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1.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 92(2)2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597102

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the coronavirus that causes an infectious disease, called COVID-19, first detected in patients with pneumonia in Wuhan (People's Republic of China) on December 2019. Italy was the first European country to state the outbreak of the infection and its Council of Ministers declared the state of health emergency on 31.01.2020, then the World Health Organization ruled a global pandemic on 11.03.2020. The nasopharyngeal swab is based on the detection of virus RNA and is the only reliable one for declaring COVID-19 infection. The most common symptoms observed in COVID-19 patients before hospitalization may be fever, chills, cough, dyspnea, asthenia, myalgia and/or arthralgia. This symptomatology can be often complicated in a dramatically increasing manner such as to require hospitalization starting from the third-fourth week. COVID-19 outbreak has dramatically affected the quality of life by changing inter-personal relationships, community life and obviously sexual health. The purpose of this work, based on available evidence, is to provide recommendations to help the population to face their sexual life in this critical period.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Convalescença , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Medo , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Qualidade de Vida , Quarentena , Sexo Seguro/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Avaliação de Sintomas
2.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 18-28, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532934

RESUMO

Diagnosis of persons exposed to/infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is central to controlling the global pandemic of COVID-19. Currently, several diagnostic modalities are available for COVID-19, each with its own pros and cons. Although there is a global consensus to increase the testing capacity, it is also essential to prudently utilize these tests to control the pandemic. In this paper, we have reviewed the current array of diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2, highlighted the gaps in current diagnostic modalities, and their role in community surveillance and control of the pandemic. The different modalities of COVID-19 diagnosis discussed are: clinical and radiological, molecular based (laboratory based and point-of-care), Immunoassay based (ELISA, rapid antigen and antibody detection tests) and digital diagnostics (artificial intelligence based algorithms). The role of rapid antigen/antibody detection tests in community surveillance has also been described here. These tests can be used to identify asymptomatic persons exposed to the virus and in community based seroprevalence surveys to assess the epidemiology of spread of the virus. However, there are few concerns about the accuracy of these tests which needs to evaluated beforehand.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vigilância da População , Algoritmos , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Antígenos Virais/análise , Inteligência Artificial , Doenças Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Testes Imediatos , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Escarro/virologia , Avaliação de Sintomas , Carga Viral
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD011621, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In epidemics of highly infectious diseases, such as Ebola, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), or coronavirus (COVID-19), healthcare workers (HCW) are at much greater risk of infection than the general population, due to their contact with patients' contaminated body fluids. Personal protective equipment (PPE) can reduce the risk by covering exposed body parts. It is unclear which type of PPE protects best, what is the best way to put PPE on (i.e. donning) or to remove PPE (i.e. doffing), and how to train HCWs to use PPE as instructed. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate which type of full-body PPE and which method of donning or doffing PPE have the least risk of contamination or infection for HCW, and which training methods increase compliance with PPE protocols. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL to 20 March 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all controlled studies that evaluated the effect of full-body PPE used by HCW exposed to highly infectious diseases, on the risk of infection, contamination, or noncompliance with protocols. We also included studies that compared the effect of various ways of donning or doffing PPE, and the effects of training on the same outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in included trials. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses were appropriate. MAIN RESULTS: Earlier versions of this review were published in 2016 and 2019. In this update, we included 24 studies with 2278 participants, of which 14 were randomised controlled trials (RCT), one was a quasi-RCT and nine had a non-randomised design. Eight studies compared types of PPE. Six studies evaluated adapted PPE. Eight studies compared donning and doffing processes and three studies evaluated types of training. Eighteen studies used simulated exposure with fluorescent markers or harmless microbes. In simulation studies, median contamination rates were 25% for the intervention and 67% for the control groups. Evidence for all outcomes is of very low certainty unless otherwise stated because it is based on one or two studies, the indirectness of the evidence in simulation studies and because of risk of bias. Types of PPE The use of a powered, air-purifying respirator with coverall may protect against the risk of contamination better than a N95 mask and gown (risk ratio (RR) 0.