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1.
Waste Manag ; 117: 42-47, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805600

RESUMO

Poultry litter is used as soil amendment or organic fertilizer. While poultry litter is enriched with organic matter suitable for land, the presence of pathogens such as Salmonella in poultry litter is a concern. To investigate the effect of gaseous ozone on pathogen reductions in poultry litter, this study conducted a series of experiments that involved understanding of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation at various doses of Ozone (O3) in wet and dry poultry litter conditions. Previously, ozone treatment has been shown to disinfect the surface of foods and plant materials including fruits, juices, and wastewater, however, additional research are needed to better understand the impacts of ozone on treatment of soil amendments. Sanitizing methods capable of eliminating pathogens of soil amendments are crucial to mitigate disease outbreaks related with litter/manure-based fertilizers. In this study, a bench scale continuous ozone treatment system was designed to produce O3 gas, with a range O3 concentrations (7.15-132.46 mg·L-1), monitor ozone concentrations continuously, and control the ozone exposure time (15 to 90 mins) to understand the effectiveness of O3 in eliminating S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 in poultry litter. Results showed that 7.15 mg·L-1 did not reduce the counts of S. Typhimurium until exposure to O3 for 90 min. The O3 concentrations of 43.26 ~ 132.46 mg·L-1 exposure reduced the bacterial counts. Furthermore, the moisture content of poultry litter was found to be an influencing factor for pathogen reduction. The pathogen reduction rates were reduced when the moisture content was increased. At higher moisture content, high concentrations of O3 (132.46 mg·L-1) were needed for pathogen reductions. The moisture content of 30% or lower was found to be more effective for controlling pathogen levels in poultry litter. Our study demonstrates that gaseous O3 treatment could be used as an additional decontamination technique to ensure the certain degree of microbiological safety of poultry litter based soil amendment.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli O157 , Ozônio , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Esterco , Aves Domésticas , Salmonella typhimurium
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1115-1120, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741181

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of spread and genetic evolution of H5 subtype avian influenza virus in Guangzhou from 2014 to 2019. Methods: H5 subtype virus was detected by fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR from the environmental samples in Guangzhou poultry markets. The genes of HA and NA of 48 isolates randomly selected were sequenced, including 46 isolates from environmental samples and 2 isolates from cases. The characteristics of molecular variation and genetic evolution were analyzed by using bioinformatics software. Results: A total of 1 094 strains of H5 subtype avian influenza virus were isolated from 52 284 samples (2.09%). All the strains belonged to Clade 2.3.4.4.C. NA gene belonged to H6N6 of Eurasian lineage. The cleavage sites of all the strains showed the characteristics of highly pathogenicity. Receptor binding sites were avian-derived receptors. However, mutations of S123P, S133A and T156A occurred, which implied that these strains could tend to bind to human receptors. There was an additional glycosylation site at 140 in strains isolated after 2017. The variation of antigen loci mainly occurred in B and E regions. Conclusions: H5 subtype avian influenza virus spread in Guangzhou from 2014 to 2019 with annual increased proportion of positive rate, and the sequencing results indicated that it belonged to Clade 2.3.4.4.C of H5N6 highly pathogenic virus, and genetic evolution and mutation continued, especially the common mutations which could enhance the binding capacity to human receptors. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Aves Domésticas
3.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111072, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854882

RESUMO

Animal manure is an important source of nutrients for crop production, but environmental issues can restrict its direct use. Thermochemical processing these manures may be an alternative to concentrate nutrients and reduce the final volume for agriculture application. We aimed here to evaluate the viability of extracting nutrients from chicken manure using a thermochemical process which reduces the volume of transported nutrients, targeting phosphorus (P) recovery as precipitated struvite, without add external source of P. The extraction of nutrients from poultry manure was performed in water, followed by a thermochemical treatment of the solid phase by incineration and acidulation of the resulting ash. Struvite was produced from the acidified ash extract after supplementation with Mg and regulating the pH (~8.5) by KOH addition. The recovery efficiency of P from the poultry manure and incorporation into struvite was 90%. The final product was a multi-nutrient fertilizer with high macronutrient levels (P, K, Mg and S) and low micronutrient content when compared to fresh manure, as well as lower levels of heavy metals, potentially harmful for the environment. The precipitated product obtained here is composed of struvite-NH4 and struvite-K, alongside appreciable quantities of potassium sulphate and hydroxyapatite carbonate. Overall, we conclude that poultry manure represents a viable source of P and N for struvite production resulting in a nutrient-rich, pathogen-free inorganic fertiliser suitable for widespread use in agriculture.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Esterco , Animais , Minerais , Nitrogênio/análise , Fosfatos , Fósforo , Aves Domésticas , Estruvita
4.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674326

