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1.
Arch Virol ; 166(5): 1469-1475, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721100

RESUMO

In 2018, an outbreak resulting in deaths of 28 breeding pigeons was reported north of Brisbane, Australia. The affected birds had runny nasal discharge and poor body condition. Two birds were submitted to Biosecurity Sciences Laboratory, Brisbane, for investigation. A range of diagnostic tests excluded a number of known pathogens, and no virus was isolated in cell culture. Histopathological examination revealed severe acute multifocal necrosis in the liver with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) revealed full-length sequences for pigeon adenovirus 1 (PiAd-A) and pigeon torque teno virus (PTTV). This report indicates concomitant PiAd-1and PTTV infections in Australian pigeons.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Columbidae/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Torque teno virus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/patologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Fígado/virologia , Necrose , Filogenia , Queensland/epidemiologia
2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729384

RESUMO

Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Assuntos
Amprólio , Coccidiose , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae , Paquistão , Sulfametazina
3.
Learn Behav ; 49(1): 76-84, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742425

RESUMO

Same/different abstract-concept learning experiments were conducted with two primate species and three avian species by progressively increasing the size of the training stimulus set of distinctly different pictures from eight to 1,024 pictures. These same/different learning experiments were trained with two pictures presented simultaneously. Transfer tests of same and different learning employed interspersed trials of novel pictures to assess the level of correct performance on the very first time of subjects had seen those pictures. All of the species eventually performed these tests with high accuracy, contradicting the long-accepted notion that nonhuman animals are unable to learn the concept of same/different. Capuchin and rhesus monkeys learned the concept more readily than did pigeons. Clark's nutcrackers and black-billed magpies learned as readily as monkeys, and even showed a slight advantage with the smallest training stimulus sets. Those tests of same/different learning were followed by delay procedures, such that a delay was introduced after the subjects responded to the sample picture and before the test picture. In the sequential same/different task, accuracy was shown to diminish when the stimulus on a previous trial matched the test picture previously shown on a different trial. This effect is known as proactive interference. The pigeons' proactive interference was greater at 10-s delays than 1-s delays, revealing time-based interference. By contrast, time delays had little or no effect on rhesus monkeys' proactive interference, suggesting that rhesus monkeys have better explicit memory of where and when they saw the potential interfering picture, revealing better event-based memory.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Aprendizagem , Animais , Columbidae , Condicionamento Operante , Memória
4.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(3): 601-614, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721064

RESUMO

Pigeons can be successfully used as bioindicators of a contaminated environment. We studied the relationship between the functioning of the pro/antioxidant balance in muscle tissues (skeletal muscle and cardiac tissues) of pigeons (Columba livia f. urbana) living in areas with different levels of pollution (Pomeranian Voivodeship, Northern Poland). The current study demonstrated the impact of the environment with preferential high Pb contamination in soil and feathers of pigeons on the formation of adaptive redox mechanisms in muscle tissues. An increase in the intensity of lipid peroxidation (estimated by the TBARS level) accompanied by enhancement of the oxidative modification of proteins (aldehydic and ketonic derivatives) and an important decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GR) in pigeon muscle tissue was observed. These changes in enzyme activities were dependent on the type of muscle tissue (skeletal muscle and cardiac tissues). Our results confirm the concept of the recalculation of the De Ritis ratio (AsAT/AlAT) in both types of muscles indicating the tendency to cardio- and hepatocellular damage and toxicity caused by heavy metals from the polluted environment.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Metais Pesados , Animais , Antioxidantes , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Músculos/química , Polônia
5.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 603-614, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518113