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 to 0.43) but was more difficult to don (non-compliance: RR 7.5, 95% CI 1.81 to 31.1). In one RCT (59 participants) coveralls were more difficult to doff than isolation gowns (very low-certainty evidence). Gowns may protect better against contamination than aprons (small patches: mean difference (MD) -10.28, 95% CI -14.77 to -5.79). PPE made of more breathable material may lead to a similar number of spots on the trunk (MD 1.60, 95% CI -0.15 to 3.35) compared to more water-repellent material but may have greater user satisfaction (MD -0.46, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.08, scale of 1 to 5). According to three studies that tested more recently introduced full-body PPE ensembles, there may be no difference in contamination. Modified PPE versus standard PPE The following modifications to PPE design may lead to less contamination compared to standard PPE: sealed gown and glove combination (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.78), a better fitting gown around the neck, wrists and hands (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.55), a better cover of the gown-wrist interface (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.78, low-certainty evidence), added tabs to grab to facilitate doffing of masks (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.80) or gloves (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.31). Donning and doffing Using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations for doffing may lead to less contamination compared to no guidance (small patches: MD -5.44, 95% CI -7.43 to -3.45). One-step removal of gloves and gown may lead to less bacterial contamination (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.77) but not to less fluorescent contamination (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.28) than separate removal. Double-gloving may lead to less viral or bacterial contamination compared to single gloving (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.66) but not to less fluorescent contamination (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.28). Additional spoken instruction may lead to fewer errors in doffing (MD -0.9, 95% CI -1.4 to -0.4) and to fewer contamination spots (MD -5, 95% CI -8.08 to -1.92). Extra sanitation of gloves before doffing with quaternary ammonium or bleach may decrease contamination, but not alcohol-based hand rub. Training The use of additional computer simulation may lead to fewer errors in doffing (MD -1.2, 95% CI -1.6 to -0.7). A video lecture on donning PPE may lead to better skills scores (MD 30.70, 95% CI 20.14 to 41.26) than a traditional lecture. Face-to-face instruction may reduce noncompliance with doffing guidance more (odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.98) than providing folders or videos only. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low- to very low-certainty evidence that covering more parts of the body leads to better protection but usually comes at the cost of more difficult donning or doffing and less user comfort. More breathable types of PPE may lead to similar contamination but may have greater user satisfaction. Modifications to PPE design, such as tabs to grab, may decrease the risk of contamination. For donning and doffing procedures, following CDC doffing guidance, a one-step glove and gown removal, double-gloving, spoken instructions during doffing, and using glove disinfection may reduce contamination and increase compliance. Face-to-face training in PPE use may reduce errors more than folder-based training. We still need RCTs of training with long-term follow-up. We need simulation studies with more participants to find out which combinations of PPE and which doffing procedure protects best. Consensus on simulation of exposure and assessment of outcome is urgently needed. We also need more real-life evidence. Therefore, the use of PPE of HCW exposed to highly infectious diseases should be registered and the HCW should be prospectively followed for their risk of infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Controle de Infecções , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Betacoronavirus , Líquidos Corporais , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Luvas Protetoras , Pessoal de Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Razão de Chances , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Roupa de Proteção , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD011621, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In epidemics of highly infectious diseases, such as Ebola, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), or coronavirus (COVID-19), healthcare workers (HCW) are at much greater risk of infection than the general population, due to their contact with patients' contaminated body fluids. Personal protective equipment (PPE) can reduce the risk by covering exposed body parts. It is unclear which type of PPE protects best, what is the best way to put PPE on (i.e. donning) or to remove PPE (i.e. doffing), and how to train HCWs to use PPE as instructed. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate which type of full-body PPE and which method of donning or doffing PPE have the least risk of contamination or infection for HCW, and which training methods increase compliance with PPE protocols. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL to 20 March 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all controlled studies that evaluated the effect of full-body PPE used by HCW exposed to highly infectious diseases, on the risk of infection, contamination, or noncompliance with protocols. We also included studies that compared the effect of various ways of donning or doffing PPE, and the effects of training on the same outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in included trials. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses were appropriate. MAIN RESULTS: Earlier versions of this review were published in 2016 and 2019. In this update, we included 24 studies with 2278 participants, of which 14 were randomised controlled trials (RCT), one was a quasi-RCT and nine had a non-randomised design. Eight studies compared types of PPE. Six studies evaluated adapted PPE. Eight studies compared donning and doffing processes and three studies evaluated types of training. Eighteen studies used simulated exposure with fluorescent markers or harmless microbes. In simulation studies, median contamination rates were 25% for the intervention and 67% for the control groups. Evidence for all outcomes is of very low certainty unless otherwise stated because it is based on one or two studies, the indirectness of the evidence in simulation studies and because of risk of bias. Types of PPE The use of a powered, air-purifying respirator with coverall may protect against the risk of contamination better than a N95 mask and gown (risk ratio (RR) 0.