RESUMO

The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious economically important respiratory pathogen of domestic fowl. Reverse genetics allows for the molecular study of pathogenic determinants to enable rational vaccine design. The recombinant IBV (rIBV) Beau-R, a molecular clone of the apathogenic Beaudette strain, has previously been investigated as a vaccine platform. To determine tissues in which Beau-R could effectively deliver antigenic genes, an in vivo study in chickens, the natural host, was used to compare the pattern of viral dissemination of Beau-R to the pathogenic strain M41-CK. Replication of Beau-R was found to be restricted to soft tissue within the beak, whereas M41-CK was detected in beak tissue, trachea and eyelid up to seven days post infection. In vitro assays further identified that, unlike M41-CK, Beau-R could not replicate at 41 °C, the core body temperature of a chicken, but is able to replicate a 37 °C, a temperature relatable to the very upper respiratory tract. Using a panel of rIBVs with defined mutations in the structural and accessory genes, viral replication at permissive and non-permissive temperatures was investigated, identifying that the Beau-R replicase gene was a determinant of temperature sensitivity and that sub-genomic mRNA synthesis had been affected. The identification of temperature sensitive allelic lesions within the Beau-R replicase gene opens up the possibility of using this method of attenuation in other IBV strains for future vaccine development as well as a method to investigate the functions of the IBV replicase proteins.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Temperatura , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609724

RESUMO

Data on the transfer of artificial radionuclides from the environment to the food supply is necessary for internal dose assessment. There is a necessity for expanding and improving the available information on these factors in order to make better dose models for specific scenarios. This paper describes the results of a field experiment with broiler chickens on the transfer factor (Ff) and concentration ratio (CR) for the long-term intake of 241Am and 137Cs with grass meal and soil. The broilers were divided into two groups, each group had nine subgroups and each subgroup had three broilers. The radionuclide concentrations in the feed and the thigh muscle, thigh bone, and liver of 54 broilers divided between the grass meal and soil groups were evaluated by gamma spectrometry for 241Am and 137Cs. The duration of feeding with "contaminated" sources ranged between 1-70 days. The equilibrium stage of 241Am in muscle and bone occurs on the 1st and 40th day, respectively; for 137Cs in muscle- 30th days of intake and for liver and bone- 7th days. For 241Am, the liver did not reach equilibrium stage during the 70 days of intake. Ff of 137Cs in the "forage-muscle" and "soil-muscle" systems were determined as 1.9±0.3 and 0.18±0.05; Ff of 241Am in the "soil-muscle" system was-7.5×10-5.


Assuntos
Amerício/análise , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Galinhas , Contaminação Radioativa de Alimentos/análise , Aves Domésticas , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Amerício/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Radioisótopos de Césio/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/metabolismo
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1008009, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628659

RESUMO

Transmission of infectious diseases between immobile hosts (e.g., plants, farms) is strongly dependent on the spatial distribution of hosts and the distance-dependent probability of transmission. As the interplay between these factors is poorly understood, we use spatial process and transmission modelling to investigate how epidemic size is shaped by host clustering and spatial range of transmission. We find that for a given degree of clustering and individual-level infectivity, the probability that an epidemic occurs after an introduction is generally higher if transmission is predominantly local. However, local transmission also impedes transfer of the infection to new clusters. A consequence is that the total number of infections is maximal if the range of transmission is intermediate. In highly clustered populations, the infection dynamics is strongly determined by the probability of transmission between clusters of hosts, whereby local clusters act as multiplier of infection. We show that in such populations, a metapopulation model sometimes provides a good approximation of the total epidemic size, using probabilities of local extinction, the final size of infections in local clusters, and probabilities of cluster-to-cluster transmission. As a real-world example we analyse the case of avian influenza transmission between poultry farms in the Netherlands.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Infectologia/tendências , Algoritmos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Fazendas , Infectologia/métodos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Países Baixos , Distribuição Normal , Dinâmica Populacional , Aves Domésticas , Probabilidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco
7.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111052, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669254

