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1.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232981, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396580

RESUMO

Cell signaling pathways play key roles in coordinating cellular events in development. The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved across all multicellular animals and is known to coordinate a multitude of diverse cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, fate specification, and cell death. Specific functions of the pathway are, however, highly context-dependent and are not well characterized in post-traumatic regeneration. Here, we use a small-molecule inhibitor of the pathway (DAPT) to demonstrate that Notch signaling is required for proper arm regeneration in the brittle star Ophioderma brevispina, a highly regenerative member of the phylum Echinodermata. We also employ a transcriptome-wide gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) to characterize the downstream genes controlled by the Notch pathway in the brittle star regeneration. We demonstrate that arm regeneration involves an extensive cross-talk between the Notch pathway and other cell signaling pathways. In the regrowing arm, Notch regulates the composition of the extracellular matrix, cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as components of the innate immune response. We also show for the first time that Notch signaling regulates the activity of several transposable elements. Our data also suggests that one of the possible mechanisms through which Notch sustains its activity in the regenerating tissues is via suppression of Neuralized1.


Assuntos
Equinodermos/fisiologia , Receptores Notch/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Estruturas Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Equinodermos/efeitos dos fármacos , Equinodermos/genética , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Notch/genética , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232450, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433692

RESUMO

Many insects show discontinuous respiration with three phases, open, closed, and fluttering, in which the spiracles open and close rapidly. The relative durations of the three phases and the rate of fluttering during the flutter phase vary for individual insects depending on developmental stage and activity, vary between insects of the same species, and vary even more between different species. We studied how the rate of oxygen uptake during the flutter phase depends on the rate of fluttering. Using a mathematical model of oxygen diffusion in the insect tracheal system, we derive a formula for oxygen uptake during the flutter phase and how it depends on the length of the tracheal system, percentage of time open during the flutter phase, and the flutter rate. Surprisingly, our results show that an insect can have its spiracles closed a high percentage of time during the flutter phase and yet receive almost as much oxygen as if the spiracles were always open, provided the spiracles open and close rapidly. We investigate the respiratory gain due to fluttering for four specific insects. Our formula shows that respiratory gain increases with body size and with increased rate of fluttering. Therefore, insects can regulate their rate of oxygen uptake by varying the rate of fluttering while keeping the spiracles closed during a large fraction of the time during the flutter phase. We also use a mathematical model to show that water loss is approximately proportional to the percentage of time the spiracles are open. Thus, insects can achieve both high oxygen intake and low water loss by keeping the spiracles closed most of the time and fluttering while open, thereby decoupling the challenge of preventing water loss from the challenge of obtaining adequate oxygen uptake.


Assuntos
Insetos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Oxigênio/fisiologia , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Respiração , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Traqueia/anatomia & histologia , Traqueia/fisiologia
3.
Zootaxa ; 4731(2): zootaxa.4731.2.3, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229815

RESUMO

The genus Agelopsis Jacoby, 1896 is redefined and revised. Zizonia Chen, 1976 and Liroetinus Lopatin, 2004 are proposed as new synonyms of Agelopsis. Nine species of Agelopsis are recognized: A. aeneoviridis (Lopatin, 2004) (comb. nov.) (China: Sichuan), A. belousovi (Lopatin, 2004) (comb. nov.) (China: Sichuan, Yunnan), A. caeruleus Jacoby, 1896 (Nepal, India: Jharkhand, West Bengal), A. metallicus (Bryant, 1954) (comb. nov.) (Myanmar), A. spinipes (Ogloblin, 1936) (comb. nov.) (China: Gansu, Sichuan), A. tibetanus (Chen, 1976) (comb. nov.) (China: Xizang), A. konstantinovi sp. nov. (China: Shaanxi, Sichuan), A. malaisei sp. nov. (Myanmar, China: Yunnan) and A. traxlerorum sp. nov. (China: Yunnan). Colour photos of habitus and aedeagi as well as drawings of female genitalia are presented.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , China , Feminino
4.
Zootaxa ; 4731(1): zootaxa.4731.1.5, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229829