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 to 0.43) but was more difficult to don (non-compliance: RR 7.5, 95% CI 1.81 to 31.1). In one RCT (59 participants), people with a long gown had less contamination than those with a coverall, and coveralls were more difficult to doff (low-certainty evidence). Gowns may protect better against contamination than aprons (small patches: mean difference (MD) -10.28, 95% CI -14.77 to -5.79). PPE made of more breathable material may lead to a similar number of spots on the trunk (MD 1.60, 95% CI -0.15 to 3.35) compared to more water-repellent material but may have greater user satisfaction (MD -0.46, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.08, scale of 1 to 5). Modified PPE versus standard PPE The following modifications to PPE design may lead to less contamination compared to standard PPE: sealed gown and glove combination (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.78), a better fitting gown around the neck, wrists and hands (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.55), a better cover of the gown-wrist interface (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.78, low-certainty evidence), added tabs to grab to facilitate doffing of masks (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.80) or gloves (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.31). Donning and doffing Using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations for doffing may lead to less contamination compared to no guidance (small patches: MD -5.44, 95% CI -7.43 to -3.45). One-step removal of gloves and gown may lead to less bacterial contamination (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.77) but not to less fluorescent contamination (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.28) than separate removal. Double-gloving may lead to less viral or bacterial contamination compared to single gloving (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.66) but not to less fluorescent contamination (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.28). Additional spoken instruction may lead to fewer errors in doffing (MD -0.9, 95% CI -1.4 to -0.4) and to fewer contamination spots (MD -5, 95% CI -8.08 to -1.92). Extra sanitation of gloves before doffing with quaternary ammonium or bleach may decrease contamination, but not alcohol-based hand rub. Training The use of additional computer simulation may lead to fewer errors in doffing (MD -1.2, 95% CI -1.6 to -0.7). A video lecture on donning PPE may lead to better skills scores (MD 30.70, 95% CI 20.14 to 41.26) than a traditional lecture. Face-to-face instruction may reduce noncompliance with doffing guidance more (odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.98) than providing folders or videos only. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low- to very low-certainty evidence that covering more parts of the body leads to better protection but usually comes at the cost of more difficult donning or doffing and less user comfort, and may therefore even lead to more contamination. More breathable types of PPE may lead to similar contamination but may have greater user satisfaction. Modifications to PPE design, such as tabs to grab, may decrease the risk of contamination. For donning and doffing procedures, following CDC doffing guidance, a one-step glove and gown removal, double-gloving, spoken instructions during doffing, and using glove disinfection may reduce contamination and increase compliance. Face-to-face training in PPE use may reduce errors more than folder-based training. We still need RCTs of training with long-term follow-up. We need simulation studies with more participants to find out which combinations of PPE and which doffing procedure protects best. Consensus on simulation of exposure and assessment of outcome is urgently needed. We also need more real-life evidence. Therefore, the use of PPE of HCW exposed to highly infectious diseases should be registered and the HCW should be prospectively followed for their risk of infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Simulação por Computador , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 301, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Ghana, pre-school-aged children (PSAC) are at risk of intestinal schistosomiasis and are living in need of praziquantel treatment. To better assess the infection burden within this vulnerable demographic group, we have provided a comparative assessment of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in pre-school-aged children by urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) dipsticks, real-time PCR Taqman® faecal assays and Kato-Katz coproscopy. METHODS: In all, 190 pre-school-aged children were sampled from three endemic communities (viz. Tomefa, Torgahkope/Adakope, and Manheam) around Weija dam, Southern Ghana. Fresh stool and urine samples were collected from all participants for diagnosis. RESULTS: Among all the three communities, the urine-CCA assay recorded the highest prevalence values of 90.5% (95% CI 80.4-96.4), 87.9% (95% CI 76.7-95), and 81.2% (95% CI 69.9-89.6) in Tomefa, Torgahkope/Adakope, and Manheam respectively. Prevalence by real-time PCR was 50% (95% CI 35.5-64.5), 8% (95% CI 2.2-19.2) and 16.7% (95% CI 8.3-28.5), while by Kato-Katz was 55.6% (95% CI 42.5-68.1), 8.6% (95% CI 2.9-19) and 11.6% (95% CI 5.1-21.6) respectively. Children aged 1 year and over were found to be positive with the urine-CCA assay; by the ages of 3-4, over 50% were urine-CCA patent. The sensitivity and specificity of the POC-CCA dipsticks, when compared against the combined results of Kato-Katz/TaqMan results was found to be 84.1% (95% CI = 72.7-92.1) and 12.9% (95% CI = 6.6-22) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the urine-CCA dipstick may be a useful rapid diagnostic tool to estimate the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in PSAC, particularly in rapid identification of at-risk areas. However, our assessment has shown that it possible to record false positives when compared to combined Kato-Katz and qPCR results. To guide PSAC praziquantel treatment needs, we propose the urine CCA assay should be included in routine surveillance of intestinal schistosomiasis alongside other diagnostics such as Kato-Katz and urine filtration.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/urina , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Urinálise/métodos , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Bioensaio/métodos , Líquidos Corporais/química , Líquidos Corporais/imunologia , Líquidos Corporais/parasitologia , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/química , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/urina , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Microb Pathog ; 144: 104177, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244041