RESUMO

Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus type-1. The PPMV-1-associated disease poses a great threat to the pigeon industry. The innate immune response is crucial for antiviral infections and revealing the pathogenic mechanisms of PPMV-1. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of a PPMV-1 strain LHLJ/110822 in one-month-old domestic pigeons, as well as the host immune responses in PPMV-1-infected pigeons. We observed typically clinical sign in infected pigeons by 3 dpi. The morbidity rate and the mortality in pigeons inoculated with the PPMV-1 strain were up to 100% and 30%, respectively. The virus could replicate in all of the examined tissues, namely trachea, lung, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius. In addition, the infected pigeons had developed anti-PPMV-1 antibodies as early as 8 dpi; and the antibody level increased over the time in this study. The expression level of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR3 TLR15, IFN-γ, and IL-6 were significantly upregulated by the PPMV-1 infection in some tissues of pigeons. By contrast, PPMV-1 infection results in downregulation of IL-18 expression in most of investigated tissues except for bursa of Fabricius in this study. The current results confirmed that this virus could replicate in pigeons and induce host immune responses, then leading to produce serum antibody titers. Meanwhile, the PPMV-1 infection induces strong innate immune responses and intense inflammatory responses at early stage in pigeon which may associate with the viral pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/fisiologia , Embrião de Galinha , Ovos/virologia , Imunidade Inata , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/patogenicidade , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
6.
Laterality ; 26(1-2): 213-237, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622187

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to understand what is transferred between hemispheres through the commissura anterior during a colour discrimination task in pigeons. We transiently blocked neuronal activity of the arcopallium of one hemisphere to interrupt interhemispheric communication. Before and during this intervention, we recorded from arcopallial neurons of the non-anaesthetized side while the animals discriminated stimuli ipsilateral to the recorded neurons. Due to the complete crossover of optic nerves in birds, we assumed that these neurons were at least in part requiring information from the other hemisphere to properly run the task. While lidocaine injections in both hemispheres caused some performance reductions, deficits of right arcopallial neurons were much larger when blocking interhemispheric transfer. Our results make it likely that visual information is exchanged through the commissura anterior in an asymmetrical manner with the left hemisphere providing the other side more information about the right visual half-field than vice versa.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Vias Visuais , Animais , Lateralidade Funcional
7.
Behav Processes ; 185: 104356, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577832

RESUMO

Researchers have employed a variety of laboratory analogues of cryptic prey detection and applied signal detection to study factors influencing learning and performance in these ethological and applied scenarios. However, these procedural analogues do not appear to map closely onto their "real-world" counterparts, particularly with respect to the role of the "yes" (i.e., "attack") response and the payoff for this response (or its absence) on signal-present and signal-absent trials. Using domestic hens, we developed a procedural analogue in which a "yes" response requires some time to emit; such responses were reinforced only in the presence of a signal. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the influence of the "yes" response requirement by manipulating the number of responses required to qualify as a "yes" response. As the "yes" response requirement was increased, bias toward responding "no" increased, revealing that this is a critical factor controlling accuracy in this procedure. In Experiment 2, we evaluated the influence of signal probability and reinforcement rate on signal detection accuracy and found that neither of these factors significantly influenced accuracy or bias. These findings suggest that this procedural analogue may represent a valuable alternative for studying behaviour in relevant signal detection scenarios.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Columbidae , Animais , Feminino , Aprendizagem , Esquema de Reforço , Reforço Psicológico
8.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 76(1): 37-45, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387172

RESUMO

Pigeon pea protein isolates (PPI) are an option to obtain a high yield of good quality proteins and represent a great potential for the food industry. In this work, physicochemical and structural properties of albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB), and PPI obtained at different pHs (8, 9, 10, and 11) were studied to deepen the knowledge of these proteins for future application. GLB presented protein aggregates and polypeptides characteristics of 7S vicilin subunits while ALB presented polypeptides with low molecular masses. GLB showed a more compact and less flexible structure than ALB fraction due to the distinct conformational characteristics found in DSC, fluorescence spectroscopy, Ho. These structural characteristics conferred GLB greater conformational stability (∆GH2O) than ALB fraction. The latter presented a higher proportion of ß-strand in aggregated structures. PPI11 showed the highest protein recovery, but the least So with more presence of protein aggregates with the least proportion of ß-strands in aggregated structures. A higher percentage of protein unfolding and exposure of hydrophobic residues to solvent was observed as the extraction pH of the isolates increased. Enthalpy change of transition decreased, and the maximum emission wavelength shifted to red in fluorescence spectroscopy. However, PPI11 showed only a slight increase in Ho (10%) with respect to PPI8. The variation in pH for protein extraction constitutes a simple, rapid, and low-cost method to obtain PPI with physicochemical and structural properties that will determine its functional properties and their use as food ingredients.


