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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(7): 2457-2463, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715713

RESUMO

Studies on variations in chilling and heat accumulation in apple trees and their effects on first flowering date under climate change are important for guiding apple planting and productions. In this study, we carried out experiments in representative stations of apple planting areas in the northern China, including Fushan of Shandong, Wanrong of Shanxi, Xifeng of Gansu and Akesu of Xinjiang. The first flowering data and hourly temperature data during 1996-2018 were used to calculate the daily chilling and heat accumulation units by applying the dynamic model and growing degree hour model. Partial least squares regression (PLS) correlated daily chilling and heat units with the first flowering dates was used to identify the chilling and heat accumulation periods for apple flowering. We evaluated the impacts of temperatures during these periods on apples' flowering. Our results showed that the chilling accumulation period of apple trees in the examined sites started at October 1, ended in late February or mid-March, with chilling accumulations of 74.1-89.3 CP (chill portion). The heat accumulation periods were from late January to the first flowering dates with the heat accumulation of 4010-5770 GDH (growing degree hour). The chilling accumulation at Xifeng and Akesu was correlated positively with mean temperature during the respective accumulation period, with 3.8 and 5.0 CP enhancement following 1 ℃ increase during the accumulation period. Heat accumulation at all stations correlated positively with mean temperature during the respective accumulation period, with 725-967 GDH enhancement following a 1 ℃ increase during the accumulation period. Compared to the effects of chilling accumulation on tree flowering, the first flowering data of apples in the main planting areas were mainly affected by mean temperature during the heat accumulation period. Climate warming is beneficial for apple blossom and production in the areas with low mean temperature during the chilling accumulation period.


Assuntos
Malus , China , Flores , Temperatura Alta , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
3.
Oecologia ; 193(2): 511-522, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495034

RESUMO

Plant-pollinator interactions are partially driven by the expression of plant traits that signal and attract bees to the nutritional resources within flowers. Although multiple physical and chemical floral traits are known to influence the visitation patterns of bees, how distinct bee groups vary in their responses to floral traits has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we used a common garden experiment to test for morphological floral traits associated with pollen quantity at the plant species level, and examined how the visitation patterns of taxonomically and functionally distinct bee groups are related to flower trait characteristics of 39 wildflower species. We also determined how floral traits influence the structure of wild bee communities visiting plants and whether this varies among geographic localities. Our results suggest that floral area is the primary morphological floral trait related to bee visitation of several distinct bee groups, but that wild bee families and functionally distinct bee groups have unique responses to floral trait expression. The composition of the wild bee communities visiting different plants was most strongly associated with variability in floral area, flower height, and the quantity of pollen retained in flowers. Our results inform wildflower habitat management for bees by demonstrating that the visitation patterns of distinct bee taxa can be predicted by floral traits, and highlight that variability in these traits should be considered when selecting plants to support pollinators.


Assuntos
Flores , Polinização , Animais , Abelhas , Fenótipo , Plantas , Pólen
4.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(3): 413-419, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476088

RESUMO

In semiarid regions of Mexico, it is common to use the floristic richness of wild plants as food ingredients. Hence, flowers of Agave salmiana, Aloe vera, Erythrina americana, and Myrtillocactus geometrizans, which are typical and traditionally consumed flowers, were analyzed. The physicochemical properties; proximate composition; the contents of minerals, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, phenols, and total flavonoids; the quantification of phenolic compounds by HPLC; and the antioxidant activity in vitro were determined. The flowers were high in carbohydrates, proteins and minerals, mainly K and N in flowers from E. americana and M. geometrizans, respectively. The highest concentration of carotenoids was detected in red flowers (E. americana). Total phenols ranged from 4.73 to 72.40 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (GAE/g DW). However, the highest value of antioxidant activity was 819.80 µmol of Trolox equivalents per gram of dry weight (TE/g DW). The highest values of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity were found in the flowers of M. geometrizans. The antioxidant activity of flowers was mainly related to phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds detected in flowers were rutin and phloridzin. The edible flowers analyzed in this study are a potential source of compounds with high biological activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Flores/química , México , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais
5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 167: 104596, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527442