RESUMO

The coronavirus (CoV) family consists of viruses that infects a variety of animals including humans with various levels of respiratory and fecal-oral transmission levels depending on the behavior of the viruses' natural hosts and optimal viral fitness. A model to classify and predict the levels of respective respiratory and fecal-oral transmission potentials of the various viruses was built before the outbreak of MERS-CoV using AI and empirically-based molecular tools to predict the disorder level of proteins. Using the percentages of intrinsic disorder (PID) of the nucleocapsid (N) and membrane (M) proteins of CoV, the model easily clustered the viruses into three groups with the SARS-CoV (M PID = 8%, N PID = 50%) falling into Category B, in which viruses have intermediate levels of both respiratory and fecal-oral transmission potentials. Later, MERS-CoV (M PID = 9%, N PID = 44%) was found to be in Category C, which consists of viruses with lower respiratory transmission potential but with higher fecal-oral transmission capabilities. Based on the peculiarities of disorder distribution, the SARS-CoV-2 (M PID = 6%, N PID = 48%) has to be placed in Category B. Our data show however, that the SARS-CoV-2 is very strange with one of the hardest protective outer shell, (M PID = 6%) among coronaviruses. This means that it might be expected to be highly resilient in saliva or other body fluids and outside the body. An infected body is likelier to shed greater numbers of viral particles since the latter is more resistant to antimicrobial enzymes in body fluids. These particles are also likelier to remain active longer. These factors could account for the greater contagiousness of the SARS-CoV-2 and have implications for efforts to prevent its spread.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Fezes/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/metabolismo , Pandemias , Vírus da SARS/metabolismo , Saliva/virologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 281, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that commonly has a lethal course caused by the tick-borne Huaiyangshan banyang virus [former SFTS virus (SFTSV)]. The viral load in various body fluids in SFTS patients and the best infection control measure for SFTS patients have not been fully established. CASE PRESENTATION: A 79-year-old man was bitten by a tick while working in the bamboo grove in Nagasaki Prefecture in the southwest part of Japan. Due to the occurrence of impaired consciousness, he was referred to Nagasaki University Hospital for treatment. The serum sample tested positive for SFTSV-RNA in the genome amplification assay, and he was diagnosed with SFTS. Furthermore, SFTSV-RNA was detected from the tick that had bitten the patient. He was treated with multimodal therapy, including platelet transfusion, antimicrobials, antifungals, steroids, and continuous hemodiafiltration. His respiration was assisted with mechanical ventilation. On day 5, taking the day on which he was hospitalized as day 0, serum SFTSV-RNA levels reached a peak and then decreased. However, the cerebrospinal fluid collected on day 13 was positive for SFTSV-RNA. In addition, although serum SFTSV-RNA levels decreased below the detectable level on day 16, he was diagnosed with pneumonia with computed tomography. SFTSV-RNA was detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid on day 21. By day 31, he recovered consciousness completely. The pneumonia improved by day 51, but SFTSV-RNA in the sputum remained positive for approximately 4 months after disease onset. Strict countermeasures against droplet/contact infection were continuously conducted. CONCLUSIONS: Even when SFTSV genome levels become undetectable in the serum of SFTS patients in the convalescent phase, the virus genome remains in body fluids and tissues. It may be possible that body fluids such as respiratory excretions become a source of infection to others; thus, careful infection control management is needed.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Encefalopatias/virologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/virologia , Phlebovirus/genética , Pneumonia/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Idoso , Animais , Encefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Terapia Combinada , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Escarro/virologia , Carrapatos/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229884, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the characteristics of patients with diverticular bleeding in whom emergency endoscopy should be proactively performed and those in whom it is unnecessary for spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment. METHODS: This study involved 132 patients in whom diverticular bleeding was diagnosed on lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. We evaluated the rate of identification of the bleeding diverticulum during endoscopy and the rate of spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment. RESULTS: In 26 patients (20%), bleeding diverticulum was identified during endoscopy. Extravasation or fluid collection on CT imaging was an important factor of successful identification of the bleeding source on endoscopy. Of the 104 patients in the conservative treatment group, 91 (87%) were able to be discharged after spontaneous hemostasis. Univariate analysis revealed a high rate of spontaneous hemostasis in patients without extravasation and fluid collection on CT imaging, those without adhesion of blood during endoscopy, those without diabetes, and those with a hemoglobin level ≥10 g/dL. CONCLUSION: In patients with colonic diverticular bleeding, extravasation or fluid collection on CT is an important factor related to the identification of the bleeding diverticulum. Patients without characteristic CT findings had a high rate of spontaneous hemostasis after conservative treatment. BACKGROUND: Diverticular bleeding is the most frequent cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding accounting for 20%-40% of all cases in Japan and 20%-48% of all those in the Western countries[1, 2]. The prevalence of colonic diverticula tends to increase with age; thus, the overall prevalence of diverticular bleeding is expected to increase in the future. In Japan, the Japanese Gastroenterological Association published guidelines on colonic diverticulitis in 2017; these guidelines recommend the performance of lower gastrointestinal endoscopic examination within 24 h in patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding suspected to be diverticular bleeding[3]. It has been reported that, for patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding, urgent endoscopy helps avoid embolotherapy, colectomy, massive blood transfusion, and repeat bleeding[1, 4, 5]. However, it is often difficult to identify the bleeding point [6]; further, there are many challenging cases wherein it is difficult to decide whether urgent endoscopy should be performed in situations where there is insufficient medical staff, such as during nighttime and on holidays. Bleeding is reported to stop spontaneously with conservative treatment alone in 70% of diverticular bleeding cases[7, 8]. In particular, when determining the treatment policy for diverticular bleeding and in the case of patients at high risk of complications following endoscopy, such as older patients, those with poor performance status or cardiovascular disease, and those in whom spontaneous hemostasis can be expected, urgent endoscopy should be avoided, and elective endoscopy should be selected. Therefore, the type of cases wherein urgent endoscopy is effective and the type wherein it is unnecessary need to be clarified. Thus far, there have been very few reports of the characteristics of patients with diverticular bleeding in whom spontaneous hemostasis was achieved. We aimed to assess the characteristics of patients in whom emergency endoscopy should be proactively performed and those for whom it is unnecessary. Thus, we retrospectively analyzed the identification rate for the responsible diverticulum in patients with diverticular bleeding and the rate of spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Diverticulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Divertículo do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Extravasamento de Materiais Terapêuticos e Diagnósticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colonoscopia , Tratamento Conservador , Doenças Diverticulares/complicações , Doenças Diverticulares/terapia , Divertículo do Colo/complicações , Divertículo do Colo/terapia , Feminino , Hemostasia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229976, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275679