RESUMO

Intensive farming is widespread throughout the UK and yet the health effects of bioaerosols which may be generated by these sites are currently not well researched. A scoping study was established to measure bioaerosols emitted from intensive pig (n = 3) and poultry farms (n = 3) during the period 2014-2015. The concentration of culturable mesophilic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., and fungi selecting for presumptive Aspergillus fumigatus were measured using single-stage impaction Andersen samplers, whilst endotoxin and (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan was undertaken using inhalable personal samplers. Particulate matter concentration was determined using an optical particulate monitor. Results showed that culturable bacteria, fungi, presumptive Staphylococcus aureus (confirmed only as Staphylococcus spp.) and endotoxin concentrations were elevated above background concentrations for distances of up to 250 m downwind of the source. Of all the culturable bioaerosols measured, bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. were identified as the most significant, exceeding published or proposed bioaerosol guidelines in the UK. In particular, culturable Staphylococcus spp. downwind was at least 61 times higher than background at the boundary and at least 8 times higher 70m downwind on the four farms tested. This research represents a novel dataset of intensive farm emissions within the UK. Future research should exploit the use of innovative culture-independent methods such as next generation sequencing to develop deeper insights into the make-up of microbial communities emitted from intensive farming facilities and which would better inform species of interest from a public health perspective.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Gado , Aerossóis/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Fungos , Aves Domésticas , Suínos
8.
Waste Manag ; 115: 65-73, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731135

RESUMO

Technology for the transformation of waste feathers to quality regenerated filaments has been developed. Regardless of superior properties of natural keratin materials, previously developed regenerated materials from keratin had tensile properties much lower than their natural counterparts due to backbone hydrolysis and inefficient reconstruction of disulfide crosslinkages. In this work, tough keratin filaments have been regenerated from white duck feathers via efficient restoration of disulfide crosslinkages using a dithiol reducing agent. Dithiol substantially reserves free thiol groups in the extraction and formed lengthy intermolecular crosslinkages in regenerated keratin filaments. Due to the high degree of intermolecular reconstruction of disulfide bonds and formation of lengthy crosslinkages via dithiol chain-extension, the keratin filaments exhibited considerable improvements in mechanical properties, especially for ductility and water stability. The tenacity and elongation at break were 160.7 MPa and 14%, respectively. The filaments retained about 80% of the tenacity of natural feathers at either dry or wet conditions and demonstrated stretchability 150% higher than natural feathers. The fiber regeneration technology makes it possible to substitute primary fiber sources by renewable poultry feathers. Successful filament substitution or addition can bring more than 88-billion-dollar revenue. The technology not only contributes to a sustainable fiber and poultry industry but adds substantial values to poultry feathers.


Assuntos
Plumas , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Queratinas , Resistência à Tração
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123812, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682263

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of lactic acid addition during poultry litter and slaughter sludge composting for controlling NH3 emissions. The results indicated that lactic acid addition reduced NH3 emissions and promoted the maturity of the composting product. Compared to the blank, nitrogen loss in the form of NH3 emissions in the 0.4%, 0.7%, and 1.0% lactic acid treatments decreased by 3.36%, 8.29%, and 14.65%, respectively. Moreover, lactic acid addition promoted the relative abundance of Lactobacillales, while the microbial community of the blank was dominated by Bacillales. The mechanism behind the control of NH3 emissions via the addition of lactic acid involved the secretion of large amounts of lactic acid by Lactobacillales, which lowers the pH of the initial compost pile. This study suggests that lactic acid is a suitable additive for composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Amônia/análise , Animais , Ácido Láctico , Esterco , Nitrogênio/análise , Aves Domésticas , Esgotos , Solo
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123841, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688250