RESUMO

Pretreatment with sublethal concentrations (LC10) of three insecticides (chlorfenapyr, dinotefuran, and spinosad) enhanced tolerance to a lethal dose of the respective insecticide in the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. To identify genes responding to sublethal treatment with insecticides, transcriptome analysis was conducted for thrips treated with LC10 of the three insecticides. When based on a fold change >1.5 or < -1.5 as a selection criterion, 199 transcripts were commonly up-regulated, whereas 31 transcripts were commonly down-regulated following all three insecticide treatments. The differential expression levels of representative genes were validated by quantitative PCR. Most over-transcribed transcripts could be categorized as basic biological processes, such as proteolysis and lipid metabolism. Detoxification genes, such as one glutathione S transferase S1, three UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, four CYP450s, and one ABC transporter G family member 20, were commonly overexpressed in all three insecticide-treated groups. Knockdown of the five representative commonly overexpressed genes via ingestion RNA interference increased mortalities to all the three test insecticides, supporting their common role in tolerance induction. In contrast, three C2H2-type zinc finger-containing proteins were significantly down-regulated in all insecticide-treated thrip groups. Since the tested insecticides have distinct structures and modes of action, the roles of commonly expressed genes in tolerance were discussed.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Tisanópteros , Animais , Flores , Interferência de RNA , Transcriptoma
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(4): 1106-1112, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530184

RESUMO

Solanum rostratum is a severely invasive alien plant species in China. Using four S. rostratum populations and non-invasive congener S. americanum, we conducted a common garden experiment to compare their breeding systems. No significant difference in average seed set between the two species under open pollination and supplementary pollination conditions. However, under the bagged self-pollination condition, S. rostratum had significantly lower average seed set (29.5%) than S. americanum (47.0%). No fertile seeds were detected in the emasculation treatments for both species, suggesting no autonomous apomixis in them. S. rostratum had a lower average autofertility index (0.38) than S. americanum (0.64). S. rostratum had higher average pollen limitation index (0.29) and average pollinator's contribution index (0.49) than S. americanum (0.08 and 0.31, respectively). S. rostratum was found in 12 provinces of China and in 3835 locations globally, which were lower than S. americanum with 18 Chinese provinces and 10897 locations globally. The invasive alien S. rostratum had lower self-compatibility than the non-invasive alien S. americanum. Thus, the invasiveness of those two species was not significantly correlated with their self-compatibility, but positively correlated with their distribution range.


Assuntos
Solanum , Cruzamento , China , Flores , Espécies Introduzidas , Polinização , Reprodução , Sementes
7.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(6): 1170-1180, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597066

RESUMO

HDA9, a member of the deacetylase family, plays a vital role in regulating plant flowering time through flowering integrator SOC1 and AGL24. However, it remains elusive how HDA9 interacts with SOC1 and AGL24 in flowering time control. Here, HDA9 was cloned in Brassica juncea and then its three active sites were separately replaced with Ala via overlap extension PCR. Thus, mutants of HDA9(D172A), HDA9(H174A) and HDA9(D261A) were constructed and fused into the pGADT7 vector. The yeast one-hybrid assays indicated that HDA9 mutants remained the interactions with the promoters of SOC1 and AGL24. Furthermore, the aforementioned results were confirmed in the dual luciferase assays. Interestingly, the DNA-protein interactions were weakened significantly due to the mutation in the three active sites of HDA9. It suggested that flowering signal integrator SOC1 and AGL24 were regulated by the key amino acid residues of 172th, 174th and 261th in HDA9. Our results provide valuable information for the in-depth study of the biological function and molecular regulation of HDA9 in Brassica juncea flowering time control.


Assuntos
Flores , Mostardeira , Proteínas de Plantas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Mostardeira/enzimologia , Mostardeira/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
8.
Arch Virol ; 165(8): 1915-1918, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504395

RESUMO

We determined the complete genomic sequence of begonia flower breaking virus (BFBV), a novel putative member of the genus Potyvirus isolated from Begonia bowerae cv. 'Tiger' plants grown in Kunming. The genomic RNA comprises 9540 nucleotides (nt), excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail, and contains a typical open reading frame (ORF) of potyviruses. The ORF consists of 9219 nucleotides and encodes a 3073-amino-acid polyprotein that is predicted to be proteolytically cleaved into 10 mature peptides. Sequence comparison indicated that BFBV shares 43.9-55.12% amino acid sequence identity with known potyviruses and that BFBV shares the highest amino acid sequence identity (55.12%) with beet mosaic virus. The results from the complete genomic sequence analysis further suggest that BFBV is a member of a novel species in the genus Potyvirus.


