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1.
Animal ; 15(3): 100165, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500216

RESUMO

Although date waste products have been used as an alternative feed source in the diets of poultry for a long time, there is no quantitative information available regarding date waste used in ostrich diets. Therefore, two experiments were performed to evaluate the feeding value of whole date waste (WDW) as a feed ingredient in ostrich diets. In the first experiment, apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen balance (AMEn) of WDW was determined using 12 young ostriches (6 months old). The treatments included a reference diet and a test diet consisting of 60% of the reference diet and 40% of WDW. The AMEn of the WDW determined by total collection was 3216 kcal/kg. In the second study, four groups of eight growing ostriches (seven month old), with almost similar BW (60.4 ± 1.6 kg), were individually housed in outdoor paddocks of ≈24 m2 and were tested from 7 to 9 months of age. The groups were fed four isocaloric (2420 kcal of AMEn/kg) and isonitrogenous (16.4% CP) diets containing 0, 10, 20, and 30% WDW. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences among treatments in average daily feed intake, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and apparent total tract digestibility coefficients of DM, organic matter, energy, ether extract, ash, nitrogen-free extract, calcium, and phosphorus. In contrast, birds fed 0, 10, and 20% WDW diets had similar CP digestibility and this was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than that of birds on 30% WDW diet. The least crude fibre digestibility (P = 0.003) was also observed in birds fed 30% WDW diet. Blood RBC count, lymphocyte percentage, glucose concentration, and glutathione peroxidase activity increased linearly (P < 0.01), whereas heterophil percentage and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio decreased linearly (P = 0.002), in response to dietary inclusion of WDW. It can be concluded that WDW can be incorporated into the diets of ostrich chicks at levels of up to 30% without compromising growth performance. These results also suggest that WDW could be used as a feed ingredient for growing ostriches to improve stress-related variables and antioxidant status.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Struthioniformes , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Valor Nutritivo
2.
Food Chem ; 339: 127856, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866698

RESUMO

Egg yolk phospholipids from seven different species were purified (purity > 96%) using SPE columns, and subsequently the phospholipid profiles were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple time-of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Triple TOF-MS). Eight phospholipid classes and 87 molecular species were characterized. Principal component analysis showed that the molecular species and concentration of phospholipids in pigeon and hen egg yolks had a significant difference with other eggs. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the phospholipid profiles of pigeon egg yolks were closest to hen egg yolks, followed by quail, duck, ostrich, emu and goose egg yolks. Different relative quantities of certain molecular species were different among egg yolk types; for instance, phosphatidylcholine (16:0/16:1) in goose egg yolks and phosphatidylethanolamine (16:0/18:3) in ostrich egg yolks. This study provides a basis for a better understanding of the phospholipid profiles of egg yolks, and better evaluation of the nutritional value of eggs.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Patos , Gema de Ovo/química , Feminino , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Codorniz , Struthioniformes
3.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e8, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054248

RESUMO

Accurate diet formulations are required to fulfil the nutrient requirements of birds in order to achieve optimal production. Knowing how the skin, nodule and feather production characteristics vary with diets of different nutrient densities will help in least-cost modelling. Feather growth and nodule development are factors that were previously neglected in ostrich diet formulation, both of which are essential for the development of a predictive production model. In this trial, 120 birds were placed in 15 pens. Varying energy regimes (high, medium and low) and accompanying protein and amino acid profile levels (level 1-5) were assigned ad libitum to each pen. A randomly selected bird from each pen was slaughtered at 1, 35, 63, 103, 159, 168 and 244 days of age. During the slaughter, each bird was weighed, stunned, exsanguinated, defeathered and eviscerated. Feathers from four regions of the skin were plucked and weighed. The shaft diameter of the wing feathers was measured. The nodule size of the tanned skin was measured for each slaughter age. The data were transformed to natural logarithms and regressed against the total feather weight and the total featherless empty body protein weight to set up allometric growth equations. A prediction equation to determine nodule size of the live bird was proposed. Feed cost optimisation is paramount, and results from this study will aid in setting up least-cost optimisation (simulation) formulation models.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Plumas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Struthioniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Distribuição Aleatória , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Struthioniformes/metabolismo
4.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e6, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896135