RESUMO

Small extracellular vesicles (sEV) are nano-sized (40-150 nm), membrane-encapsulated vesicles that are released by essentially all cells into the extracellular space and function as intercellular signaling vectors through the horizontal transfer of biologic molecules, including microRNA (miRNA) and other small non-coding RNA (ncRNA), that can alter the phenotype of recipient cells. sEV are present in essentially all extracellular biofluids, including serum, urine and saliva, and offer a new avenue for discovery and development of novel biomarkers of various disease states and exposures. The objective of this study was to systematically interrogate similarities and differences between sEV ncRNA derived from saliva, serum and urine, as well as cell-free small ncRNA (cf-ncRNA) from serum. Saliva, urine and serum were concomitantly collected from 4 healthy donors to mitigate potential bias that can stem from interpersonal and temporal variability. sEV were isolated from each respective biofluid, along with cf-RNA from serum. sEV were isolated from the respective biofluids via differential ultracentrifugation with a 30% sucrose cushion to minimize protein contamination. Small RNA-sequencing was performed on each sample, and cluster analysis was performed based on ncRNA profiles. While some similarities existed in terms of sEV ncRNA cargo across biofluids, there are also notable differences in ncRNA class and ncRNA secretion, with sEV in each biofluid bearing a unique ncRNA profile, including major differences in composition by ncRNA class. We conclude that sEV ncRNA cargo varies according to biofluid, so thus should be carefully selected and interpreted when designing or contrasting translational or epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/análise , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/sangue , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/urina , Saliva/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Ultracentrifugação
10.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 28(6): 1690-1698, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342138