RESUMO

A new alpheid shrimp genus, Pachelpheus gen. nov., is established to accommodate Pachelpheus pachyacanthus sp. nov., described based on two specimens from the Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific coast of Panama. Pachelpheus pachyacanthus sp. nov. appears to be an obligate symbiont dwelling in burrows of yet unknown infaunal hosts, on shallow near-shore subtidal sand flats. The main morphological characters of Pachelpheus gen. nov. are: (1) frontal margin of carapace with broadly rounded rostral projection, without orbital teeth; (2) sixth pleonite with articulated plate; (3) telson with two pairs of cuspidate setae dorsally, without anal tubercles; (4) eyes concealed in dorsal view, partly visible in lateral view; (5) chelipeds equal in size, symmetrical in shape, moderately enlarged, stout, carried extended; (6) cheliped carpus without rows of setae mesially; (7) cheliped fingers without snapping mechanism, each finger armed with one stout tooth; (8) second pereiopod carpus with five sub-articles; (9) third, fourth and fifth pereiopods with ischia armed with single robust cuspidate seta, meri armed with one to several unusually robust cuspidate setae; (10) second pleopod with appendix masculina in males only; (11) uropodal exopod and endopod with rows of slender spiniform setae on their distal margins; (12) uropodal diaeresis unusually thickened laterally, with two very stout spiniform setae; and (13) lateral lobe of the uropodal protopod rounded. The new genus appears to be morphologically most similar to Jengalpheops Anker Dworschak, 2007 and Leslibetaeus Anker, Poddoubtchenko Wehrtmann, 2006.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Distribuição Animal , Exoesqueleto , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Masculino
5.
Zootaxa ; 4729(4): zootaxa.4729.4.8, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229843

RESUMO

This paper describes four new species of the superfamily Grylloidea from Yunnan, China, including a new species of Gryllidae: Tarbinskiellus sororius Wang, Zhang Liu sp. nov.; a new species of Mogoplistidae: Ornebius yunnanensis Wang, Zhang Liu sp. nov.; two new species of Trigonidiidae: Homonemobius curifolis Zhang, Wang Liu sp. nov. and Pteronemobius (Pteronemobius) truncates Zhang, Wang Liu sp. nov. In addition, photographs of habitus and genitalia and a distribution map are provided.


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Tamanho do Órgão
6.
Zootaxa ; 4729(3): zootaxa.4729.3.5, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229851

RESUMO

Protosticta joepani sp. nov. is described from Malaysian Borneo (holotype male Bario, Kelabit Highlands, Miri Division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden). It is the sister species of P. kinabaluensis Laidlaw, 1915; some descriptive notes and a set of illustrations are provided of the latter species. A COI gene tree for both species is provided. The placement of both P. joepani and P. kinabaluensis is discussed, but although it is very unlikely that they belong in Protosticta sensu stricto, the issue is left open here.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Bornéu , Masculino
7.
Zootaxa ; 4729(3): zootaxa.4729.3.9, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229855

RESUMO

We describe a new species of diurnal gecko, Gonatodes machelae sp. nov., from Cerro El Copey, Margarita Island, Venezuela. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by a combination of the following characters: small size, subcaudal pattern C (1'1''), typically three lateral scale rows on the digits, and aspects of coloration. The new species exhibits polychromatism similar to what has been described in some other species of Gonatodes. It is found in humid forests and shrublands from about 450 m to 900 m above sea level.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ilhas , Venezuela
8.
Zootaxa ; 4729(3): zootaxa.4729.3.11, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229857

RESUMO

The spongicolid genus Microprosthema Stimpson, 1860 is currently composed of 16 species inhabiting tropical and subtropical marine shallow waters worldwide, with six species found in the western Atlantic (one of them also present in the central and eastern Atlantic), one species in the eastern Pacific, and nine species in the Indo-West Pacific (Saito Okuno 2011; Goy Martin 2013; Saito Anker 2014; De Grave et al. 2016). The genus is characterised by the somewhat depressed body; the carapace more or less densely covered by spines (except in one species); the third maxilliped with a long exopod; the first pereopod with a setiferous organ on the carpus and propodus; the third pereopod greatly enlarged and elongate; and the telson with one tooth on the lateral margin (Holthuis 1946; Poore 2004; Saito Okuno 2011).


