 to 858 folds. The presented method was successfully applied for the determination of fluoroquinolones in milk, honey and water samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Mel/análise , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Leite/química , Solventes/química , Água/química , Animais , Fluoroquinolonas/química , Fluoroquinolonas/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Sais/química
11.
Gene ; 759: 144981, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707300

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), as a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation and regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. In this study, the transcripts of PPARG gene were isolated and identified in buffalo mammary gland. The results showed that two types of transcripts (PPARG1 and PPARG2) of PPARG gene produced by alternative 5' end use were expressed in buffalo mammary gland, and each of them had four different alternative splicing variants. The PPARG1 includes PPARG1a, PPARG1b, PPARG1c and PPARG1d, while the PPARG2 contains PPARG2a, PPARG2b, PPARG2c and PPARG2d. Among them, only PPARG1a, PPARG2a and PPARG2d can encode complete functional proteins with three complete functional domains, and the rest encode truncated proteins with incomplete functional domains. All the eight variants of PPARG protein do not contain transmembrane regions and signal peptides, but their conserved domain, secondary and tertiary structure and subcellular localization were different. Subcellular localization confirmed that the main transcripts PPARG1a and PPARG2a played a functional role in the nucleus, which was consistent with the results by in silico prediction. RT-qPCR analysis of buffalo mammary tissue showed that the mRNA expression levels of PPARG1 and PPARG2 in lactation were higher than those in non-lactation, and the expression levels of transcripts PPARG2d and PPARG1b + PPARG2b in lactating stage were also higher than those in non-lactating stage, but the mRNA abundance of transcripts PPARG1c, PPARG1d and PPARG2c in non-lactating period was higher than that in lactating period. The results of this study suggest that PPARG1 and PPARG2 may play important role in buffalo milk fat synthesis, and the eight alternative splicing variants found here are likely to be related to the post-transcriptional regulation of lactation.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , Animais , Feminino , Lactação/genética , Leite/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645008

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the physical form of starter and inclusion of hay in the diet of preweaning dairy calves on performance, digestibility, ruminal development, and mRNA expression of genes involved in ruminal metabolism. Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves (n = 38 1day old) were assigned to 3 treatments for 9 weeks: Control (n = 13; pellet starter with 4 mm diameter and 18 mm length and 4% steam-flaked corn), Ground (n = 12; same starter of the control but ground pass through a 4.0 mm sieve), or Ground plus 5% chopped Tifton hay GH (n = 13). All calves were fed 4 L/d of whole milk up to 63 d of age and were abruptly weaned at 64 d of age. Water and diets were offered ad libitum. Samples of ruminal contents were obtained from all animals at 30, 45, and 60 d of age to evaluate pH, ammonia nitrogen, and volatile fatty acids (VFA). At 55 d of age, an apparent digestibility assay was performed using 18 animals (n = 6/ treatment). At 65 d of age, the 18 animals were euthanized to evaluate the development of the digestive tract. The physical form of starter and the dietary inclusion of hay did not influence starter intake (Control 326 g/d, Ground 314 g/d and GH 365 g/d), daily weight gain (Control 541g/d, Ground 531g/d and GH 606g/d), feed efficiency, apparent nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, nitrogen balance, ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, VFA, the development of the digestive tract and the mRNA expression of genes involved in AGV metabolism.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Dieta/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Masculino , Leite/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo , Desmame , Ganho de Peso , Zea mays/metabolismo
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461275, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709327

RESUMO

Efficient extraction of polar sulfonamides antibiotics from aqueous samples and food is very challenging, because they are hydrophilic, their concentration is very low, and the matrix is complex. Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), a novel porous organic material, have attracted great attention. In this work, the spherical triphenylbenzene-dimethoxyterephthaldehyde-COFs (TPB-DMTP-COFs) were synthesized by a simple room temperature method, and due to their attractive properties, such as high outstanding acid-base stability, large specific surface area, low skeletal density, inherent porosity and high crystallinity, so TPB-DMTP-COFs as ideal solid phase extraction adsorbents showed excellent adsorption performance for trace polar sulfonamides in food and water. TPB-DMTP-COFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and so on. The important parameters were optimized to improve the extraction efficiency of TPB-DMTP-COFs toward sulfonamides. Analysis of sulfonamides was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method based on TPB-DMTP-COFs material achieved low limits of detection (0.5-1.0 ng L-1), wide linearity (5-1000 ng L-1), and good repeatability (2.5%-8.7%). The possible extraction mechanism was also discussed. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the enrichment and detection of sulfonamides in environmental water samples and food samples. The present study indicated that TPB-DMTP-COFs had splendid prospects in highly sensitive analysis of other pollutants in complex matrix.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Sulfonamidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite/química , Carne de Porco/análise , Porosidade , Sulfonamidas/química , Água/química
14.
J Environ Radioact ; 220-221: 106264, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658640