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With the COVID-19 crisis, recommendations for personal protective equipment (PPE) are necessary for protection in orthopaedics and traumatology. The primary purpose of this study is to review and present current evidence and recommendations for personal protective equipment and safety recommendations for orthopaedic surgeons and trauma surgeons. METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was performed using the keyword terms "COVID-19", "Coronavirus", "surgeon", "health-care workers", "protection", "masks", "gloves", "gowns", "helmets", and "aerosol" in several combinations. The following databases were assessed: Pubmed, Cochrane Reviews, Google Scholar. Due to the paucity of available data, it was decided to present it in a narrative manner. In addition, participating doctors were asked to provide their guidelines for PPE in their countries (Austria, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Germany, UK) for consideration in the presented practice recommendations. RESULTS: World Health Organization guidance for respiratory aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) such as intubation in a COVID19 environment was clear and included the use of an FFP3 (filtering face piece level 3) mask and face protection. However, the recommendation for surgical AGPs, such as the use of high-speed power tools in the operating theatre, was not clear until the UK Public Health England (PHE) guidance of 27 March 2020. This guidance included FFP3 masks and face protection, which UK surgeons quickly adopted. The recommended PPE for orthopaedic surgeons, working in a COVID19 environment, should consist of level 4 surgical gowns, face shields or goggles, double gloves, FFP2-3 or N95-99 respirator masks. An alternative to the mask, face shield and goggles is a powered air-purifying respirator, particularly if the surgeons fail the mask fit test or are required to undertake a long procedure. However, there is a high cost and limited availabilty of these devices at present. Currently available surgical helmets and toga systems may not be the solution due to a permeable top for air intake. During the current COVID-19 crisis, it appeared that telemedicine can be considered as an electronic personal protective equipment by reducing the number of physical contacts and risk contamination. CONCLUSION: Orthopaedic and trauma surgery using power tools, pulsatile lavage and electrocautery are surgical aerosol-generating procedures and all body fluids contain virus particles. Raising awareness of these issues will help avoid occupational transmission of COVID-19 to the surgical team by aerosolization of blood or other body fluids and hence adequate PPE should be available and used during orthopaedic surgery. In addition, efforts have to be made to improve the current evidence in this regard. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Ortopedia/normas , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral , Traumatologia/normas , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/virologia , Segurança/normas
11.
J Med Life ; 13(1): 21-25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341696

RESUMO

Immunopathogenesis of inflammatory and dystrophic diseases of the tissues of the oral cavity is characterized by cellular and humoral factors of specific and nonspecific resistance, the functioning of which is determined by the overall somatic state. This study aimed to study the features of protective mechanisms of the oral cavity due to orthodontic pathology, pathology of periodontal tissues, and odontogenic inflammatory process in children with diffuse nontoxic goiter. Eighty children with diffuse nontoxic goiter aged 12-15 years with different dental status were examined. Evaluation of local immunity of the oral cavity was carried out by determining the content of sIgA, IgA, IgG, lysozyme activity, and levels of IL-1ß, IL-4 by enzyme immunoassay. Immunological studies have shown that in children with diffuse nontoxic goiter, the activity of lysozyme in the oral fluid is decreased. The level of sIgА is also reduced by about 20%. Besides, there is an increase in the content of IgG and a growing trend in the level of IgА. The content of IL-1ß and IL-4 in such children fluctuates more compared to somatically healthy children. In conclusion, a violation of the local protective mechanisms of the oral cavity is observed in children with diffuse nontoxic goiter. Also, the increase in the severity of dental pathology leads to increased tension of local protective and compensatory reactions.


Assuntos
Bócio/patologia , Boca/patologia , Adolescente , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Criança , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Masculino
13.
Subcell Biochem ; 94: 1-34, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189294

RESUMO

The coelomic cavity is part of the main body plan of annelids. This fluid filled space takes up a considerable volume of the body and serves as an important site of exchange of both metabolites and proteins. In addition to low molecular substances such as amino acids and glucose and lactate, the coelomic fluid contains different proteins that can arise through release from adjacent tissues (intestine) or from secretion by coelomic cells. In this chapter, we will review the current knowledge about the proteins in the annelid coelomic fluid. Given the number of more than 20,000 extant annelid species, existing studies are confined to a relatively few species. Most studies on the oligochaetes are confined to the earthworms-clearly because of their important role in soil biology. In the polychaetes (which might represent a paraphyletic group) on the other hand, studies have focused on a few species of the Nereidid family. The proteins present in the coelomic fluid serve different functions and these have been studied in different taxonomic groups. In oligochaetes, proteins involved antibacterial defense such as lysenin and fetidin have received much attention in past and ongoing studies. In polychaetes, in contrast, proteins involved in vitellogenesis and reproduction, and the vitellogenic function of coelomic cells have been investigated in more detail. The metal binding metallothioneins as well as antimicrobial peptides, have been investigated in both oligochaetes and polychaetes. In the light of the literature available, this review will focus on lipoproteins, especially vitellogenin, and proteins involved in defense reactions. Other annelid groups such as the Pogonophora, Echiura, and Sipuncula (now considered polychaetes), have not received much attention and therefore, this overview is far from being complete.