Assuntos
Begoniaceae/virologia , Flores/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Potyvirus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Genômica/métodos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
9.
Ecol Lett ; 23(7): 1107-1116, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418369

RESUMO

Morphology and phenology influence plant-pollinator network structure, but whether they generate more stable pairwise interactions with higher pollination success remains unknown. Here we evaluate the importance of morphological trait matching, phenological overlap and specialisation for the spatio-temporal stability (measured as variability) of plant-pollinator interactions and for pollination success, while controlling for species' abundance. To this end, we combined a 6-year plant-pollinator interaction dataset, with information on species traits, phenologies, specialisation, abundance and pollination success, into structural equation models. Interactions among abundant plants and pollinators with well-matched traits and phenologies formed the stable and functional backbone of the pollination network, whereas poorly matched interactions were variable in time and had lower pollination success. We conclude that phenological overlap could be more useful for predicting changes in species interactions than species abundances, and that non-random extinction of species with well-matched traits could decrease the stability of interactions within communities and reduce their functioning.


Assuntos
Insetos , Polinização , Animais , Flores , Fenótipo , Plantas
10.
Science ; 368(6493): 824-825, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439779
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 728: 138891, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361364

RESUMO

Predicting how shifts in plant phenology affect species dominance remains challenging, because plant phenology and species dominance have been largely investigated independently. Moreover, most phenological research has primarily focused on phenological firsts (leaf-out and first flower dates), leading to a lack of representation of phenological lasts (leaf senescence and last flower) and full phenological periods (growing season length and flower duration). Here, we simultaneously investigated the effects of experimental warming on different phenological events of various species and species dominance in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. Warming significantly advanced phenological firsts for most species but had variable effects on phenological lasts. As a result, warming tended to extend species' full phenological periods, although this trend was not significant for all species. Experimental warming reduced community evenness and differentially impacted species dominance. Shifts in full phenological periods, rather than a single shift in phenological firsts or phenological lasts, were associated with changes in species dominance. Species with lengthened full phenological periods under warming increased their dominance. Our results advance the understanding of how altered species-specific phenophases relate to changes in community structure in response to climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Plantas , Flores , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 730: 139039, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388377

RESUMO

Phenological studies of Brazilian savanna vegetation have described a generalized phenological pattern for all species, mainly based on rainfall and temperature. Few studies have considered wind as an explanatory factor; abiotic factors may impact differently on phenophases, and one phenophase may influence the performance of another. Thus, we aim to describe the phenological patterns of five anemocoric plant species (Aspidosperma tomentosum, Dalbergia miscolobium, Kielmeyera coriacea, Peixotoa tomentosa and Qualea multiflora) in the face of different climatic conditions, mainly evaluating the effects of wind on the ripe diaspore. We addressed three main questions: (1) What is the phenological behavior of each of these five anemocoric species in a seasonal environment? (2) Which climatic variables best explain each phenophase? (3) Does the dispersal of ripe diaspores peak shortly after deciduousness? We found that (i) our focal species showed similar phenological patterns, except for the floral bud and flower phenophases of two species (A. tomentosum and P. tomentosa), and the young fruit phase; (ii) each abiotic variable has a specific level of influence for each phenophase, but the most important variables were rainfall and wind speed; and (iii) the dispersal peak of ripe diaspores occurred shortly after deciduousness, and when plants had fewer leaves. We conclude that the phenological patterns of these five anemocoric plants are similar, but that the patterns observed are not necessarily those described for Cerrado species. Additionally, we found that wind is an important factor in the expression of specific phenophases, and that the performance of some phenological events can be influenced by others, especially diaspore dispersal.


Assuntos
Plantas , Brasil , Flores , Frutas , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 730: 139182, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402978