Assuntos
Decápodes , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Tamanho do Órgão
9.
Zootaxa ; 4718(4): zootaxa.4718.4.11, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230012

RESUMO

In this paper, one new species of the genus Sinocyrtaspis Liu, 2000, i.e. Sinocyrtaspis megalobia sp. nov. and the previously unknown male of Sinocyrtaspis huangshanensis Liu, 2000 are described from China. Meanwhile, Sinocyrtaspis brachycerca Chang, Bian Shi, 2012 is downgraded to subspecies of Sinocyrtaspis huangshanensis Liu, 2000.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , China , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
10.
Zootaxa ; 4718(3): zootaxa.4718.3.10, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230034

RESUMO

Two new genera are proposed, Foveomicrus gen. n. (type species Foveomicrus indicus sp. n.) and Indomicrus gen. n. (type species Indomicrus chera sp. n.), for south Indian species of Cephenniini. The new taxa are classified as members of the 'Cephennomicrus group' of genera, characterized, among others, by a short and broad, button-like maxillary palpomere IV. Relationships of Foveomicrus and Indomicrus are discussed, and an updated identification key to world genera of Cephenniini is presented.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Tamanho do Órgão
11.
Zootaxa ; 4718(1): zootaxa.4718.1.7, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230043

RESUMO

Until now, four species of Clidicus Laporte were found in Sri Lanka, three known from female specimens only. Clidicus minilankanus sp. n., is described, and compared to all remaining sympatric congeners. The Sri Lankan species may form a monophyletic group characterized by several morphological oddities: the head only slightly impressed posteromedially, with a large portion of vertex and frons not divided longitudinally; the pronotum quadrangular and flattened, with vestigial or absent posterior 'collar', and the transverse groove that demarcates it from the disc lacking pits or even entirely or partly obliterated; and the metaventrite strongly shortened, so that meso- and metacoxae are nearly adjacent. These characters may justify resurrecting Erineus Walker, a junior synonym of Clidicus (proposed for the first described Sri Lankan species, C. monstrosus (Walker)), as a valid name for a subgenus. This problem must be addressed by a phylogenetic analysis of all Clidicus species, to establish evolutionary relationships within this interesting genus.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4750(1): zootaxa.4750.1.9, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230058

RESUMO

Cacoplistes (Laminogryllus) spp. from Guangxi were compared by morphology and molecular studies. Morphology results showed that differences of genitalia were caused by movable epiphallus. Molecular result showed that only 0.3% substitution sites of COI gene were detected. Thus, C. (L.) brevisparamerus syn. is the junior synonym of C. (L.) choui.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Tamanho do Órgão
13.
Zootaxa ; 4748(3): zootaxa.4748.3.4, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230063

RESUMO

The Japanese species of the genus Cordilura Fallén are taxonomically revised. Three species, namely Cordilura katoi sp. nov., C. shinonagai sp. nov., and C. yezoana sp. nov. are described as new to science. The previous described Japanese species C. cuspidata Sasakawa, 1986 and C. nubecula Sasakawa, 1986 are remarked. Three species, C. albipes (Fallén, 1819), C. remmi Elberg, 1972, and C. richterae Ozerov Krivosheina, 2015 are recorded from Japan for the first time. An identification key to the Japanese species of Cordilura is also provided.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Japão
14.
Zootaxa ; 4748(3): zootaxa.4748.3.10, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230069

RESUMO

The tenebrionid genus Indenicmosoma Ardoin, 1964 (type species indochinensis Kaszab, 1940), subfamily Lagriinae, is distributed in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Newly collected specimens from different Palaearctic and Oriental Asian regions are presented, among them also one species new to science from Thailand (Indenicmosoma paicum sp. nov.). New synonym: Indenicmosoma nathani Ardoin, 1964 (Indenicmosoma ardoini Kaszab, 1970 syn. nov.). All treated eight Asian species are figured, and a species key is compiled.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tailândia
15.
Zootaxa ; 4748(2): zootaxa.4748.2.7, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230078

RESUMO

This publication revises the taxonomy of the leaf beetle genus Exomis Weise, 1889 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Clytrini) which is endemic to China. Six new species are described: E. deqinensis sp. nov., E. huangi sp. nov., E. pubescens sp. nov., E. pubipennis sp. nov., E. tanae sp. nov. and E. viridis sp. nov., in addition to two known species, namely E. degenevei Pic, 1932 and E. peplopteroides Weise, 1889. Exomis oblongum (Lopatin Konstantinov, 2009) from China (Yunnan) is transferred to this genus as new combination. The total Chinese fauna of Exomis is thus increased to nine species. A key to these species is provided and, for each of them, also a color photo of habitus and line drawings of the aedeagus, spermatheca and kotpresse, in order to ease identification in the future.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , China , Cor
16.
Zootaxa ; 4748(2): zootaxa.4748.2.9, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230080