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manure are a great threat to human health. This study investigated the effects of lignite addition at three levels (5%, 10%, 15% w/w) on the profiles of ARGs and the bacterial communities during poultry litter composting. Lignite addition effectively promoted the removal of manure-borne ARGs. After 65 days of composting, the relative abundances of ARGs decreased by 8.9% in control (no lignite), and by 15.8%, 27.7% and 41.5% in 5%, 10% and 15% lignite treatments, respectively. Although the total mobile genetic elements were enriched after composting, the enrichment of the intI-1 gene was significantly lower in the 10% and 15% lignite treatments compared with control. Network analysis indicated that Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were potential bacterial hosts for ARGs. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial community succession played a key role in the shifts of ARGs. Taken together, this study provides evidence that lignite as additives promoted the removal efficacy of ARGs during composting of poultry litter.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carvão Mineral , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco , Aves Domésticas
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(27): 887-892, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644986

RESUMO

Meat and poultry processing facilities face distinctive challenges in the control of infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). COVID-19 outbreaks among meat and poultry processing facility workers can rapidly affect large numbers of persons. Assessment of COVID-19 cases among workers in 115 meat and poultry processing facilities through April 27, 2020, documented 4,913 cases and 20 deaths reported by 19 states (1). This report provides updated aggregate data from states regarding the number of meat and poultry processing facilities affected by COVID-19, the number and demographic characteristics of affected workers, and the number of COVID-19-associated deaths among workers, as well as descriptions of interventions and prevention efforts at these facilities. Aggregate data on confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths among workers identified and reported through May 31, 2020, were obtained from 239 affected facilities (those with a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 case in one or more workers) in 23 states.* COVID-19 was confirmed in 16,233 workers, including 86 COVID-19-related deaths. Among 14 states reporting the total number of workers in affected meat and poultry processing facilities (112,616), COVID-19 was diagnosed in 9.1% of workers. Among 9,919 (61%) cases in 21 states with reported race/ethnicity, 87% occurred among racial and ethnic minority workers. Commonly reported interventions and prevention efforts at facilities included implementing worker temperature or symptom screening and COVID-19 education, mandating face coverings, adding hand hygiene stations, and adding physical barriers between workers. Targeted workplace interventions and prevention efforts that are appropriately tailored to the groups most affected by COVID-19 are critical to reducing both COVID-19-associated occupational risk and health disparities among vulnerable populations. Implementation of these interventions and prevention efforts† across meat and poultry processing facilities nationally could help protect workers in this critical infrastructure industry.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Aves Domésticas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110865, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570103

RESUMO

Crop production in acid soils is facing enormous challenges due to low soil quality associated with an increase in the acidification rate and aluminum toxicity. Despite comprehensive prior work with biochar application on nutrient availability and crop productivity in acid soils, little information is available about the recommendation or standardization of biochar application rates that are more suitable for soil fertility improvement under different soil environments (physico-chemical properties) for maximizing the benefits of biochar applications and minimizing the potential environmental risk. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of poultry litter (PL) and poultry litter biochar (PLB) in ameliorating the fertility of acid soils through incubation and pot experiments. The soil was amended with different materials as follows; lime (1 g kg-1), PL (5, 10 and 15 g kg-1) and PLB (5, 10 and 15 g kg-1) along with control (non-amended). A pot experiment was also conducted using similar treatments to observe the responses of maize crop to the different amendments. The results indicated an increase in the pH and a decrease in exchangeable acidity in lime, PL and PLB amended soils. Lower soil pH, base cations and soil available phosphorus (P), and higher exchangeable acidity were found in control than the amended soils. Compared to PL and lime, PLB achieved greater increase rate in soil pH and reduction rate in soil exchangeable acidity with increased soil exchangeable base cations. An increase in soil available calcium (Ca) was observed in the lime treatment, while in PL and PLB treatments, there was an increase in soil available Ca, magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and P. Application of the amendments increased availability of nitrogen (N), P, K, Ca and Mg relative to the control for maize in the pot experiment. When PL and PLB amendments were compared, it was found that the PLB was the best choice for the amelioration of acid soils as well as nutrient uptake by maize plants. It is suggested that application of PLB at the rate of 15 g kg-1 is suitable for maize growth in acid soils.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Zea mays/fisiologia , Ácidos , Animais , Cálcio , Compostos de Cálcio , Magnésio , Nitrogênio , Óxidos , Fósforo , Potássio , Aves Domésticas , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233756, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497098