RESUMO

The influence of varying dietary protein and energy levels on the relative growth of body components of ostriches was evaluated over a 244-day growth period. One hundred twenty 1-day-old ostrich chicks were randomly assigned to 15 pens. Three varying energy regimes (high, medium and low) and five protein levels (1-5) were supplied ad libitum to each pen. A randomly selected bird from each pen was slaughtered at 1, 35, 63, 103, 159, 168 and 244 days of age. Each bird was weighed, stunned, exsanguinated, defeathered and eviscerated. Individual body components were dissected and weighed at every slaughter age. Proximate analysis was performed on these components, which were ground with the remainder of the carcass, excluding gut content, but including blood and feathers. Based on the analysis of ostrich feathers and the known mass of the feathers, the protein mass contribution of the feathers was deducted from the protein accretion of the bird. All the data were transformed to natural logarithms and regressed against the featherless body protein growth. Intercepts and slopes were compared to determine differences in growth rate ascribed to nutrient densities. Neither dietary energy nor dietary protein level had a significant effect on the relative growth of the measured components in this study. Allometric coefficients were established, which could be helpful to improve the accuracy of simulation modelling attempts for ostrich nutrition.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrientes/análise , Struthioniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236324, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706841

RESUMO

As the main actuator of high-speed running, the ostrich feet are highly capable of cushioning and shock absorption. In this study, based on the elastic modulus scales and assembly order of the 3rd toe soft tissues and the functions of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, we designed fourteen bio-inspired feet. The impact process on loose sand was simulated on the finite element software Abaqus. Also the stress distributions and deformations of each component of the bio-inspired feet were clarified. With the peak acceleration as the index, the cushioning performances of the bio-inspired feet were compared on both loose sand and solid ground through height-variable impact tests. The 15-15-15 HA (hardness unit) bio-inspired foot showed lower peak acceleration and thereby better cushioning performance, but larger deformation, less-uniform stress distribution and thereby lower stability than the 15-35-55 HA bio-inspired foot. In fact, the silicon rubbers with different hardness degrees (which simulate the elasticity modulus scales of the digital cushions, fascia and skin) and the spring mechanism (which simulates the functions of the MTP joint) work as an "integrated system" of cushioning and shock absorption.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Membros Artificiais , Modelos Anatômicos , Corrida , Struthioniformes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Módulo de Elasticidade , Pé/anatomia & histologia , Dureza , Humanos , Articulação Metatarsofalângica/anatomia & histologia , Dedos do Pé/anatomia & histologia
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(12): 6453-6462, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152113

RESUMO

Hunter-gatherer exchange networks dampen subsistence and reproductive risks by building relationships of mutual support outside local groups that are underwritten by symbolic gift exchange. Hxaro, the system of delayed reciprocity between Ju/'hoãn individuals in southern Africa's Kalahari Desert, is the best-known such example and the basis for most analogies and models of hunter-gatherer exchange in prehistory. However, its antiquity, drivers, and development remain unclear, as they do for long-distance exchanges among African foragers more broadly. Here we show through strontium isotope analyses of ostrich eggshell beads from highland Lesotho, and associated strontium isoscape development, that such practices stretch back into the late Middle Stone Age. We argue that these exchange items originated beyond the macroband from groups occupying the more water-stressed subcontinental interior. Tracking the emergence and persistence of macroscale, transbiome social networks helps illuminate the evolution of social strategies needed to thrive in stochastic environments, strategies that in our case study show persistence over more than 33,000 y.


