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1.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e233523, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787713

RESUMO

Microbiological studies of the sanitary and health status of psittacine birds that will be reintroduced is important in evaluating whether these animals act as carriers of pathogenic agents to other animals and humans. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a faster and more accurate method to identify bacteria than conventional microbiology methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health status of psittacines housed in captivity, by assessment of Gram-negative bacteria from fecal microbiota through MALDI- TOF MS identification. The results indicate high frequency of Gram-negative bacteria in feces (96.5%), especially from the Enterobacteriaceae family (88.7%). The most prevalent bacteria were Escherichia coli (39.0%), Proteus vulgaris (12.2%), Klebsiella spp. (12.1%) and Raoultella ornithinolytica (8.7%). Proteus hauseri, Citrobacter spp., Morganella morgannii, Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia hermannii were isolated with lower frequency. . All these agents are potentially pathogenic for parrots and can cause systemic infections in other animals and humans. These findings reinforce that MALDI- TOF MS proved to be a rapid and accurate method of identification of the microorganism and evaluation of the health status of psittacines, providing relevant data to assist decision-making regarding the sanitary protocols in wildlife centers, and possible future reintroduction of wild birds.


Assuntos
Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Psittaciformes , Animais , Enterobacteriaceae , Humanos , Proteus , Providencia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
2.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 799-813, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480560

RESUMO

Although parrot species are infrequently infected by hemoparasites in the wild, some fatal infections have been reported in captive individuals. Conversely birds of prey are frequently infected by hemoparasites. In this study, 193 captive birds from Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) centers in Madrid, Spain, belonging to orders Psittaciformes, Accipitriformes, Strigiformes, and Falconiformes, were blood-sampled in search of parasite infections. Molecular and microscopic analyses were conducted to detect parasites of the following genera: Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Trypanosoma, Babesia, and Lankesterella. Infections by microfilariae and Coccidia were also searched in blood samples. Surprisingly, infections by Haemoproteus syrnii, a common parasite from owls, were detected in the cadavers of two species of parrots, Trichoglossus haematodus and Psittacula cyanocephala. The same haplotype was also detected in the cadavers of two owl species, Tyto alba and Strix rufipes. All these birds were housed and died in the same center. Infections by species of Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, and Trypanosoma were also found in different species of raptors. Nocturnal raptors (Strigiformes) show significantly higher prevalence of infection by blood parasites than diurnal raptors (Falconiformes and Accipitriformes). In conclusion, a potential fatal transmission of Haemoproteus syrnii, from Strigiformes to Psittaciformes species, is reported and several infections by different blood parasites were detected in birds of prey. These results emphasize the importance of increasing prevention measures to avoid or reduce the transmission of blood parasites among birds from different species housed in these types of centers.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Psittaciformes/parasitologia , Estrigiformes/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Haplótipos , Filogenia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375538

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance pose a threat to public health globally. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes can disseminate among environments, animals and humans. Therefore, investigation into potential reservoirs of multidrug-resistant bacteria is of great importance to the understanding of putative transmission routes of resistant bacteria and resistance genes. This study aimed to report the occurrence of Escherichia coli harboring the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing gene (blaKPC) in Psittaciformes rescued from wildlife trafficking in Paraíba State, Brazil. Cloacal swabs were collected from thirty birds and cultured by conventional microbiology using MacConkey and serum tryptone glucose glycerol (STGG) media supplemented with selective antimicrobials. E. coli isolates (n = 43) were identified by phenotypic tests and confirmed by MALDI-TOF. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by means of Kirby-Bauer test. All isolates were further screened for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production, and putative genes encoding ESBL were investigated by PCR. Additionally, blaKPC-harboring strains were genotyped by REP-PCR. A total of 43 E. coli phenotypically resistant isolates were recovered. The highest resistance rate was observed against ciprofloxacin. Among the resistance genes, only blaKPC was found in seven different birds from three species. According to the genotyping, these seven isolates belonged to four different strains. To date, this is the first report on the occurrence of KPC-E. coli in Psittaciformes rescued from trafficking in Northeastern Brazil. Due to the high clinical importance of KPC-E. coli, our findings suggest that wild animals in captivity at wildlife rescue centers can play a role as reservoirs of bacteria that are resistance to Critically Important antimicrobials in human medicine.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Crime , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235406, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609774