Assuntos
Cajanus , Globulinas , Animais , Columbidae , Ervilhas , Peptídeos
9.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(3): 536-544, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506325

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to study the effects of co-composted products of municipal solid waste (MSW) and pigeon pea biochar (PPB) on heavy metal mobility in soil and its uptake by spinach. Application of municipal solid waste biochar co-compost (MSWBC) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the heavy metal content in spinach leaves and roots compared to municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) amended soil. The percent decrease in spinach leaf following the application of MSWBC-10% PPB compared to MSWC was 20.62%, 28.95%, 36.02%, 41.88%, 41.50%, and 41.23% for Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn, respectively. The dry matter yield of spinach and soil organic carbon (SOC) content in soil amended with MSWBC-10% PPB was significantly increased by 32.75% and 47.73%; and 17.62% and 27.45% relative to control and MSWC amended soil. The study concludes that co-composted product, MSWBC, stabilized heavy metals in MSW, reduced their uptake by spinach and thus making it a viable option for safe disposal of MSW.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Columbidae , Metais Pesados/análise , Ervilhas , Folhas de Planta/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Spinacia oleracea , Verduras
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 131-137, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicarbazin is an anti-coccidial product sometimes used as a contraceptive to reduce the size of feral pigeon populations. However, its effectiveness in reducing pigeon population size in cities has caused some controversy. Here, we evaluate its effectiveness in the city of Barcelona. RESULTS: In 2017, the Barcelona City Council set 23 feeding stations with nicarbazin and ten with placebo (untreated corn). Censuses were undertaken before and after one year of treatment, within a 200-m radius around each feeder. We also censused 28 circles of 200 m radius distributed randomly 200 m from the feeders and 28 circles > 500 m from the feeders, which acted as controls. Population size across the whole city was also evaluated pre- and post treatment. We found that feral pigeon density did not change after one year of treatment, either in the circles around feeding stations with nicarbazin or in the areas around control stations at 200 and > 500 m from the feeders. Population size in placebo circles rose after a year by 10%. A pigeon census for the whole of Barcelona showed a 10% increase. CONCLUSION: Overall, our results indicate that the nicarbazin treatment had no effect on feral pigeon population size, and we advise against its use as a pigeon control method, at least in large cities.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Nicarbazina , Animais , Cidades , Densidade Demográfica
11.
Zootaxa ; 4878(2): zootaxa.4878.2.8, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311159

RESUMO

The fauna of the quill mite genus Peristerophila Kethley, 1970 (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbiformes) is reviewed. In our study, we examined 109 species of columbiform hosts of which 28 species belonging to nine genera were infested by Peristerophila mites. In the analyzed mite material, six species of this genus were found including two new species described herein: P. geopelis sp. nov. from Geopelia cuneata, G. placida, G. striata, as well as Ocyphaps lophotes and P. leucomela sp. nov. from Columba leucomela. Additionally, eighteen new host species and many new locality records for the previously described taxa are reported.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Infestações por Ácaros , Ácaros , Animais , Columbidae , Columbiformes
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241280, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338040

RESUMO

Homing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) were used to test whether clinical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging disrupts orientation of animals that sense the earth's magnetic field. Thirty young pigeons were randomly separated into three groups (n = 10/group). Two groups were anaesthetized and exposed to either a constant (no sequence) or a varying (gradient echo and echo planar sequences) magnetic field within a 3 Tesla MR unit for 15 minutes. The control group was not exposed to the MR field but shared all other aspects of the procedure. One day later, animals were released from a site they had never visited, 15 km from the home loft. Three weeks after the procedure, animals were released from a different unfamiliar site 30 km from the loft. Measured variables included the time to disappear from sight (seconds), vanishing bearing (angle), and the time interval from release to entering the home loft (hours). On first release, the group exposed to varying field gradients during image acquisition using 2 different standard sequences showed more variability in the vanishing bearing compared to the other groups (p = 0.0003 compared to control group), suggesting interference with orientation. Other measures did not show significant differences between groups. On second release, there were no significant differences between groups. Our results on homing pigeons show that regular clinical MR imaging exposure may temporarily affect the orientation of species that have magnetoreception capabilities. If exposure to MR imaging disrupted processes that are not specific to magnetoreception, then it may affect other species and other capabilities as well.