RESUMO

Habitat selection links individual behavior to population abundance and dynamics, so evaluation of habitat selection is necessary for conservation and management. Land management can potentially alter both the structure and composition of habitats, thus influencing habitat selection and population size. Livestock grazing is the dominant land use worldwide and, while overstocking has been linked to the decline of many wildlife species, properly managed grazing could improve habitat quality and maintain native rangeland habitats. We evaluated breeding season habitat selection of female sharp-tailed grouse, an indicator species for grassland ecosystems, in relation to grazing management and landscape features in eastern Montana and western North Dakota. At broad spatial scales, females selected for multiple landscape features, including grassland, but exhibited no selection for either landscape or management variables when selecting habitat at smaller spatial scales. Females selected for pastures managed with rest-rotation grazing when choosing a home range, but selection did not equate to improved fitness. Moreover, we observed strong individual variation in both home range size and third-order habitat selection. While the high variability among individuals makes specific management recommendations difficult, selection for grassland habitats at broad scales suggests that strategies that maintain intact native rangelands are important for the conservation of sharp-tailed grouse.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Galliformes/fisiologia , Pradaria , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Modelos Lineares , Montana , North Dakota , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234781, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559209

RESUMO

In meat processing, antimicrobial treatment applied during slaughter and deboning may not control pathogens and spoilage organisms during subsequent transportation and storage. "Functional Ice" (FICE), an innovation over traditional ice, was investigated for its effects on food safety, shelf life, and quality of raw poultry thigh meat during refrigerated storage. FICE was prepared by freezing aqueous solutions of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) (2.5% and 5% w/v) and sodium lactate-sodium diacetate (SL-SD) (1% and 2.5% v/v). Potable water was used to prepare ice for the control treatment. Thigh meat inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (108 CFU/sample) was placed in FICE treatments, stored at 4 °C and sampled at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h (n = 375). Weight pick-up was recorded for the uninoculated thighs. Additionally, shelf life and quality were evaluated for 8 days on tray-packed thighs that were stored in FICE treatments for 48 h (STPP 5%, and SL-SD 2.5%). Differences among treatments were determined using ANOVA with LSMeans (p ≤ 0.05). Results indicated that inoculated thighs stored in individual STPP 5%, and SL-SD 2.5% treatments lead to a significant reduction in Salmonella Typhimurium compared to the control (p ≤ 0.05) after 48 h of storage. FICE treated thighs showed higher yields, lower cook loss, and an extended shelf life of 1-2 days, without any color changes. FICE has the potential to improve food safety and shelf life while improving the yields and quality during storage and transportation of raw poultry meat.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/microbiologia , Acetatos/química , Acetatos/farmacologia , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Polifosfatos/química , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , Aves Domésticas , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactato de Sódio/química , Lactato de Sódio/farmacologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235061, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569334

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase (AFAR) enzyme activity has been associated to a higher resistance to the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) toxicity in ethoxyquin-fed rats. However, no studies about AFAR activity and its relationship with tolerance to AFB1 have been conducted in poultry. To determine the role of AFAR in poultry tolerance, the hepatic in vitro enzymatic activity of AFAR was investigated in liver cytosol from four commercial poultry species (chicken, quail, turkey and duck). Specifically, the kinetic parameters Vmax, Km and intrinsic clearance (CLint) were determined for AFB1 dialdehyde reductase (AFB1-monoalcohol production) and AFB1 monoalcohol reductase (AFB1-dialcohol production). In all cases, AFB1 monoalcohol reductase activity saturated at the highest aflatoxin B1 dialdehyde concentration tested (66.4 µM), whereas AFB1 dialdehyde reductase did not. Both activities were highly and significantly correlated and therefore are most likely catalyzed by the same AFAR enzyme. However, it appears that production of the AFB1 monoalcohol is favored over the AFB1 dialcohol. The production of alcohols from aflatoxin dialdehyde showed the highest enzymatic efficiency (highest CLint value) in chickens, a species resistant to AFB1; however, it was also high in the turkey, a species with intermediate sensitivity; further, CLint values were lowest in another tolerant species (quail) and in the most sensitive poultry species (the duck). These results suggest that AFAR activity is related to resistance to the acute toxic effects of AFB1 only in chickens and ducks. Genetic selection of ducks for high AFAR activity could be a means to control aflatoxin sensitivity in this poultry species.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/análogos & derivados , Aldeído Redutase/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Aflatoxina B1/química , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Cinética , Masculino
16.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 110959, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579520