Assuntos
Casca de Ovo/química , Rede Social/história , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise , África Austral , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/história , Animais , Cultura , História Antiga , Humanos , Apoio Social , Struthioniformes
8.
J Food Prot ; 83(4): 722-728, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855449

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Cloacal swabs were obtained from live ostriches reared on 30 different farms situated in South Africa (Oudtshoorn) during the period of June 2018 to July 2019 to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species. PCR (n = 168 pooled cloacal swabs), the Cape Town protocol (n = 836 cloacal swabs), International Organization for Standardization ISO 10272-1:2006 (n = 836 cloacal swabs), and a selective Arcobacter spp. method (n = 415 cloacal swabs) were used for detection. PCR determined an average prevalence of 24.63% for species belonging to the Campylobacteraceae family. The ISO 10272-1:2006 method determined a Campylobacter spp. prevalence level of 16.83%, while the Cape Town protocol could not detect Campylobacter spp. For Arcobacter spp., a prevalence of 18.80 and 39.14% was determined with the Cape Town protocol and the selective Arcobacter spp. method, respectively. Results showed that prevalence levels could be influenced by season, the source of water, and the presence of wild water birds. Higher prevalence levels for Campylobacter spp. (23.38%) and Arcobacter spp. (68%) were detected in ostriches sampled during spring and autumn, respectively. Higher prevalence levels for Campylobacter spp. (25.23%) and Arcobacter spp. (44.50%) were detected in ostriches reared on farms that made use of borehole water. Higher prevalence levels for Arcobacter spp. (44.38%) were seen in ostriches reared on farms with wild water birds. This research shows that ostriches from South Africa can be considered as potential carriers of species belonging to the Campylobacteraceae family.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Campylobacter , Struthioniformes/microbiologia , Animais , Arcobacter/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia
9.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 43(1): 126047, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859015

RESUMO

Twelve Mycoplasma (M.) strains isolated from the nose, the trachea, and the lung of ostriches (Struthio camelus) displaying respiratory disease were investigated. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed five of these strains within the M. synoviae cluster, and seven strains within the M. hominis cluster of genus Mycoplasma, which was further confirmed by analyses of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, and partial rpoB gene and amino acid sequences. Genomic information as well as phenotypic features obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry analysis and serological reactions indicated that the strains examined are representatives of two hitherto unclassified species of genus Mycoplasma, for which the names Mycoplasma nasistruthionis sp. nov., with type strain 2F1AT (= ATCC BAA-1893T = DSM 22456T), and Mycoplasma struthionis sp. nov., with type strain 237IAT (= ATCC BAA-1890T = DSM 22453T), are proposed.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/classificação , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Struthioniformes/microbiologia , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Mycoplasma/química , Mycoplasma/citologia , Mycoplasma/fisiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(3): 1149-1159, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811510

RESUMO

This paper examines the extent of cost inefficiency at 120 small-scale broiler farms in the Ashanti Region of Ghana by the use of stochastic frontier cost function, which incorporates cost inefficiency effects. Furthermore, farm-specific determinants that help explain why cost inefficiencies are different across broiler farms are identified. The findings confirm the presence of cost inefficiencies in small-scale broiler production in the area studied. Specifically, the results suggest that the broiler farms in question have the potential to reduce their production costs by 13.6% by being more efficient in cost management. The findings further indicate that experience in broiler production, an increase in farm size, veterinary contacts, use of self-prepared quality broiler feed, and membership in the Poultry Farmers' Association (PFA) all help minimize cost inefficiency. On the other hand, the findings show that cost inefficiency appears to worsen with an increase in the market age of a farm's broiler birds.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Galinhas , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Patos , Galliformes , Gana , Struthioniformes , Perus
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 421-430, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of the 18 043 bird species, the eggs of only hen and quail are generally available to consumers. Thus people are deprived of the opportunity to benefit from the huge diversity of eggs offered by nature. Poultry eggs can vary in their color of albumen and yolk, smell, taste and texture. In this study, sighted and blind people were employed for sensory evaluation with the aim of determining the preferences of consumers toward hard-boiled and scrambled eggs of different species of birds, and whether the appearance of these eggs has an effect on the perception of other sensory impressions. RESULTS: Sighted people differently evaluated the texture of both boiled and scrambled eggs as compared with blind people. This was mainly because blind people largely used their sense of touch for evaluation. All other attributes of boiled eggs were evaluated similarly by both groups of panelists, whereas those of scrambled eggs were evaluated differently. CONCLUSION: The obtained results unequivocally demonstrated that differences in taste of scrambled eggs when served hot are easier to evaluate than those of boiled eggs. On the basis of ranking by the sensory panel, it was established that eggs of birds belonging to the order Galliformes are more preferred by consumers than those of duck and goose. By contrast, eggs of ostrich and emu are characterized by unfavorable sensory profiles; moreover, the albumen of boiled ostrich eggs has an unsightly appearance. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Preferências Alimentares , Adulto , Animais , Cegueira , Galinhas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Culinária , Patos , Ovos/classificação , Feminino , Gansos , Humanos , Masculino , Olfato , Struthioniformes , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Appl Anim Welf Sci ; 23(1): 95-107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296055