Assuntos
Anelídeos/anatomia & histologia , Anelídeos/química , Líquidos Corporais/química , Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Anelídeos/classificação , Oligoquetos/anatomia & histologia , Oligoquetos/química , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Proteínas/classificação
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229065, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126095

RESUMO

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a complex model of host/virus relationship. Disease control measures often includes "acclimatization", i.e. the exposure of PRRS-naïve gilts and sows to PRRSV-infected pigs and premises before the breeding period. In this respect, we had repeatedly observed an association between PRRSV-specific IgA responses in oral fluids (OF) of gilts and block of PRRSV spread. Therefore, we set out to investigate in vitro the inhibition of PRRSV replication by OF samples with different titers of PRRSV-specific IgA and IgG antibody, using Real-time RT PCR. PRRSV yield reduction in monocyte-derived macrophages was associated with the IgA content in OF samples, whereas the IgG-rich samples were sometimes associated with antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of replication. Accordingly, we could discriminate between ADE-positive and ADE-negative PRRSV strains. Next, we separated Ig isotypes in OF samples of PRRSV-infected pigs by means of protein A and size exclusion chromatography. The above results were confirmed by using separated Ig isotypes. Both dimeric and monomeric IgA were associated with the strongest reduction of PRRSV replication. The treatment of pig macrophages with separated OF antibodies before PRRSV infection was also associated with PRRSV yield reduction, along with clear changes of both CD163 and CD169 surface expression. Our results point at a role of mucosal IgA in the control of PRRSV replication by extra- and/or intracellular interaction with PRRSV, as well as by induction of signals leading to a reduced susceptibility of macrophages to PRRSV infection.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Boca/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Imunidade nas Mucosas/fisiologia , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Boca/virologia , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/metabolismo , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/genética
15.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 46, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma lactate concentrations and their trends over time are used for clinical prognosis, and to guide treatment, in critically ill patients. Although heavily relied upon for clinical decision-making, lactate kinetics of these patients is sparsely studied. AIM: To establish and validate a feasible method to study lactate kinetics in critically ill patients. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (n = 6) received a bolus dose of 13C-labeled lactate (20 µmol/kg body weight), and 43 blood samples were drawn over 2 h to determine the decay in labeled lactate. Data was analyzed using non-compartmental modeling calculating rates of appearance (Ra) and clearance of lactate. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated using a linear-up log-down trapezoidal approach with extrapolation beyond 120 min using the terminal slope to obtain the whole AUC. After evaluation, the same protocol was used in an unselected group of critically ill patients (n = 10). RESULTS: Ra for healthy volunteers and ICU patients were 12.8 ± 3.9 vs 22.7 ± 11.1 µmol/kg/min and metabolic clearance 1.56 ± 0.39 vs 1.12 ± 0.43 L/min, respectively. ICU patients with normal lactate concentrations showed kinetics very similar to healthy volunteers. Simulations showed that reducing the number of samples from 43 to 14 gave the same results. Our protocol yielded results on lactate kinetics very similar to previously published data using other techniques. CONCLUSION: This simple and user-friendly protocol using an isotopically labeled bolus dose of lactate was accurate and feasible for studying lactate kinetics in critically ill ICU patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR, ACTRN12617000626369, registered 8 March 2017. https://anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=372507&isReview=true.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Ácido Láctico , Área Sob a Curva , Líquidos Corporais , Cuidados Críticos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Cinética , Ácido Láctico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Láctico/farmacocinética , Prognóstico
16.
HNO ; 68(2): 100-105, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006045

RESUMO

This manuscript describes the functional properties of the exosomes released from melanoma cells. It details the characteristics of the tumor antigen chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), which is used as a marker to separate exosomes released by melanoma cells from exosomes released by nonmalignant cells. The results are discussed in view of the potential role of melanoma cell-derived exosomes in the escape of malignant cells from the host's immune system.


Assuntos
Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina , Exossomos , Melanoma , Proteínas de Membrana , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Antígenos , Biomarcadores/análise , Líquidos Corporais , Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina/análise , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteoglicanas , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia
17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(7): 1469-1481, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034456

RESUMO

Due to their omnipresence in consumer products, there is a growing concern about the potential effects of nanoparticles on human health. Toxicological assessment and NP end-product studies require proper quantification of these materials in biological fluids. However, their quantifications in these media require stable predispersed NP solutions in aqueous media to enable the fortification in the matrices of interest or the preparation of calibration standards. In this study, a sample preparation scheme was developed by studying various dispersion media (polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyethylene glycol) and sonication strategies (bath and ultrasonic probe) to ensure homogeneous dispersion of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Optimization of the various parameters was performed using SRM NIST 1898 NP reference material, composed of rutile and anatase phases. Number-based size distribution for titanium dioxide NPs was determined by dynamic light scattering and single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to evaluate the procedure efficiency. Changes in mean size and most frequent size distribution were also studied to determine if the agglomeration of nanoparticles occurs at the various dispersion conditions tested. Among the different dispersion parameters tested herein, the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone combined with a sonication process generated by a probe leads to a significant improvement in terms of suspension efficiency and stability over 72 h. The dispersion efficiency of the proposed methodology was assessed by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with spiked biological fluids such as urine and blood. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Titânio/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/normas , Padrões de Referência , Titânio/normas , Água
18.
Gene ; 734: 144381, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978510