RESUMO

The conversion of poultry litter to hydrochar has been proposed for stabilization of the soils and to eliminate pathogens. Still, research on the hydrochar's effect on soil properties as a function of production temperature, and its direct use with plants is limited in general and even less so on poultry litter. We characterized poultry litter hydrochar as an amendment for sandy soils in terms of changes to the soil's bulk density, porosity, water-retention capacity, and fertility. Soil bulk density, porosity and water-retention capacity were determined in a pneumatic tension plate system for sand with hydrochar-amendment rates of 0.5, 1 and 2%, and hydrochar-production temperature of 180, 220, and 250 °C. Soil fertility was assessed by growing lettuce seedlings in a randomized block design planter experiment, consisting of 16 blocks that were sampled every 10 days. The addition of poultry litter hydrochar resulted in decreased soil bulk density. Soil porosity increased with hydrochar generated at a temperature of up to 220 °C, and decreased with hydrochar generated at 250 °C. Soil water content increased as compared to unamended sand, but decreased with increasing hydrochar-production temperature, probably due to increasing hydrophobicity of the poultry litter hydrochar. The addition of hydrochar at concentrations of 0.5 and 1% resulted in improved plant growth despite an initial delay. While increased soil moisture due to increased soil water-retention capacity was confirmed, it did not seem to be responsible for the improved plant growth. It was also demonstrated for the first time that hydrochar decreases nitrate leaching from soils. Therefore, poultry litter-derived hydrochar seems to be an adequate amendment for sandy soils.


Assuntos
Aves Domésticas , Solo , Animais , Esterco , Areia , Temperatura
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 735: 139494, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480151

RESUMO

Concentrated land spreading of poultry litter has the potential to cause nutrient build-up in soils, eutrophication of water bodies, air pollution and the spread of pathogens. As a result, alternative routes for the disposal of poultry litter are being sought. A consequential life cycle assessment was conducted to examine several scenarios where biogas produced from poultry litter is used to generate heat and electricity or is upgraded to biomethane which can substitute natural gas. For all of the scenarios considered in this study, diverting poultry litter to anaerobic digestion leads to reduced environmental impacts for global warming, fine particulate matter formation and terrestrial acidification. However, the extent to which environmental impacts are reduced varies significantly across the scenarios. Displaced processes including electricity or natural gas, peat moss production and avoided land spreading of litter contribute the most to reducing environmental impacts. Consequential life cycle assessment is a suitable tool to inform decision-makers about the impact of introducing a new multifunctional technology like anaerobic digestion when considering the systems which are displaced. The results show the range of potential environmental outcomes, rather than predicting a single most-likely outcome. The results of this study indicate that anaerobic digestion is a suitable disposal route for poultry litter which may lead to reduced environmental impacts. This type of analysis is recommended when considering alternative feedstocks and valorisation pathways in the circular economy.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Aves Domésticas , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Meio Ambiente
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 735: 139459, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485450

RESUMO

Manure from livestock production has been associated with the contamination of water resources. To date, research has primarily focused on runoff of these contaminants from animal operations into surface water, and the introduction of poultry-derived pathogenic zoonoses and other contaminants into groundwater is under-investigated. We characterized pathogens and other microbial and chemical contaminants in poultry litter, groundwater, and surface water near confined poultry feeding operations (chicken layer, turkey) at 9 locations in Iowa and one in Wisconsin from May and June 2016. Results indicate that poultry litter from large-scale poultry confined feeding operations is a likely source of environmental contamination and that groundwater is also susceptible to such poultry-derived contamination. Poultry litter, groundwater, and surface water samples had detections of viable bacteria growth (Salmonella spp., enterococci, staphylococci, lactobacilli), multi-drug resistant Salmonella DT104 flost and int genes, F+ RNA coliphage (group I and IV), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs; blaDHA, blaOXA-48, blaTEM, blaCMY-2, tetM), phytoestrogens (biochanin A, daidzein, formononetin), and a progestin (progesterone). In addition, mcr-1 (a colistin ARG), was detected in a groundwater sample and in another groundwater sample, antibiotic resistant isolates were positive for Brevibacterium spp., a potential signature of poultry in the environment. Detectable estrogenicity was not measured in poultry litter, but was observed in 67% of the surface water samples and 22% were above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency trigger level of 1 ng/L. The transport of microbial pathogens to groundwater was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than the transport of trace organic contaminants to groundwater in this study. In addition to viable pathogens, several clinically important ARGs were detected in litter, groundwater, and surface water, highlighting the need for additional research on sources of these contaminants in livestock dominated areas.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Iowa , Esterco , Água , Wisconsin
19.
Vaccine ; 38(33): 5123-5130, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563608