RESUMO

A total of 416 day-old ostrich chicks were randomly allocated to one of the three different husbandry practices for 3 months after hatch; HP1 (extensive human presence with gentle human voice, visual and gentle physical stimuli), HP2 (similar to HP1 but without physical stimuli) and S (human presence limited to supply of feed and water). Chick weight (kg) was measured at 6 and 12 weeks of age, while mortalities were recorded daily to calculate the survival rate. Finally, chicks' antibody responses to vaccination against Newcastle disease (NCD) was measured using the Hemagglutination-Inhibition (HI) test at 20 weeks of age. While HP1 chicks were heavier and survived better to 6 weeks of age than HP2 and S chicks (p < .05), no difference was observed thereafter (p > .05). Furthermore, HP1 chicks had an improved immune competence, as illustrated by their lower percentage of positive HI titers, compared to HP2 and S chicks (p < .05). Hence, integrating extensive human presence with positive human-chick interactions may assist in alleviating challenges related to chick rearing in the ostrich industry.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Struthioniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Struthioniformes/imunologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
13.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 18: 100334, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796175

RESUMO

Ostrich farming is a worldwide practice and an internationally developing industry. Among challenges in livestock production are the parasitic infections. The present study aimed to the investigation of the gastrointestinal parasites biota and prevalence in ostriches raised in different areas of Greece. A total of 141 clinically healthy ostriches originating from four different localities of Greece were coprologically examined for parasites of the gastrointestinal tract. Coprological examination revealed a considerably high rate of infection (65.9%) with protozoa; however, no helminths (trematodes, cestodes and nematodes) were detected. In detail, cysts of Entamoeba struthionis have been found in 57.4% of the examined birds. Moreover, 39.0% of sampled ostriches harboured cysts of Balantioides coli (syn. Balantidium coli), while oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. were detected at a low percentage (2.1%). Partial sequences of the small subunit rRNA (16S rRNA) gene and the ITS region were amplified from pooled Entamoeba and Balantioides positive samples, respectively, confirming for the first time the presence of Entamoeba struthionis and Balantioides coli in ostriches in Greece. Some of these parasitoses require attention as they may affect productivity performance of the animals in commercial ostrich farming and possibly pose disease risk for livestock and humans.


Assuntos
Balantidíase/veterinária , Balantidium/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Struthioniformes , Animais , Balantidíase/epidemiologia , Balantidíase/parasitologia , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência
14.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225143, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774851

RESUMO

Despite their ubiquity in Holocene African archaeological assemblages, ostrich eggshell (OES) beads are rarely studied in detail. An exception is in southern Africa, where there is a proposed relationship between OES bead diameter and the arrival of herding ~2000 years before present. In 1987, Leon Jacobson first observed that beads from forager sites in Namibia tended to be smaller than those associated with herder sites. Studies examining bead size around the Western Cape have generally confirmed Jacobson's findings, though the driving forces of the diameter change remain unknown. Since this time, diameter has become an informal way of distinguishing forager and herder assemblages in southern Africa, but no large-scale studies of OES bead variation have been undertaken. Here we present an expanded analysis of Holocene OES bead diameters from southern, and for the first time, eastern Africa. Results reveal distinct patterns in OES bead size over time, reflecting different local dynamics associated with the spread of herding. In southern Africa, OES diameters display low variability and smaller absolute size through time. While larger beads begin to appear <2000 years ago, most beads in our study remained smaller. In contrast, eastern African OES bead diameters are consistently larger over the last 10,000 years and show no appreciable size change with the introduction of herding. Notably, larger beads thought to be associated with herders in southern Africa fall within the range of eastern African beads, indicating a potential connection between these regions in the Late Holocene consistent with genetic findings. Regional differences in bead size are subtle, on the order of millimeters, yet offer a potentially important line of evidence for investigating the spread of herding in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to understand the meaning of these changes, we encourage additional studies of OES bead assemblages and urge researchers to report individual bead diameters, rather than averages by level.