Assuntos
Columbidae/fisiologia , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital/fisiologia , Campos Magnéticos/efeitos adversos , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Animais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/efeitos adversos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017925

RESUMO

It is a hot research direction to reveal the working mechanism of brain by measuring the connection characteristics of brain function network. In this paper, to decode pigeon behavior outcomes in goal-directed decision task, an experiment based on plus maze was designed and the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) of the pigeon was selected as the target brain region. The local field potential (LFP) signals in the waiting area (WA) and turning area (TA) were recorded when the pigeons performed the goal-directed tasks. Then, the brain functional connection networks of the LFPs were constructed and the extracted features were applied to decode pigeon behavior outcomes. Firstly, continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was used to carried out time-frequency analysis and the task-related frequency band (40-60 Hz) was extracted. Then, weighted sparse representation (WSR) method was used to construct the functional connectivity network and the related network features were selected. Finally, k-nearest neighbor (kNN) algorithm was used to decode behavior outcomes. The results show that the energy difference between TA and WA in 40-60 Hz band is significantly higher than those in other bands. The selected features have good discriminability for the representation of the differences between WA and TA. The decoding results also suggest the classification performance of the different behavior outcomes. These results show the effectiveness of the WSR to construct the function network to decode behavior outcomes.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Objetivos , Algoritmos , Animais , Encéfalo , Condicionamento Operante
14.
Zootaxa ; 4772(1): zootaxa.4772.1.4, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055625

RESUMO

The early and mid-Pleistocene avian communities of North America are best known from the Rocky Mountain region and peninsular Florida. In the Appalachian Mountain region, only a small number of avian bones from mid-latitude cave deposits have been attributed to this time period. Here, I enlarge this record by reporting on bird bones from Cumberland Bone Cave in western Maryland, a well-known locality for large and small Irvingtonian mammals and other vertebrates. The taxa identified encompass ground birds, waterfowl, a hawk, two eagles, a vulture, an owl, a jay, a flycatcher, a junco or sparrow, and a finch. No purely boreal elements are confirmed as part of the avian assemblage, and all of the extant species that are positively or tentatively identified in the assemblage still occur in the region today. An immature bone referred to the Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus (Bechstein)) represents an Irvingtonian breeding record for the species in Maryland. This record occurs at the northern limit of the current breeding range for the genus. Extinct species in the assemblage include the Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius (Linnaeus)), a large screech owl (Megascops guildayi (Brodkorb Mourer-Chauviré 1984)), and the large goose, Branta dickeyi Miller 1924. It can be argued that none of these represent the extinction of a phyletic lineage during the Irvingtonian. Based on the broad habitat preferences of modern counterparts of the birds in the assemblage, we can expect that Irvingtonian habitats near the site included mixed forest with mast-producing hardwoods and both early and later successional stages represented. There must have been fluvial, wetland, or lacustrine habitat suitable for waterbirds nearby, and probably also open woodland or grassy savannah areas, suitable for vulture foraging, turkey nesting, and booming by Ruffed Grouse.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Animais , Cavernas , Maryland
15.
Zootaxa ; 4810(3): zootaxa.4810.3.1, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055729