RESUMO

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in Ukraine on April 26, 1986 led to a considerable release of radioactive material resulting in environmental contamination over vast areas of Belarus, Ukraine and western Russian Federation. The major health effect of the Chernobyl accident was an increase in thyroid cancer incidence in people exposed as children and adolescents, so much attention was paid to the thyroid doses resulting from intakes of 131I. Because cow's milk consumption was the main source of 131I intake by people, it was important to measure the 131I activity concentrations in cow's milk to calculate, or to validate, the thyroid doses to the exposed population. Almost 11,000 measurements of total beta-activity in cow's milk were performed using a DP-100 device during the first month after the Chernobyl accident in the most contaminated regions of Belarus. Using an ecological model and calibration coefficients for the DP-100 device the activity concentration of 131I in cow's milk was derived as well as the activity concentrations of the other radiologically important radionuclides, namely 134Cs, 137Cs, 89Sr and 90Sr. The activity concentrations of other radionuclides, such as 90Y, 132Te, 132I, 133I, 136Cs, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce, in cow's milk were also estimated and were shown to be of minor importance. The concentrations of 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru and 106Ru in cow's milk were negligible. The data obtained in this study were validated by comparing derived 131I and 137Cs concentrations in cow's milk with gamma-spectrometry measurements performed in milk produced in the same location close to the same date. The results of this study were essential to assess and validate the radiation doses received by the subjects of epidemiological studies related to the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Monitoramento de Radiação , Animais , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Leite , República de Belarus , Ucrânia
15.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4701-4706, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Bovine mastitis is caused by the invasion and propagation of pathogenic microorganisms into the udder and mammary gland tissues of cattle. In this study, the therapeutic effect of a low-molecular-weight whey protein (LMW-WP) on bovine mastitis was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LMW-WP was orally, intraperitoneally, and vaginally administered to bovine with mastitis. The number of somatic cells in milk was measured 24 h before the administration of LMW-WP. The effect of LMW-WP on cytokine production was measured with a microarray that evaluates the expression of cytokines. RESULTS: In the group that received 1,000 mg intraperitoneally, the somatic cell count was reduced to less than 400,000 at the shipment standard value in three of the four udders, indicating 75% efficacy. The group that received 1,000 mg by vaginal administration showed 67% efficacy. It was confirmed that LMW-WP increased the production of cytokines such as IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-12, MCP-1, and VEGF in mouse macrophage cells, but it did not show any antibacterial activity. CONCLUSION: LMW-WP may be an effective therapeutic agent for bovine mastitis.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Camundongos , Leite/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
16.
Food Chem ; 328: 127063, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485582

RESUMO

A magnetic fluorescence probe was fabricated by coating carbon quantum dots-doped molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) layers on the surface of Fe3O4 particles (MFMP) for detection of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) signaling molecules. N-Z-L-homoserine lactone molecular was used as the template to prepare AHLs MIP layers, employing MAA and HEMA as functional monomers. The developed MFMP owned superparamagnetism, fluorescence, fast response and class-selectivity. If AHLs (C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL, C12-HSL and C14-HSL) were captured by the MFMP, they quenched the fluorescence of the probe. Fluorescence dropped linearly in the concentration ranges of 3.65 × 10-3 µmol/L-0.96 × 10-1 µmol/L for AHLs. The MFMP was applied to the analysis of fish juice and milk samples, and recoveries ranged from 83.10% to 90.74% with relative standard deviation less than 5.1%. This study offered a novel strategy to fabricated AHLs fluorescence probe with great potential for wide-ranging application in agri-food products.