RESUMO

Material collected by the Norwegian Scientific Expedition to Tristan Da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean in the years 1937-1938 and later attributed by Stephensen, 1949 to Orchestia scutigerula Dana, 1852 has been re-examined and is described as a new genus and species, Gondwanorchestia tristanensis sp. nov. Orchestia scutigerula Dana, 1852 is transferred to Gondwanorchestia gen nov. and compared with G. tristanensis sp. nov.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Expedições
17.
Zootaxa ; 4748(1): zootaxa.4748.1.2, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230085

RESUMO

The paper reports 2 new species of the genus Xizicus Gorochov, 1993 from Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China, i.e. Xizicus (Axizicus) furcus Cui, Liu Shi sp. nov. and Xizicus (Eoxizicus) gaoligongshanensis Cui, Liu Shi sp. nov., and supplies characteristic photographs of external morphology. Besides, morphological illustrations of Xizicus (Eoxizicus) kulingensis (Tinkham, 1943) are provided. The type specimens are deposited in the Museum of Hebei University, Baoding, P. R. China.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Museus , Tamanho do Órgão
18.
Zootaxa ; 4748(1): zootaxa.4748.1.8, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230091

RESUMO

Agraeciini species from Hainan, China were investigated from 2017~2019. One new species, Nahlaksia hainanensis He Wang sp. nov., is described. Liara (Acanthocoryphus) brevis Ingrisch, 1998 and Mesagraecia gorochovi Ingrisch, 1998 are first recorded from Hainan, China. The COI genes of three species are provided and songs of L. (A.) brevis are first reported. The type species are deposited in Museum of Biology, East China Normal University (ECNU) and Shanghai Entomological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SEM, CAS).


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
19.
Zootaxa ; 4747(3): zootaxa.4747.3.5, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230099

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Prionotropis Fieber, 1853 is described from Catalonia (Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula). Prionotropis xausi n. sp. was collected in a steppic calcareous grassland with low shrubs and scattered rocks, dominated by Buxus, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Thymus and Poa species. P. xausi n. sp. is characterized by the pronotum in dorsal view narrow and in lateral view with the principal transverse sulcus between prozona and metazona clearly incised. Females squamipterous with the tegmina extending at most to the end of second abdominal segment. Males sub-brachypterous with the tegmina reaching the 5th abdominal tergite and the epiproct visible. Inside hind femora at the base to the middle part and inside hind tibia red. Phallic complex with the epiphallus more long than wide with short posterior edge and the penis valves long. This new species is compared to the similar species P. rhodanica Uvarov, 1923 , P. azami Uvarov, 1923 and P. hystrix (Germar, 1817) and to the species presents in Catalonia P. flexuosa (Serville, 1838) and P. ancosae Olmo-Vidal, 2017. P. xausi is the species of the genus Prionotropis with the smallest males.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Espanha
20.
Zootaxa ; 4747(2): zootaxa.4747.2.5, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230111

RESUMO

Madagassoconnus Franz and Oneila Peringuey were described as genera, but their diagnoses largely overlap with that of Euconnus. Results of detailed morphological studies justify placing Madagassoconnus and Oneila as subgenera of Euconnus. Madagassoconnus differs from most of previously reviewed subgenera of Euconnus in minor characters, mainly in tarsomeres III and IV forming elongate anteroventral lobes. Oneila differs from other subgenera mainly in strongly and uniquely modified antennomeres VII and VIII, or only VII, in males; other characters are almost identical as those in Tetramelus Motschulsky, Paratetramelus Franz and Heteroconnus Franz. However, results of preliminary phylogenetic analyses are still inconclusive, and a conservative approach is adopted to treat Madagassoconnus and Oneila as valid names, pending further study. Previous (and the only) redescription of the type species of Madagassoconnus, Cyrtoscydmus kolbei L.W. Schaufuss, is discussed as likely based on misidentified specimens not conspecific with the type material. Madagassoconnus arganoi Franz that occurs in Mexico (in contrast to all remaining species of Madagassoconnus that are endemic to Madagascar) is placed as Euconnus (incertae sedis) arganoi comb. n., and Oneila camerunensis Franz known to occur in Cameroon, is placed as Euconnus (incertae sedis) camerunensis comb. n.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
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