RESUMO

The region from New Guinea through Oceania sustains the world's most diverse set of columbids. We describe osteological characters of the hindlimb (femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus) that divide the Papuan-Oceanic pigeons and doves into three groups based on functional morphology: "arboreal" (Hemiphaga, Ducula, Ptilinopus, Drepanoptila, Gymnophaps), "intermediate" (Columba, Macropygia, Reinwardtoena), and "terrestrial" (Gallicolumba [includes Alopecoenas], Trugon, Microgoura, Goura, Chalcophaps, Geopelia, Henicophaps, Caloenas, Didunculus, Otidiphaps). The arboreal and terrestrial groups are each distinctive osteologically, especially in the tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus, which are short relative to the femur in the arboreal group, and long relative to the femur in the terrestrial group. The intermediate pigeons are more similar to arboreal than to terrestrial pigeons, but nonetheless fit in neither group. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among or within these three groups is somewhat tentative using hindlimb osteology alone, although all five genera of arboreal pigeons have independent molecular evidence of relatedness, as do most of the genera of terrestrial pigeons.                Using the hindlimb and other osteological data as a framework, we describe a new extinct genus and species of pigeon, Tongoenas burleyi, from Holocene archaeological and Pleistocene paleontological sites on six islands (Foa, Lifuka, `Uiha, Ha`afeva, Tongatapu, and `Eua) in the Kingdom of Tonga. Tongoenas was a large-sized member of the "arboreal" pigeon group, with osteological characters that relate it to Ducula, Gymnophaps, and Hemiphaga (generally canopy frugivores) rather than with the "terrestrial" pigeons (more ground-dwelling and granivorous) such as Gallicolumba, Trugon, Microgoura, Goura, etc. (others listed above). Among volant columbids, living or extinct, only the species of Goura (from New Guinea) are larger than Tongoenas. From most of the same prehistoric sites, we also report new material of the nearly as large, extinct pigeon Ducula shutleri Worthy Burley, recently described from islands in the Vava`u Group of Tonga. Thus, D. shutleri also was widespread in Tonga before human impact. The prehistoric anthropogenic loss in Tonga of Tongoenas burleyi, Ducula shutleri, and other columbids undoubtedly had a negative impact on the dispersal regimes of Tongan forest trees. At first human contact about 2850 years ago, at least nine species of columbids in six genera inhabited the Tongan islands, where only four species in three genera exist today.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Osteologia , Animais , Membro Posterior , Humanos , Oceania , Filogenia , Tonga
16.
Zootaxa ; 4821(1): zootaxa.4821.1.8, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056336

RESUMO

The doves and pigeons constitute a taxonomic group (Columbiformes: Columbidae) of granivorous and frugivorous birds with a worldwide distribution. The current work aims to describe morphologically and molecularly a new protozoan from white-tipped doves Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855 and grey-fronted doves Leptotila rufaxilla (Richard Bernard, 1792) in Southeastern Brazil. Eimeria ferreirai n. sp. has oocysts that are sub-spherical to ellipsoidal, 21.4 × 18.8 µm, with smooth, bilayered wall, ~1.6 µm thick. Micropyle present. Oocyst residuum absent, but one to two polar granules are present. Sporocysts are elongate ovoidal to boomerang-shaped, 13.4 × 6.9 µm. Stieda body triangular to lozengal. Sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with refractile body and nucleus. Sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and the subsequent phylogenetic molecular comparisons supported the description of the new species, since the maximum similarity was 90-95% with eimeriid species of Columbiformes, Anseriformes, Galliformes and Passeriformes. Thus, this is the first coccidian species reported from Leptotila spp. and the twentieth description of an eimerian from Columbiformes in the World.


Assuntos
Columbiformes , Eimeria , Animais , Brasil , Columbidae , Filogenia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4715, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948772

RESUMO

Animal-fMRI is a powerful method to understand neural mechanisms of cognition, but it remains a major challenge to scan actively participating small animals under low-stress conditions. Here, we present an event-related functional MRI platform in awake pigeons using single-shot RARE fMRI to investigate the neural fundaments for visually-guided decision making. We established a head-fixated Go/NoGo paradigm, which the animals quickly learned under low-stress conditions. The animals were motivated by water reward and behavior was assessed by logging mandibulations during the fMRI experiment with close to zero motion artifacts over hundreds of repeats. To achieve optimal results, we characterized the species-specific hemodynamic response function. As a proof-of-principle, we run a color discrimination task and discovered differential neural networks for Go-, NoGo-, and response execution-phases. Our findings open the door to visualize the neural fundaments of perceptual and cognitive functions in birds-a vertebrate class of which some clades are cognitively on par with primates.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Vigília , Animais , Artefatos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Columbidae , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Aprendizagem , Movimento (Física) , Redes Neurais de Computação , Recompensa
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3729-3737, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779020