Assuntos
Casca de Ovo/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Struthioniformes/anatomia & histologia , África Oriental , África Austral , Animais , Antropologia , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , História Antiga
15.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731584

RESUMO

Ostrich meat is a high-quality dietetic product, however, it is very sensitive to deterioration during storage. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of packaging systems on the fatty acid (FA) profiles in ostrich meat during refrigerated storage. The systems were: Vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in two combinations of gases: MAP1 (40% O2/40% CO2/20% N2) and MAP2 (60% O2/30% CO2/10% N2). Samples were taken from the M. ilifibularis (IF) muscles of eight ostriches in each treatment group. The packs were stored in a refrigerator at 2 °C and analyzed at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days. The packaging conditions and storage time had an impact on the concentration of bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including n-3 such as C18:3, C20:5 (EPA) and C22:6 (DHA). The least changes in composition of n-3 and the sum of PUFA were recorded in ostrich meat packaged in vacuum, followed by that packaged using MAP1 and MAP2. The sum of n-6 PUFAs decreased significantly by 2.1% for MAP2, and only by 0.7% for vacuum packaging as the experiment progressed. A significant deterioration of these compounds was observed in all package systems, especially from day 12 until day 16 of storage.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Aves Domésticas , Struthioniformes , Animais , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Parasitol ; 105(5): 733-737, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584862

RESUMO

The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was investigated among 104 ratites: 68 rheas (Rhea americana), 16 emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae), and 20 ostriches (Struthio camelus) in 4 Brazilian states. The prevalence in rheas was 26.5% (18 of 68), and titers were 1:100 (n = 8), 1:200 (n = 1), 1:400 (n = 4), 1:800 (n = 4), and 1:1,600 (n = 1). In emus, the prevalence was 50% (8 of 16), and titers were 1:50 (n = 1) and 1:100 (n = 7). The ostriches were slaughtered for human consumption, and 80% (16 of 20) were seropositive with titers of 1:200 (n = 1), 1:400 (n = 9), and 1:800 (n = 6). Sera were tested with a modified agglutination test, and the results confirmed the distribution of the parasite in ratite species from Brazil. The data obtained in this study show that T. gondii is prevalent among ratites from Brazil, and therefore ratite meat should also be considered a potential source of human infection. This is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in emus.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Paleógnatas/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/imunologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dromaiidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Carne/normas , Prevalência , Reiformes/parasitologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Struthioniformes/parasitologia
17.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(3): 463-473, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560464

RESUMO

Electrophoretic methods were used to identify protein complexes formed between ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein fractions (LPFo) with seminal plasma (SP) of fractionated ejaculates, and to investigate the effect of these complexes on boar semen quality after cryopreservation. Chromatographic SP fractions (F1, F2 and F3), with or without LPFo solution, were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Comparative electrophoretic analyses of the SP revealed marked differences in the SDS-PAGE protein profiles among boars. Electrophoretic analyses showed that the interactions of LPFo with SP resulted in the appearance of high-intensity protein bands. Spermatozoa were exposed to SP chromatographic fractions originating from F1, F2 and F3, and the whole SP (wSP) before being frozen. Spermatozoa exposed to F1 and F2 exhibited significantly higher post-thaw motility compared to those treated with either F3 or wSP. In most of the boars the proportions of membrane- -intact frozen-thawed spermatozoa differed among the treatments, being significantly lower in the wSP-treated samples. The incidence of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation was less prevalent in samples exposed to F3 or the wSP. The results of this study confirmed that the interactions of LPFo with fractionated SP during the cooling period contributed to alterations in the sperm membranes, rendering them less susceptible to temperature-related injury.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo/química , Lipoproteínas/química , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Sêmen/fisiologia , Struthioniformes , Suínos , Animais , Lipoproteínas/farmacologia , Masculino , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 49(4): 28-30, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429957