RESUMO

The objectives of this research were to assess the physical properties of six different growing substrate mixtures destined for roof gardens and determine the influence of these substrates on the morphology, physiology, growth and flower quality of pansy (Viola × wittrockiana), Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), and Pavia lily (Longiflorum×Asiatic lilies (Lilium) 'Pavia'). Six green roof growing substrate mixtures (by volume) were used [T1: coarse tuff+fine tuff+cocopeat (5:1:4), T2:coarse tuff+medium tuff+fine tuff+cocopeat (5:5:2:8), T3: medium tuff+fine tuff+cocopeat (5:1:4), T4:medium tuff+fine tuff + peat moss (5:1:4), T5: perlite+medium tuff+fine tuff+cocopeat (5:5:2:8), and T6: lightweight expandable clay aggregates+fine tuff+cocopeat (5:1:4)]. The T6 (LECA-cocopeat) had the lowest weight at field capacity and good aeration and WHC to sustain optimal plant growth. Medium tuff-peat moss (T4) produced the highest pansy flowers number per plants. However, peat moss (T4) has been identified by environmentalists as an unsustainable media. LECA-cocopeat (T6) had a higher number of lily flowers and leaf area than T1-T4. The cost of the LECA substrate ($US 215 m-3, T6) is extremely higher than that of volcanic tuff ($US 36 m-3, T1-T4), and perlite ($US 100 m-3, T5). Overall, T6 can be an ideal option in terms of physical properties of growing substrate and flower quality but it might not be the best option for green roofs when cost is the primary concern. In addition, certain growing substrates could be used to satisfy specific growing requirements without sacrificing performance. For example, the combination of medium tuff and peat moss (T4) produced the highest pansy flower numbers per plant but required a longer period to flower (95 days). So, this growing substrate could be used where plentiful blooms are desired and the time to bloom is not a concern.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas , Flores , Região do Mediterrâneo , Folhas de Planta
14.
Oecologia ; 193(2): 475-488, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462408

RESUMO

Climate warming could disrupt species interactions if organisms' phenologies respond to climate change at different rates. Phenologies of plants and insects can be sensitive to temperature and timing of snowmelt; however, many important pollinators including ground-nesting bees have been little studied in this context. Without knowledge of the environmental cues affecting phenologies of co-occurring species, we have little ability to predict how species assemblages, and species interactions, will be affected by climate change. Here, we studied a hardwood forest understory over six years, to determine how spring temperatures, snowmelt timing, and photoperiod influence the phenology of two spring wildflowers (Anemone spp. and Trillium grandiflorum), activity of ground-nesting bees, and their temporal overlap. Surface degree-day accumulation was a better predictor of phenology for Anemone spp. (plant) and Nomada (bees) than were day of year (a proxy for photoperiod) or snowmelt date, whereas Trillium flowering appeared most sensitive to photoperiodic cues. Activity periods of Andrena and Lasioglossum bees were equally well described by degree-day accumulation and day of year. No taxon's phenology was best predicted by snowmelt date. Despite these differences among taxa in their phenological responses, timing of bee activity and flowering responded similarly to variation in snowmelt date and early spring temperatures. Furthermore, temporal overlap between flowering and bee activity was similar over the years of this study and was unaffected by variability in snowmelt date or temperature. Nevertheless, the differences among some taxa in their phenological responses suggests that diverging temporal shifts are a possibility for the future.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Flores , Animais , Abelhas , Florestas , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1622: 461129, 2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376025

RESUMO

This work describes the development of capacity orthogonal chromatography (COC), a new technique for simultaneously determining the loading capacity and orthogonality during the construction of two-dimensional (2D) separations. Three steps were required for the construction of a COC based on the correlation between the selectivity factor (α) and both orthogonality and loading capacity. (1) α values of the impurities-target compound were used to normalize the retention of the impurities around the target compound. (2) α values were input into four quadrants of a coordinate system to identify correlations between orthogonality and loading capacity. α values of the impurities must be greater in the first dimension than the second dimension, with iterated analyses performed until an αmax is obtained for the two purification methods. (3) Touch-peak separation using the first-dimensional αmax was performed and the target compound was collected. The co-eluted impurities are further separated in the second dimension. To test the efficiency of this technique, a COC using two methods on a standard C18 column was developed to purify corilagin from pomegranate flower extract. Despite its low abundance, 288 mg of corilagin was obtained by COC and further purified by LH-20 gel chromatography to obtain the compound with an 80.0% recovery and 98.4% purity. Compared to COC, the purity of corilagin independently obtained using the same purification methods and identical loading capacity was poor (60.1% and 61.6%). These results indicate that COC is a useful tool for extending loading capacity in the development of preparative 2D separations.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Romã (Fruta)/química , Glucosídeos/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química
16.
Science ; 368(6493): 881-884, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439792