RESUMO

A new Eimeria species is described from a common bronzewing pigeon (Phaps chalcoptera) (Latham, 1790) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria chalcoptereae n. sp. (n = 30) are subspheroidal, 22-25 × 21-24 (23.5 × 22.6) µm; length/width (L/W) ratio 1.0-1.1 (1.04) µm. Wall bi-layered, 1.0-1.4 (1.2) µm thick, outer layer smooth, c.2/3 of total thickness. Micropyle barely discernible. Oocyst residuum is absent, but 2 to 3 small polar granules are present. Sporocysts (n = 30) ellipsoidal, 13-14 × 7-8 (13.5 × 7.2) µm; L/W ratio 1.8-2.0 (1.88). Stieda body present, flattened to half-moon-shaped, 0.5 × 2.0 µm; sub-Stieda present, rounded to trapezoidal, 1.5 × 2.5 µm; para-Stieda body absent; sporocyst residuum present, usually as an irregular body consisting of numerous small granules that appear to be membrane-bound. Sporozoites vermiform, with a robust refractile body and centrally located nucleus. Isolated Eimeria oocysts were analysed at the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) loci. Analyses revealed that Eimeria chalcoptereae n. sp. shared the highest number of molecular features with an Eimeria sp. previously identified from a domestic pigeon in Australia (KT305927-29), with similarities at these three loci of 98.53%, 97.32% and 94.93%, respectively. According to morphological and molecular analysis, the isolated coccidian parasite is a new species of Eimeria named Eimeria chalcoptereae n. sp. after its host, the common bronzewing pigeon (Phaps chalcoptera) (Columbiformes: Columbidae) (Latham, 1790).


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae/parasitologia , Eimeria/citologia , Eimeria/genética , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Oocistos/citologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Esporozoítos/citologia , Austrália Ocidental
19.
Biol Lett ; 16(8): 20200468, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750272

RESUMO

Dominance hierarchies confer benefits to group members by decreasing the incidences of physical conflict, but may result in certain lower ranked individuals consistently missing out on access to resources. Here, we report a linear dominance hierarchy remaining stable over time in a closed population of birds. We show that this stability can be disrupted, however, by the artificial mass loading of birds that typically comprise the bottom 50% of the hierarchy. Mass loading causes these low-ranked birds to immediately become more aggressive and rise-up the dominance hierarchy; however, this effect was only evident in males and was absent in females. Removal of the artificial mass causes the hierarchy to return to its previous structure. This interruption of a stable hierarchy implies a strong direct link between body mass and social behaviour and suggests that an individual's personality can be altered by the artificial manipulation of body mass.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Predomínio Social , Agressão , Animais , Feminino , Hierarquia Social , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Meio Social
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(35): 43646-43655, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737784

RESUMO

The study was conducted to monitor concentration of six toxic metals in faecal pellets of blue rock pigeon from six industrial areas of Jaipur, i.e. Jhotwara, Malviya, Mansarover, Sitapura, Vishwakarma industrial areas and Sanganer industries, by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. At the same time, trace metals were also analysed for a reference area so that a comparative impact of the metal pollution from the industries could be figured out. From the data obtained, the highest Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were found in the faecal pellets from Sitapura industrial area (1.12 ± 0.60 µg/g; 128.9 ± 11.10 µg/g; 17 ± 2.87 µg/g; 79.6 ± 42.69 µg/g; 2250 ± 1390.16 µg/g) and the highest Cr (18.6 ± 3.65 µg/g) from Jhotwara industrial area. However, industrial environment has high deposition of studied trace metals (except Ni for Sanganer industries) as compared with reference area. The concentration of Cd was below the detectable level in faecal pellets from reference area. The trend of trace metals from Malviya, Sitapura, Jhotwara and reference areas was noticed as Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cd and almost same for Sanganer industries and Mansarover industrial area as Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd. The excretion of heavy metals in fa1ecal pellets from Vishwakarma industrial area was noticed as Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd. Further levels of metals were varied significantly among different industrial areas, P ≤ 0.05, as well as between industrial areas and reference area. The observed high concentration of different heavy metals in faecal pellets of bird species shows their exposure to metal contamination which is warning to spiked environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Metais Pesados , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo
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