Assuntos
Acil-Butirolactonas/análise , Carbono/química , Peixes , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Leite/química , Impressão Molecular , Pontos Quânticos/química , Animais , Imãs/química , Polímeros/síntese química
17.
Food Chem ; 330: 127324, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569938

RESUMO

Enzymes currently used in cheesemaking have various drawbacks, and there is a continual need to find new coagulants. This study describes the extraction and biochemical characterization of two proteases from the red alga Gracilaria edulis. The proteases were extracted with phosphate buffer and partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The enzymes exhibited optimum caseinolytic activity at 60 °C and a pH range of 6-8. They showed a high ratio of milk-clotting over caseinolytic activity, indicating they had an excellent milk-clotting ability. The proteases were confirmed to be serine protease and metalloprotease with molecular weight (MW) of 44 and 108 kDa. They exhibited high hydrolytic activity on κ-caseins, cleaving κ-casein at four main sites, one of which being the same as that of calf rennet, which is the first reported for an algal protease. The findings demonstrated that the proteases could potentially be used as a milk coagulant in cheesemaking.


Assuntos
Caseínas/metabolismo , Gracilaria/enzimologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/enzimologia , Sulfato de Amônio , Animais , Caseínas/química , Fracionamento Químico , Quimosina/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Gracilaria/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/química , Serina Proteases/química , Serina Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Serina Proteases/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
18.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 70, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipids contained in milk are an essential source of energy and structural materials for a growing neonate. Furthermore, lipids' long-chain unsaturated fatty acid residues can directly participate in neonatal tissue formation. Here, we used untargeted mass spectrometric measurements to assess milk lipid composition in seven mammalian species: humans, two macaque species, cows, goats, yaks, and pigs. RESULTS: Analysis of the main milk lipid class, triacylglycerides (TAGs), revealed species-specific quantitative differences in the composition of fatty acid residues for each of seven species. Overall, differences in milk lipid composition reflect evolutionary distances among species, with each species group demonstrating specific lipidome features. Among them, human milk contained more medium and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids compared to other species, while pig milk was the most distinct, featuring the highest proportion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: We show that milk lipidome composition is dynamic across mammalian species, changed extensively in pigs, and contains features particular to humans.


Assuntos
Lipidômica , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Lactação , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos
19.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(3): 208-212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global publications on Q fever have increased after the 2007 epidemic in the Netherlands. However, the epidemiology of Q fever/coxiellosis in Brazil is still poorly understood. Accordingly, there have been few studies investigating the presence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy products around the world, especially in Brazil, where consumption of fresh cheese made from raw-milk is very high. OBJECTIVE: This study was a random survey to assess the prevalence of C. burnetii by PCR in traditional Minas artisanal cheese from the Serro microregion, Brazil, which is manufactured from bovine raw-milk. METHODS: DNA extracted from 53 cheese samples were analyzed by nested PCR with C. burnetii-specific primers and the products confirmed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Out of the 53 cheese samples five (9.43%) were C. burnetii DNA-positive, each coming from one of the respective randomly selected manufacturing agroindustries. Based on our results, it is estimated that 1.62 tons/day of ready-to-eat cheese made from raw-milk from a total of 16.2 tons produced daily in the study region are contaminated with C. burnetii. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report of highly heat-resistant zoonotic pathogen in raw-milk Brazilian artisanal cheese. This food safety hazard has been completely neglected in ready-to-eat raw-milk Brazilian artisanal cheese and could imply potential threats to consumers, since C. burnetii survives in artisanal cheese submitted to long ripening periods. Thus, this work established random and representative baseline prevalence of C. burnetii in this food product in Brazil. Further epidemiological studies, monitoring trends and setting control targets are warranted. Finally, these results point out the importance of including C. burnetii in animal and public health surveillance programs.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Febre Q , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Leite
20.
Food Chem ; 329: 127116, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516718

RESUMO

The stability of whole pasteurized milk packaged in clear PET bottles was studied throughout 13-days storage in the dark, but including, at specific times, light exposure of 6, 12 or 18 h to simulate conditions potentially occurring in refrigerated display counters. The aim was to investigate the effects of light exposure when overlapping the unavoidable endogenous modifications in pasteurized milk during storage. Dissolved oxygen, riboflavin and other flavins, proteolysis products, volatile compounds, and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Besides the expected progress of proteolysis occurring during storage, light negatively affected milk flavour especially after longer exposure times. The development of "mushroom" flavor related to the increase of volatile 2,3 octanedione was the most characterizing modification. Gathered data were considered in view of providing the background knowledge for the control of light exposure conditions on a retail display, thus supporting the shelf life extension of pasteurized milk in a fully recyclable packaging.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Leite/química , Polietilenotereftalatos , Animais , Luz , Reciclagem , Paladar
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