RESUMO

Maintaining phenological synchrony with flowers is a key ecological challenge for pollinators that may be exacerbated by ongoing environmental change. Here, we show that bumble bee workers facing pollen scarcity damage leaves of flowerless plants and thereby accelerate flower production. Laboratory studies revealed that leaf-damaging behavior is strongly influenced by pollen availability and that bee-damaged plants flower significantly earlier than undamaged or mechanically damaged controls. Subsequent outdoor experiments showed that the intensity of damage inflicted varies with local flower availability; furthermore, workers from wild colonies of two additional bumble bee species were also observed to damage plant leaves. These findings elucidate a feature of bumble bee worker behavior that can influence the local availability of floral resources.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Pólen , Animais
18.
Am J Bot ; 107(6): 910-922, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462680

RESUMO

PREMISE: Distylous species possess two floral morphs with reciprocal positioning of stigmas and anthers that is hypothesized to promote disassortative pollination. Theoretical models predict equal morph frequencies, but many populations depart from the expected 1:1 ratio, a pattern that often correlates with asymmetric mating between morphs and/or presence of a weak incompatibility system. Variation in reciprocity can also affect the likelihood of disassortative pollination and, hence, reproductive fitness. METHODS: We described variation in incompatibility systems and morph ratio in four Erythroxylum species to test if greater deviations from 1:1 ratios occur in populations of self-compatible species. Using adaptive inaccuracy, we described upper and lower organ reciprocity in species and populations and assessed the relationship of reciprocity to population means and coefficients of variation for fruit set to test if reciprocity could predict female reproductive success. RESULTS: Morphs occurred in 1:1 ratios in most populations of three Erythroxylum species with distylous self-incompatibility. In self-compatible E. campestre populations showed an excess of the long-styled morph, the short-styled morph, or were monomorphic for the short-styled morph. We detected deviations from reciprocity, with total inaccuracy ranging between 9.39% and 42.94%, and inaccuracy values were lowest in low organs. Across populations, we found a positive relationship between inaccuracy and the coefficient of variation of fruit set. CONCLUSIONS: Erythroxylum species showed variation in the distylous syndrome, with changes in the incompatibility system that corresponded with deviations from 1:1 morph ratio, and variation in reciprocity that correlated with variation in female reproductive fitness.


Assuntos
Flores , Polinização , Fenótipo , Reprodução
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1927): 20200508, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429807

RESUMO

Pollinator declines, changes in land use and climate-induced shifts in phenology have the potential to seriously affect ecosystem function and food security by disrupting pollination services provided by insects. Much of the current research focuses on bees, or groups other insects together as 'non-bee pollinators', obscuring the relative contribution of this diverse group of organisms. Prominent among the 'non-bee pollinators' are the hoverflies, known to visit at least 72% of global food crops, which we estimate to be worth around US$300 billion per year, together with over 70% of animal pollinated wildflowers. In addition, hoverflies provide ecosystem functions not seen in bees, such as crop protection from pests, recycling of organic matter and long-distance pollen transfer. Migratory species, in particular, can be hugely abundant and unlike many insect pollinators, do not yet appear to be in serious decline. In this review, we contrast the roles of hoverflies and bees as pollinators, discuss the need for research and monitoring of different pollinator responses to anthropogenic change and examine emerging research into large populations of migratory hoverflies, the threats they face and how they might be used to improve sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Polinização , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Flores , Pólen
20.
Gene ; 752: 144784, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439372

RESUMO

The plant-specific YABBY transcription factors have important biological roles in plant morphogenesis, growth and development. In this study, we identified six YABBY genes in pomegranate (Punica granatum) and characterized their expression pattern during flower development. Six PgYABBY genes were divided into five subfamilies (YAB1/3, YAB2, INO, CRC, and YAB5), based on protein sequence, motifs and similarity of exon-intron structure. Next, analysis of putative cis-acting element showed that PgYABBYs contained lots of hormone response and stress response elements. Subsequently, gene function prediction and protein-protein network analysis showed that PgYABBYs were associated with the development of apical meristem, flower, carpel, and ovule. Analysis of PgYABBY genes expression in various structures and organs suggested that PgYABBYs were highly activated in flower, leaf and seed coat. Analysis of expression during flower development in pomegranate showed that PgINO might play critical role in regulating the differentiation of flowers. This study provided a theoretical basis for function research and utilization of YABBY genes in pomegranate.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Romã (Fruta)/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Evolução Molecular , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Meristema/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Romã (Fruta)/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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