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1.
Gene ; 756: 144898, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569721

RESUMO

Goose astrovirus (GAstV) causes a novel disease characterized by urate deposition in the viscera and joints in goslings in many provinces of China, leading to huge economic losses in the goose industry. To better understand the genetic diversity of GAstV in the Anhui Province, Central-Eastern China, 48 kidney samples from goslings with gout were subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis for detecting GAstV, and phylogenetic analysis of whole genomes and ORFs was performed. Thirty-five samples were GAstV-positive, indicating that the virus is a frequent cause of gout. The whole genomes of 5 GAstV strains were successfully sequenced and named AHAU1-5. The sequenced genomes and those of reference GAstV strains in GenBank displayed 97.4-99.8% similarity. The isolates had high nucleotide sequence similarity with the GAstV reference strain SDPY. A phylogenetic analysis showed that AHAU1 and AHAU4 were closely related to the reference strain SDPY; AHAU2, AHAU3, and AHAU5 formed separate branches. Furthermore, recombination analysis revealed putative recombination sites in the Jiangsu strains that originated from strains in the Anhui and Shandong Provinces, accompanied by the recombination of different strains in the Anhui Province. This study is the first to carry out systematic phylogenetic analysis of GAstV isolated in the Anhui Province, Central-Eastern China. By improving our understanding of the diversity of GAstV in the Anhui Province, these results provide a basis for the prevention and control of its spread.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Astroviridae/genética , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Gansos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Animais , Astroviridae/classificação , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , China , Genoma Viral , Gota/veterinária , Gota/virologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
2.
Br Poult Sci ; 61(4): 375-381, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264694

RESUMO

1. The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a glycoprotein hormone receptor which has a pivotal role in metabolic regulation and photoperiod control during reproduction in birds and mammals. However, the molecular characterisation of TSHR in goose is unknown. 2. The goose TSHR cDNA (TSHR-1) is 2334 bp in length and encodes a protein of 763 amino acids. This trial identified another three novel splice variants of goose TSHR, TSHR-2 (lacking the exon 3 in TSHR-1 transcript), TSHR-3 (lacking the exon 6 in the TSHR-1 transcript) and TSHR-4 (lacking 12 bp of exon 8 and the entire exon 9 in the TSHR-1 transcript). 3. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that all the deduced TSHR amino acid sequences contained seven putative transmembrane domains, and the TSHR-3 protein lacked one potential N-linked glycosylation site (N-E-S) compared to the other three deduced proteins. 4. A phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences showed that the goose TSHR protein was closely related to those of other avian species, especially duck and chickens. 5. One microsatellite and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. For the c1109A/G locus, AA and GA genotypes were found in the Zhedong-White goose population, GG and GA genotypes were detected in the Landes goose population, but the AA genotype was only detected in the other four goose populations. 6. All the information derived from this study can facilitate further studies on the functions of the goose TSHR gene.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Gansos/genética , Receptores da Tireotropina , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Filogenia , Receptores da Tireotropina/genética
3.
Br Poult Sci ; 61(4): 408-413, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122164

RESUMO

1. This study aimed to investigate effects of dietary fibre and grit on growth performance, gastrointestinal tract development, and gizzard grit retention of geese. 2. The trial had a 3 × 2 factorial design consisting of three levels of dietary crude fibre (CF, 4%, 7% and 10%, adjusted by grass powder), with or without grit addition (1-4 mm river sand). 3. In total, 648, 22-d-old male goslings were randomly allotted to six treatments (six pens/treatment). At 49 d and 70 d of age, one goose per pen was euthanised to collect samples. 4. The birds fed 10% CF had decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) during 22-49 d, but this effect was less in older geese. Increasing dietary CF levels increased relative weights of gizzards for geese aged 49 d and 70 d. Grit addition decreased the relative weights of gizzard and duodenum of geese aged 49 d. The gizzard of geese could selectively retain grit from feed even with no grit added. With adequate supply, most grit in gizzard was 0.45-3 mm in size. 5. In conclusion, supplement of CF and grit mainly affected gastrointestinal tract, and the amount of CF affected FCR. Geese aged 22-49 d could utilise dietary CF levels of 4%-7% and older birds could feed on diets with up to 10% CF. The gizzard of goose selectively retained grit of a particle size of 0.45-3 mm.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Trato Gastrointestinal , Gansos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Masculino
4.
Br Poult Sci ; 61(3): 242-250, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019334