RESUMO

In recent years, a robust body of scholarship has emerged that examines ethical challenges facing the learning health organization model. In "Bystander Ethics and Good Samaritanism," James Sabin and colleagues make a valuable addition to this scholarship, identifying and exploring the important question of what researchers' obligations are to patients receiving "usual care" if "that care is seen as suboptimal." The central issue that Sabin et al. faced was whether it would be acceptable for researchers to identify patients with untreated atrial fibrillation but then assign them to a control group that would not receive education about the importance of oral anticoagulation. The authors present this challenge as an issue of "bystander ethics." To avoid being "bystanders" to identified instances of suboptimal care, the research team decided to instead identify a "delayed intervention" group for which they would not determine the members' anticoagulation status, thereby preventing them from knowing that specific patients met the criteria for oral anticoagulants but were not using them. This "workaround" approach strikes me as disingenuous.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Struthioniformes , Animais , Anticoagulantes , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pesquisadores
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(27): 28284-28293, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363980

RESUMO

Energy state and environmental impacts of production systems are of main criteria to reach sustainability. In the present research, ostrich was compared with a broiler production system based on the criteria. The required data was gathered in Boukan Township, West Azerbaijan, Iran, by a questioner method. The total input energy in ostrich and broiler systems was calculated as 150,419.81 MJ (1 ton of bird year)-1 and 344,579.58 MJ (1 ton of bird year)-1, respectively. Diesel fuel and feed (41.39% and 36.95%, respectively) in broiler and electricity (45.87%) in the ostrich production system had the highest energy shares. Eleven impact categories were estimated by SimaPro software in the studied systems. Except for human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity, the amounts of other environmental impacts in the ostrich production system were lower than those of the poultry production system. The amount of global warming indicator for the production of 1 ton of broiler chicken was 17,400 kg CO2 eq year-1 that was equal to 4350 kg CO2 eq period-1. This value was obtained as 1.68 × 104 kg CO2 eq year-1 for the production of ostrich meat. In both production systems, feed was the main factor responsible for almost all studied environmental impacts.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Animais , Azerbaijão , Galinhas , Água Doce , Aquecimento Global , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Carne , Struthioniformes
20.
J Exp Biol ; 222(Pt 17)2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350301

RESUMO

In rapidly growing animals there are numerous selective pressures and developmental constraints underpinning the ontogenetic development of muscle-tendon morphology and mechanical properties. Muscle force generating capacity, tendon stiffness, elastic energy storage capacity and efficiency were calculated from muscle and tendon morphological parameters and in vitro tendon mechanical properties obtained from a growth series of ostrich cadavers. Ontogenetic scaling relationships were established using reduced major axis regression analysis. Ostrich pelvic limb muscle mass and cross-sectional area broadly scaled with positive allometry, indicating maintained or relatively greater capacity for maximum isometric force generation in larger animals. The length of distal limb tendons was found to scale with positive allometry in several tendons associated with antigravity support and elastic energy storage during locomotion. Distal limb tendon stiffness scaled with negative allometry with respect to body mass, with tendons being relatively more compliant in larger birds. Tendon material properties also appeared to be size-dependent, suggesting that the relative increased compliance of tendons in larger ostriches is due in part to compensatory distortions in tendon material properties during maturation and development, not simply from ontogenetic changes in tendon geometry. Our results suggest that the previously reported increase in locomotor economy through ontogeny in the ostrich is due to greater potential for elastic energy storage with increasing body size. In fact, the rate of this increase may be somewhat greater than the conservative predictions of previous studies, thus illustrating the biological importance of elastic tendon structures in adult ostriches.


Assuntos
Locomoção/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Struthioniformes/fisiologia , Tendões/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pelve/fisiologia , Struthioniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tendões/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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