RESUMO

The current pandemic of COVID-19 has set off an urgent search for an effective vaccine. This search may well benefit from the experiences of the animal health profession in the development and use of coronavirus vaccines in domestic animal species. These animal vaccines will in no way protect humans against COVID-19 but knowledge of the difficulties encountered in vaccinating animals may help avoid or minimize similar problems arising in humans. Diverse coronaviruses can infect the domestic species from dogs and cats, to cattle and pigs to poultry. Many of these infections are controlled by routine vaccination. Thus, canine coronavirus vaccines are protective in puppies but the disease itself is mild and self-limiting. Feline coronavirus infections may be mild or may result in a lethal immune-mediated disease - feline infectious peritonitis. As a result, vaccination of domestic cats must seek to generate- protective immunity without causing immune-mediated disease. Vaccines against bovine coronavirus are widely employed in cattle where they protect against enteric and respiratory disease in young calves. Two major livestock species suffer from economically significant and severe coronavirus diseases. Thus, pigs may be infected with six different coronaviruses, one of which, porcine epidemic diarrhea, has proven difficult to control despite the development of several innovative vaccines. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus undergoes frequent genetic changes. Likewise, infectious bronchitis coronavirus causes an economically devastating disease of chickens. It too undergoes frequent genetic shifts and as a result, can only be controlled by extensive and repeated vaccination. Other issues that have been encountered in developing these animal vaccines include a relatively short duration of protective immunity, and a lack of effectiveness of inactivated vaccines. On the other hand, they have been relatively cheap to make and lend themselves to mass vaccination procedures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Gado , Animais de Estimação , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Gatos , Bovinos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cães , Aves Domésticas , Suínos
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 328: 108668, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474228

RESUMO

Biofilms are comprised of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced matrix that normally adhere to a surface. In the food processing environment they are suggested to be a source of contamination leading to food spoilage or the transmission of food-borne pathogens. To date, research has mainly focused on the presence of (biofilm-forming) bacteria within food processing environments, without measuring the associated biofilm matrix components. Here, we assessed the presence of biofilms within a meat processing environment, processing pork, poultry and beef, by the detection of microorganisms and at least two biofilm matrix components. Sampling included 47 food contact surfaces and 61 non-food contact surfaces from eleven rooms within an Austrian meat processing plant, either during operation or after cleaning and disinfection. The 108 samples were analysed for the presence of microorganisms by cultivation and targeted quantitative real-time PCR based on 16S rRNA. Furthermore, the presence of the major matrix components carbohydrates, extracellular DNA and proteins was evaluated. Overall, we identified ten biofilm hotspots, among them seven of which were sampled during operation and three after cleaning and disinfection. Five biofilms were detected on food contact surfaces (cutters and associated equipment and a screw conveyor) and five on non-food contact surfaces (drains and water hoses) resulting in 9.3 % of the sites being classified as biofilm positive. From these biofilm positive samples, we cultivated bacteria of 29 different genera. The most prevalent bacteria belonged to the genera Brochothrix (present in 80 % of biofilms), Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter (isolated from 70 % biofilms). From each biofilm we isolated bacteria from four to twelve different genera, indicating the presence of multi-species biofilms. This work ultimately determined the presence of multi-species biofilms within the meat processing environment, thereby identifying various sources of potential contamination. Especially the identification of biofilms in water hoses and associated parts highlights the need of a frequent monitoring at these sites. The knowledge gained about the presence and composition of biofilms (i.e. chemical and microbiological) will help to prevent and reduce biofilm formation within food processing environments.


Assuntos
Brochothrix/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Psychrobacter/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Áustria , Biofilmes/classificação , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos , Desinfecção/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
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