RESUMO

1. The study objectives were to determine the direct effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) and the development of follicles in geese (Anser cygnoides) by colorimetry and ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) cell proliferation assays, in which primary GCs were treated with different concentrations of GnRH agonist (alarelin acetate) and an antagonist (cetrorelix acetate). Differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by RNA-sequencing and validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting. 2. The EdU assays showed that the proliferation of GCs was affected by the GnRH agonist and antagonist in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of treatment on cell proliferation was statistically significant at the concentrations of 10-5 mol/l alarelin and 1 mg/l cetrorelix acetate. A total of 134 DEGs (76 downregulated and 58 upregulated for alarelin treatment) and 226 DEGs (90 downregulated and 136 upregulated for cetrorelix) were identified by RNA-sequencing analysis, respectively. Enrichment analysis indicated that DEGs were enriched in the GO terms of cell-cell signalling and cell junctions. The pathways that regulate the development of follicles were identified, including the biological progress of cAMP accumulation, ovulation cycle and vasculature that are essential to follicular selection. 3. The results suggested that GnRH might directly regulate GC proliferation via autocrine or paracrine pathways related to cell junctions. In particular, it was confirmed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of the oestrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) gene, a negative transcription factor involved in follicular maturation and ovulation, were affected by GnRH agonist or antagonist in GCs. 4. In conclusion, GnRH might play an important role in follicular development by changing the expression of genes that participate in cAMP accumulation, ovulation cycle and cell junctions in ovarian GCs.


Assuntos
Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Gansos , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Galinhas , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Células da Granulosa
5.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 1216-1224, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036970

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile and health lipid indices of meat from 3 Polish local goose varieties (Romanian-RO, Pomeranian-PO, and Subcarpathian-SB) and the commercial cross White Koluda goose (W31). Birds were fed ad libitum with the same complete feeds until 17 wk of age. The geese (n = 72) with body weight close to the arithmetic mean in particular flock were fasted for 12 h and slaughtered in an experimental slaughterhouse (18 females in each flock). Carcasses were stored at 2 to 4°C for 24 h. The breast muscles (m. pectoralis major) were cut out from the left side of carcass, separately vacuum-packed, and stored at -80°C until analysis. Fatty acid profile of meat was determined by gas chromatography and health lipid indices were calculated. The W31 muscles had a higher percentage of C 18:0 and a lower of C 16:0 than those of RO, PO, and SB geese. The W31 muscles were characterized by a significantly higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (46.5%) than remaining ones (43.28%-PO, 43.38%-SB, and 44.24%-RO). The lowest proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids was established for W31 muscles (22.05%). The breast muscles of RO, SB, and PO had more favorable polyunsaturated n-6 and n-3 fatty acid (PUFA)/ saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio (0.85, 0.82, 0.83, respectively) than W31 geese (0.72). The current findings showed that UFA/SFA, PUFA/SFA, and PUFA n-6/n-3 ratios in RO and SB muscles were within the optimum values for human diets. No significant differences were observed in the atherogenic, thrombogenic, and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic indices between the analyzed muscles. Commercial W31 geese breast muscles showed a lower value (43.90%) of peroxidizability index (PI) compared to SB (52.88%), PO (53.93%), and RO (53.47%). However, the higher values of the PUFA/SFA and PI in the meat of SB, PO, and RO birds may indicate a higher prohealth value of their meat.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Gansos/fisiologia , Lipídeos/análise , Carne/análise , Animais , Feminino , Músculos Peitorais/química , Polônia
6.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 839-847, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036980