RESUMO

Down-regulation of stemness genes expression is important in differentiation therapy against cancer stem cells (CSCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the Oct4 , Sox2, Nanog, and C-myc expression in rat breast cancer stem cells (LA7) which treated with human ovarian follicular fluid (FF), replicative senescent fibroblast culture supernatant (P14), and 16 h serum starved fibroblast supernatant (16 h-SFS). The cells were exposed to these biological fluids for 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days. Stem-loop RT-qPCR assay was used to quantify the expression of above mentioned genes. Results showed that FF had the least cytotoxic effect on the LA7 cells. Except for Nanog gene, exposure of LA7 cell line to 16 h-SFS and P14 decreased significantly expression of the three other genes after 24 h (P < 0.05). Nanog and Sox2 genes expression was also decreased in LA7 cells which have been already treated with FF for 24 h. Moreover, compared to the control solution, the expression of Oct4 increased significantly after 7 days exposure to FF (P < 0.05). Annexin V-PE /7-AAD-, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and doubling time assays revealed apoptosis and necrosis induction by these biological fluids in LA7 cells. Moreover, in an in vitro model of metastasis assay, i.e., scratch test, these fluids exhibited anti-LA7 migration activity which culminated in 16 h-SFS treated cells. Generally, this study showed that FF, 16 h-SFS, and P14 have positive effects on down-regulation of Nanog, Oct4, Sox2 and C-myc expression, and consequently can increase the differentiation of breast cancer stem cells. For the first time, this study provided some evidence indicating that some biological fluids have potential to differentiate the CSCs, show anti- survival, growth-, and cell migration activity.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/fisiologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Líquido Folicular/fisiologia , Genes myc , Humanos , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética
19.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 555-563, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fat accumulation is frequently observed in patients with lymphedema but is not accounted for in existing staging systems. In addition, the specific regional patterns of fat and fluid accumulation remain unknown and might affect outcomes following medical or surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate fluid and fat distribution in patients with lower extremity lymphedema using magnetic resonance angiography. METHODS: Magnetic resonance angiographic examinations of patients with lower extremity lymphedema were reviewed. Fluid-fat grade and location were assessed by three observers. Three-point scales were developed to grade fluid (0 = no fluid, 1 = reticular pattern of fluid, and 2 = continuous stripe of subcutaneous fluid) and fat (0 = normal, 1 = subcutaneous thickness less than twice that of the unaffected side, and 2 = subcutaneous thickness greater than twice that of the unaffected side) accumulation. RESULTS: In total, 76 magnetic resonance angiographic examinations were evaluated. Using the proposed grading system, there was good interobserver agreement for fat and fluid accumulation location (91.5 percent; κ = 0.9), fluid accumulation grade (95.7 percent; κ = 0.95), and fat accumulation grade (87.2 percent; κ = 0.86). Patients with International Society of Lymphology stage 2 lymphedema had a wide range of fluid and fat grades (normal to severe). The most common location of fluid accumulation was the lateral lower leg, whereas the most common location of fat accumulation was the medial and lateral lower leg. CONCLUSION: The proposed magnetic resonance angiographic grading system may help stratify patients with International Society of Lymphology stage 2 lymphedema on the basis of tissue composition. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic, IV.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Perna (Membro)/patologia , Linfedema/patologia , Gordura Subcutânea/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Food Chem ; 313: 126155, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945701

RESUMO

The illegal use of ß-agonists often endangers animal-derived food safety. In this study, a selective detection method for ß-agonists in swine urine was established via the combination of polymeric ionic liquid-molecularly imprinted graphene oxide-miniaturized pipette tip solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. It is worth noting that this method relied mainly on the designed adsorbent, which presented a rich adsorption mechanism, fast mass transfer rate, and high selectivity, and was successfully utilized in the selective extraction of ß-agonists from swine urine samples. The proposed method has low LOD (0.20-0.56 ng/mL), high recovery (94.9-107.9%), and high reusability (4 times, 91.9-108.8%), which indicates its high potential as a selective, sensitive, accurate, and nonfatal method for monitoring the illegal use of ß-agonists in the livestock breeding stage.


Assuntos
Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/urina , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Drogas Veterinárias/urina , Adsorção , Animais , Líquidos Corporais/química , Cruzamento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Clembuterol/urina , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes , Grafite/química , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Isoproterenol/análogos & derivados , Isoproterenol/urina , Impressão Molecular , Nanoestruturas/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Suínos
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