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine slaughter yield and meat quality of native Zatorska (ZG) goose and compare them to those of commercial hybrid White Koluda® goose (WKG) after fattening in an intensive production system. The experiment was carried out on 500 birds of each group and lasted up to 10 wk of age. The birds were kept on deep litter with access to free range and were fed with the same complete feed mixtures, according to dietary requirements for broiler geese. Body weight, carcass composition, and technological properties of breast and thigh muscles were evaluated (pH24, L*a*b* color, water holding capacity, thermal loss, drip loss, and shear force). In addition, chemical composition of breast and thigh muscles, fatty acid profile of muscle lipids, and amino acids of proteins were determined. The body weight, weight of eviscerated carcass, and dressing percentage of ZG were lower (P < 0.05) than those in WKG. However, breast and thigh muscles of both groups of geese were characterized by similar technological and nutritive values. The differences in meat quality traits concerned only the shear force of breast muscles, with higher values (P < 0.05) for WKG. Moreover, dry matter content in breast muscles of ZG was higher than that in WKG. The effect of goose genotype on the level of oleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids in breast muscles was shown. Also, the amino acid proportion of meat protein depended on goose breed. Breast muscles of ZG were characterized by higher (P < 0.05) content of some nonessential (Glu, Asp, Ala) and essential amino acids (Val, Thr), and thigh muscles contained less (P < 0.05) Gly, Lys, and Leu and more Pro and Ile than WKG. The present results indicate that the meat of both ZG and WKG broilers showed good technological properties and basic chemical composition and fatty acid profile, and the protein was characterized by high nutritional value. Moreover, the smaller carcasses produced from ZG can better meet the needs of the current market.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Gansos/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Músculos Peitorais/fisiologia , Polônia
7.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(2): 336-338, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100641

RESUMO

A captive, adult female Brent goose (Branta bernicla) with a history of severe feather picking by its mate, was presented with 0.5-2.5 cm skin nodules on the head and neck. Histologic examination revealed a well-delineated dermal mass that surrounded an intact feather follicle and was composed of lakes of proteinaceous fluid and fibrin with scattered foamy macrophages and multinucleate giant cells. No bacteria or fungi were identified with histology, microbial culture, or PCR. Sterile panniculitis is an infrequent finding in animals and traumatic panniculitis is rarely sterile.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Gansos , Paniculite/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Doenças das Aves/etiologia , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Paniculite/diagnóstico , Paniculite/etiologia , Paniculite/patologia , Quebeque
8.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2369-2381, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068526

RESUMO

In 1983, Mycoplasma sp. strain 1220 was isolated in Hungary from the phallus lymph of a gander with phallus inflammation. Between 1983 and 2017, Mycoplasma sp. 1220 was also identified and isolated from the respiratory tract, liver, ovary, testis, peritoneum and cloaca of diseased geese in several countries. Seventeen studied strains produced acid from glucose and fructose but did not hydrolyse arginine or urea, and all grew under aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions at 35 to 37 ˚C in either SP4 or pleuropneumonia-like organism medium supplemented with glucose and serum. Colonies on agar showed a typical fried-egg appearance and transmission electron microscopy revealed a typical mycoplasma cellular morphology. Molecular characterization included analysis of the following genetic loci: 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, 16S-23S rRNA ITS, rpoB, rpoC, rpoD, uvrA, parC, topA, dnaE, fusA and pyk. The genome was sequenced for type strain 1220T. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of studied strains of Mycoplasma sp. 1220 shared 99.02-99.19 % nucleotide similarity with M. anatis strains but demonstrated ≤95.00-96.70 % nucleotide similarity to the 16S rRNA genes of other species of the genus Mycoplasma. Phylogenetic, average nucleotide and amino acid identity analyses revealed that the novel species was most closely related to Mycoplasma anatis. Based on the genetic data, we propose a novel species of the genus Mycoplasma, for which the name Mycoplasma anserisalpingitidis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain 1220T (=ATCC BAA-2147T=NCTC 13513T=DSM 23982T). The G+C content is 26.70 mol%, genome size is 959110 bp.


Assuntos
Gansos/microbiologia , Mycoplasma/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Hungria , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 1062-1068, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029142

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of dietary Enteromorpha powder supplementation on the productive performance, egg quality, and antioxidant performance of Zi geese during the late laying period. Three hundred twelve Zi geese (1 yr old) were randomly allocated into 2 cohorts to form a control group and an experimental group (with each cohort including 6 replicates and 21 female geese and 5 male geese in each replicate). The control group was fed a basal diet, and the experimental group was fed a diet containing 3% Enteromorpha powder. The data showed that Enteromorpha powder supplementation significantly improved egg production, laying rate, average daily egg weight (P < 0.01), and egg yolk color (P < 0.05). Supplementation decreased the ADFI and feed conversion rate (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was significantly higher in serum and ovary tissue (P < 0.05), but GSH-Px activity was lower in liver tissue (P < 0.01). Malondialdehyde was reduced in liver and ovary tissue (P < 0.05) in the Enteromorpha powder supplementation group. Meanwhile, the expression of the CAT gene was significantly upregulated in the liver (P < 0.01) in the Enteromorpha group. These results indicate that dietary Enteromorpha powder supplementation improved productive performance and reduced the level of lipid peroxidation in Zi geese during the late laying period.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Gansos/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Reprodução , Ulva/química , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós/administração & dosagem , Pós/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 791-796, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029161

RESUMO

In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was used to establish a rapid, specific, and visual detection method for duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). The design and synthesis of 4 specific LAMP primers were based on the conserved gene region of the DHBV genome, and the optimum temperature and time of the LAMP reaction were 63°C and 50 min, respectively. The LAMP assay was confirmed to be specific for DHBV detection and had the same sensitivity as the quantitative PCR assay. A visual detection method for rapid determination of results was developed using a color indicator containing phenol red and cresol red. A color change was produced based on a pH change in the reaction system, indicating a positive reaction. For the detection of samples from ducks and geese, the LAMP method has the advantages of simplicity, high sensitivity and specificity, good visibility, and low cost. Moreover, it is more practical and convenient than PCR-related assays for the clinical detection of DHBV.


Assuntos
Patos , Gansos , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite Viral Animal/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Animais , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Hepadnaviridae/virologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Gene ; 731: 144338, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923576

RESUMO

The primary feather follicles are universal skin appendages widely distributed in the skin of feathered birds. The morphogenesis and development of the primary feather follicles in goose skin remain largely unknown. Here, the induction of primary feather follicles in goose embryonic skin (pre-induction vs induction) was investigated by de novo transcriptome analyses to reveal 409 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The DEGs were characterized to potentially regulate the de novo formation of feather follicle primordia consisting of placode (4 genes) and dermal condensate (12 genes), and the thickening of epidermis (5 genes) and dermal fibroblasts (17 genes), respectively. Further analyses enriched DEGs into GO terms represented as cell adhesion and KEGG pathways including Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways that are highly correlated with cell communication and molecular regulation. Six selected Wnt pathway genes were detected by qPCR with up-regulation in goose skin during the induction of primary feather follicles. The localization of WNT16, SFRP1 and FRZB by in situ hybridization showed weak expression in the primary feather primordia, whereas FZD1, LEF1 and DKK1 were expressed initially in the inter-follicular skin and feather follicle primordia, then mainly restricted in the feather primordia. The spatial-temporal expression patterns indicate that Wnt pathway genes DKK1, FZD1 and LEF1 are the important regulators functioned in the induction of primary feather follicle in goose skin. The dynamic molecular changes and specific gene expression patterns revealed in this report provide the general knowledge of primary feather follicle and skin development in waterfowl, and contribute to further understand the diversity of hair and feather development beyond the mouse and chicken models.


Assuntos
Plumas/embriologia , Gansos , Genes Controladores do Desenvolvimento , Folículo Piloso/embriologia , Morfogênese/genética , Pele/embriologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Embrião não Mamífero , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Plumas/metabolismo , Gansos/embriologia , Gansos/genética , Gansos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes Controladores do Desenvolvimento/genética , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo
12.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(2): 642-657, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436007

RESUMO

Climate change is most rapid in the Arctic, posing both benefits and challenges for migratory herbivores. However, population-dynamic responses to climate change are generally difficult to predict, due to concurrent changes in other trophic levels. Migratory species are also exposed to contrasting climate trends and density regimes over the annual cycle. Thus, determining how climate change impacts their population dynamics requires an understanding of how weather directly or indirectly (through trophic interactions and carryover effects) affects reproduction and survival across migratory stages, while accounting for density dependence. Here, we analyse the overall implications of climate change for a local non-hunted population of high-arctic Svalbard barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, using 28 years of individual-based data. By identifying the main drivers of reproductive stages (egg production, hatching and fledging) and age-specific survival rates, we quantify their impact on population growth. Recent climate change in Svalbard enhanced egg production and hatching success through positive effects of advanced spring onset (snow melt) and warmer summers (i.e. earlier vegetation green-up) respectively. Contrastingly, there was a strong temporal decline in fledging probability due to increased local abundance of the Arctic fox, the main predator. While weather during the non-breeding season influenced geese through a positive effect of temperature (UK wintering grounds) on adult survival and a positive carryover effect of rainfall (spring stopover site in Norway) on egg production, these covariates showed no temporal trends. However, density-dependent effects occurred throughout the annual cycle, and the steadily increasing total flyway population size caused negative trends in overwinter survival and carryover effects on egg production. The combination of density-dependent processes and direct and indirect climate change effects across life history stages appeared to stabilize local population size. Our study emphasizes the need for holistic approaches when studying population-dynamic responses to global change in migratory species.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Gansos , Migração Animal , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Noruega , Estações do Ano , Svalbard
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 159-170, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432620

RESUMO

Although Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has a worldwide distribution, some NDV genotypes have more regional geographical ranges within continents. In this study, we isolated a subgenotype XIIb NDV strain, Goose/CH/GD/E115/2017 (E115), from geese in Guangdong province, Southern China, in 2017. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E115 and six other NDVs from geese in China were grouped under subgenotype XIIb and were distinct from subgenotype XIIa, isolated from chickens in South Africa, and subgenotype XIId, isolated from chickens in Vietnam. To better understand the pathogenicity and transmission of the subgenotype XIIb NDVs from geese in Guangdong province, we inoculated chickens and geese with 106 EID50 of the E115 virus. Eight hours after inoculation, three naïve chickens and three naïve geese were co-housed with the infected chickens or geese to assess intraspecific and interspecific horizontal transmission of the E115 virus. The E115 virus induced significant clinical signs without mortality in chickens, while it was not pathogenic to geese. Intraspecific and interspecific horizontal transmission of the E115 virus was observed among chickens and geese via direct contact. Furthermore, although the current vaccines provided complete protection against disease in chickens after challenging them with the E115 virus, the virus could also be transmitted from vaccinated chickens to naïve contact chickens. Collectively, our findings highlight the need for avoiding the mixing of different bird species to reduce cross-species transmission and for surveillance of NDV in waterfowl.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Gansos/virologia , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle , Doença de Newcastle/transmissão , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/patogenicidade , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/fisiologia , Filogenia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Virulência , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110931, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678486

RESUMO

This study evaluated the heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) contents and quality characteristics of seven kinds of traditional smoked and roasted poultry products on the northern Chinese market. Harbin smoked chicken had the most abundant total HAAs, followed by Haroulian roasted chicken and Yishou smoked chicken. The contents of Norharman and Harman were much higher than those of other kinds of HAAs (P < 0.05). The water content of samples varied from 59.01% to 69.98% and the water activity varied from 0.953 to 0.976. The carbonyl content and TBARS values of the Beijing roasted duck and the Duiqing roasted goose were much higher than those of the other samples (P < 0.05). The sensory evaluation result of the Beijing roasted chicken was higher than that of the other samples (P < 0.05). Overall, the levels of HAAs in the industrial smoked and roasted products were lower than those in non-industrial products, which may provide a theoretical basis for the industrial production of smoked and roasted poultry products.


Assuntos
Aminas/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/análise , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/análise , Produtos Avícolas/análise , Animais , Galinhas , China , Culinária , Patos , Gansos , Análise de Componente Principal , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 421-430, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of the 18 043 bird species, the eggs of only hen and quail are generally available to consumers. Thus people are deprived of the opportunity to benefit from the huge diversity of eggs offered by nature. Poultry eggs can vary in their color of albumen and yolk, smell, taste and texture. In this study, sighted and blind people were employed for sensory evaluation with the aim of determining the preferences of consumers toward hard-boiled and scrambled eggs of different species of birds, and whether the appearance of these eggs has an effect on the perception of other sensory impressions. RESULTS: Sighted people differently evaluated the texture of both boiled and scrambled eggs as compared with blind people. This was mainly because blind people largely used their sense of touch for evaluation. All other attributes of boiled eggs were evaluated similarly by both groups of panelists, whereas those of scrambled eggs were evaluated differently. CONCLUSION: The obtained results unequivocally demonstrated that differences in taste of scrambled eggs when served hot are easier to evaluate than those of boiled eggs. On the basis of ranking by the sensory panel, it was established that eggs of birds belonging to the order Galliformes are more preferred by consumers than those of duck and goose. By contrast, eggs of ostrich and emu are characterized by unfavorable sensory profiles; moreover, the albumen of boiled ostrich eggs has an unsightly appearance. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Preferências Alimentares , Adulto , Animais , Cegueira , Galinhas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Culinária , Patos , Ovos/classificação , Feminino , Gansos , Humanos , Masculino , Olfato , Struthioniformes , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867290

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two important zoonotic pathogens that can infect humans and a broad range of animal hosts. However, few studies have been conducted to study infection of the two pathogens in domestic geese until now. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of natural infection, and the species or genotype distribution of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi in farm-raised and free-ranging geese from Hainan Province of China. In total, 266 fecal samples of geese were collected (142 farm-raised and 124 free-ranging geese). Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi were identified by nested PCR and sequencing analysis of the SSU rRNA and the ITS region of the rRNA genes. A total of 4.1% (12/226) of the geese were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., with 0.7% identified in the farm-raised geese and 7.0% in the free-ranging geese. Two bird-adapted species/genotypes were identified: C. baileyi (n = 1) and Cryptosporidium goose genotype I (n = 11). Meanwhile, E. bieneusi was found in 13.9% (37/266) of geese, with 8.9% identified in the farm-raised and 21.8% in the free-ranging geese. Eleven genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified constituted with six known genotypes: D (n = 13), I (n = 5), CHG2 (n = 1), CHG3 (n = 5), and CHG5 (n = 1), and five novel genotypes named HNE-I to V (one each). All of the genotypes identified in the geese here belonged to zoonotic Groups 1 or 2. This study is the first to demonstrate the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in domestic geese from Hainan, China, and provides baseline data that will be useful for controlling and preventing these pathogens in goose farms. The geese infected with E. bieneusi, but not with Cryptosporidium, should be considered potential public health threats.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/microbiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Gansos/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Genótipo , Geografia , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Zoonoses
17.
Avian Dis ; 63(4): 731-736, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865690

RESUMO

Goose astrovirus is a novel and distinct astrovirus that causes fatal visceral gout in 4- to 21-day-old goslings. Goose parvovirus is the etiologic agent of Derzsy disease, an acute, contagious, and fatal disease that affects mainly young goslings. This paper describes the clinical signs and gross and histopathologic features of co-infection with astrovirus and goose parvovirus. Clinical signs and history included increased mortality, depression, anorexia, enteritis, joint swelling, and paralysis. Postmortem examination showed a considerable amount of urate covering the internal organs, especially the heart, liver, and kidney. Some goslings had swollen duodenum and ileum. Histologic lesions in the kidney, liver, spleen, lung, proventriculus, and brain included hemorrhage, congestion, edema, cell necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and an eosinophilic protein-like substance in renal tubules. The extensive infiltration of heterophil myelocytes into the kidney, spleen, liver, lung, bursa of Fabricius, and pancreas is a new finding.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Gansos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Animais , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Astroviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , China , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 559, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The common tick Ixodes ricinus and the taiga tick I. persulcatus are the main tick vectors of Borrelia spirochaetes, TBE virus (TBEV) and of several other zoonotic pathogens in the western and eastern areas, respectively of the Palaearctic region. Recently, populations of the taiga tick were, for the first time, detected in northern Sweden. This prompted us to investigate if they harbour human pathogens. METHODS: A total of 276 I. persulcatus ticks (136 males, 126 females and 14 nymphs) and one I. ricinus nymph was collected by the cloth-dragging method in northern Sweden in July-August 2015 and May-July 2016. In addition, 8 males and 10 females of I. persulcatus were collected from two dogs (16 and 2 ticks, respectively) in two of the localities. All ticks were microscopically and molecularly identified to developmental stage and species and screened for B. burgdorferi (sensu lato), B. miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Babesia spp. and TBEV using real-time PCR followed by species identification by sequencing the PCR-products of conventional PCR assays. RESULTS: Of the ticks collected by the cloth-dragging method, 55% (152/277) were positive for Borrelia. There was no significant difference between the proportions of Borrelia-infected nymphs (33%, 5/15) and Borrelia-infected adult ticks (56%, 147/262), and no significant difference between the proportions of Borrelia-infected males (54%, 74/136) and Borrelia-infected females (58%, 73/126). Three different Borrelia species were identified. Borrelia afzelii was the predominant species and detected in 46% of all Borrelia-infected ticks followed by B. garinii, 35%, B. valaisiana, 1%, and mixed infections of different Borrelia species, 1%; 17% of all Borrelia-infections were untypeable. One I. persulcatus female contained Rickettsia helvetica, and one nymph contained Rickettsia sp. Of the 277 ticks analysed, all were negative for A. phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., Borrelia miyamotoi, N. mikurensis and TBEV. The ticks collected from the two dogs were negative for all pathogens examined except for Borrelia spp., that was detected in 5 out of 16 ticks removed from one of the dogs. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first time that I. persulcatus from Sweden has been analysed for the presence of tick-borne pathogens. The examined tick populations had a low diversity of tick-borne pathogens but a high prevalence of B. burgdorferi (s.l.).


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Ixodes/microbiologia , Ixodes/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Babesia/genética , Bactérias/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Gansos/microbiologia , Masculino , Suécia/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
19.
Virol J ; 16(1): 136, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Goose parvovirus (GPV) is the etiological agent of Derzsy's disease and is fatal for gosling. Research on the molecular basis of GPV pathogenicity has been hampered by the lack of a reliable reverse genetics system. At present, the GPV infectious clone has been rescued by transfection in the goose embryo, but the growth character of it is unclear in vitro. METHODS: In this study, we identified the full-length genome of GPV RC16 from the clinical sample, which was cloned into the pACYC177, generating the pIRC16. The recombinant virus (rGPV RC16) was rescued by the transfection of pIRC16 into goose embryo fibroblasts (GEFs). The rescued virus was characterized by whole genome sequencing, indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) and western blot (WB) using rabbit anti-GPV Rep polyclonal antibody as the primary antibody. Previously, we found the 164 K, 165 K, and 167 K residues in the 160YPVVKKPKLTEE171 are required for the nuclear import of VP1 (Chen S, Liu P, He Y, et al. Virology 519:17-22). According to that, the GPV infectious clones with mutated K164A, K165A, or K167A in VP1 were constructed, rescued and passaged. RESULTS: The rGPV RC16 has been successfully rescued by transfection of pIRC16 into the GEFs and can proliferate in vitro. Furthermore, the progeny virus produced by pIRC16 transfected cells was infectious in GEFs. Moreover, mutagenesis experiments showed that the rGPV RC16 with mutated 164 K, 165 K and 167 K in VP1 could not proliferate in GEFs based on the data of IFA and WB in parental virus and progeny virus. CONCLUSIONS: The rGPV RC16 containing genetic maker and the progeny virus are infectious in GEFs. The 164 K, 165 K, and 167 K of VP1 are vital for the proliferation of rGPV RC16 in vitro.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Fibroblastos/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirinae/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Núcleo Celular/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Gansos , Genoma Viral/genética , Mutação , Sinais de Localização Nuclear/genética , Parvovirinae/classificação , Parvovirinae/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Coelhos , Genética Reversa , Replicação Viral/genética
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640268

RESUMO

Antibiotic and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been considered as emerging environmental contaminants and possess potential crisis to global public health. However, little is known about the differences between various configurations of two-stage combinations of constructed wetlands (CWs) on antibiotics and ARG removal from wastewater. In the study, three configurations of two-stage hybrid CWs (horizontal subsurface flow-down-flow vertical subsurface flow CWs, HF-DVF; horizontal subsurface flow-up-flow vertical subsurface flow CWs, HF-UVF; down-flow vertical subsurface flow-up-flow vertical subsurface flow CWs, DVF-UVF) were operated to evaluate their ability to remove high-concentration antibiotics (tilmicosin-TMS and doxycycline-DOC), ARGs (seven tet genes and three erm genes), intI1, 16S rRNA, and nutrients from goose wastewater. The results showed that all three hybrid CWs could remove more than 98% of TMS and DOC from wastewater, without significant difference among treatments (p > 0.05). For ARGs, DVF-UVF showed significantly higher removal efficiencies of intI1, ermB, ermC, ermF, tetW, and tetG compared to HF-UVF (p < 0.05), mainly because they might remove and arrest growth of bacteria. The relatively high removal efficiencies of NH4+-N, NO3-N, and NO2--N were also observed from DVF-UVF, ranging from 87% to 95% (p > 0.05), indicating that anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) might be established in the CWs. Our results demonstrate that the removal performances of antibiotics using two-stage hybrid CWs are not affected by the combined configuration, whereas the combination of DVF and UVF CWs perform better on the removal of ARGs and nutrients compared with HF-DVF and HF-UVF CWs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Gansos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Águas Residuárias/análise , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
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