RESUMO

Pathogens pose a major risk to wild host populations, especially in the face of ongoing biodiversity declines. Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) can affect most if not all members of one of the largest and most threatened bird orders world-wide, the Psittaciformes. Signs of disease can be severe and mortality rates high. Its broad host range makes it a risk to threatened species in particular, because infection can occur via spill-over from abundant hosts. Despite these risks, surveillance of BFDV in locally abundant wild host species has been lacking. We used qPCR and haemagglutination assays to investigate BFDV prevalence, load and shedding in seven abundant host species in the wild in south-east Australia: Crimson Rosellas (Platycercus elegans), Eastern Rosellas (Platycercus eximius), Galahs (Eolophus roseicapillus), Sulphur-crested Cockatoos (Cacatua galerita), Blue-winged Parrots (Neophema chrysostoma), Rainbow Lorikeets (Trichoglossus moluccanus) and Red-rumped Parrots (Psephotus haematonotus). We found BFDV infection in clinically normal birds in six of the seven species sampled. We focused our analysis on the four most commonly caught species, namely Crimson Rosellas (BFDV prevalence in blood samples: 41.8%), Sulphur-crested Cockatoos (20.0%), Blue-winged Parrots (11.8%) and Galahs (8.8%). Species, but not sex, was a significant predictor for BFDV prevalence and load. 56.1% of BFDV positive individuals were excreting BFDV antigen into their feathers, indicative of active viral replication with shedding. Being BFDV positive in blood samples predicted shedding in Crimson Rosellas. Our study confirms that BFDV is endemic in our study region, and can inform targeted disease management by providing comparative data on interspecies variation in virus prevalence, load and shedding.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Infecções por Circoviridae , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Psittaciformes/virologia , Animais , Austrália , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/fisiologia , DNA Viral/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
5.
J Comp Pathol ; 174: 104-112, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955795

RESUMO

Lymphoplasmacytic inflammation associated with bornavirus N protein occurs in the epicardial ganglia, myocardium and endocardium of birds diagnosed with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). These pathological findings suggest that sudden death in psittacine birds might stem from cardiac compromise due to parrot bornavirus (PaBV) infection. Therefore, we investigated cardiac lesions in cases of PDD, searching databases from 1988 to 2019, and reviewed three experimental studies of PaBV infection. Fifty cases of PDD in birds infected naturally with PaBV and 27 cases of PDD in birds infected experimentally with PaBV (all having descriptions of inflammatory cardiac lesions) were reviewed. For each case, five regions of the heart were evaluated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC). These regions were the epicardial ganglia/nerves, the endocardium, the myocardium, the Purkinje fibres and the great vessels. Sudden death was documented in 17/50 naturally infected cases, while 23/50 had digestive signs, and only 12/50 had neurological signs. Grossly, only five naturally-infected and five experimentally-infected cases had cardiomegaly or hydropericardium. Epicardial ganglioneuritis was the most consistent microscopical finding in natural (46/50) and experimental cases (26/27), followed by myocarditis (34/50) for naturally-infected and endocarditis for experimentally-infected birds (6/27). PaBV-2 antigen was detected most frequently by IHC in the epicardial ganglia (54/77) compared with the other tissues. This retrospective study demonstrates the presence of PaBV protein and inflammation in the heart of birds infected with PaBV and suggests a link between PaBV and cardiac disease and sudden death in psittacine birds.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/patologia , Endocárdio/patologia , Infecções por Mononegavirales/veterinária , Miocárdio/patologia , Pericárdio/patologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Bornaviridae , Endocárdio/virologia , Coração/virologia , Infecções por Mononegavirales/patologia , Pericárdio/virologia , Psittaciformes , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Vet Rec ; 186(17): 563, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic disease in psittacine birds is common but challenging to diagnose. This retrospective study evaluates the diagnostic value of plasma biochemistry, haematology, radiography and endoscopic visualisation in psittaciforms with suspected hepatic disease that underwent endoscopic liver biopsy. METHODS: Clinical records of 28 companion psittaciforms from a veterinary teaching hospital (2007-2016) were reviewed. Diagnostic results were categorised as abnormal or normal and compared with histopathology for agreement or disagreement. Statistical significance was determined by kappa test for agreement and McNemar's test for disagreement. RESULTS: 11 of 28 psittaciforms (39.3 per cent) had clinical signs considered specific for liver disease. 25 of 28 (89.3 per cent) psittaciforms had histopathological liver lesions. Gross changes radiographically and endoscopically agreed with histopathology in 57.1 per cent and 53.6 per cent of cases, respectively. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (48.1 per cent), creatine phosphokinase (73.1 per cent) and albumin by protein electrophoresis (50 per cent) showed the highest agreement. Kappa was not significant for any parameters, while McNemar's test for disagreement was significant for radiography, endoscopy, AST, lactate dehydrogenase, bile acid, total protein (chemistry), cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and glucose. CONCLUSION: Overall, changes on plasma biochemistry, radiography or endoscopy are non-specific and do not consistently agree with histopathology results. Endoscopic liver biopsy is highly recommended if there is clinical suspicion of hepatic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Psittaciformes , Animais , Biópsia/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Endoscopia/veterinária , Feminino , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Radiografia/veterinária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Avian Pathol ; 49(1): 47-55, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486682

RESUMO

Outbreaks of avian trichomonosis are being reported worldwide; meanwhile, the genetic and virulence variations are under investigation. In this study, the occurrence and genetic variability of oral or faecal trichomonads among various avian species were investigated. Samples obtained from either the oropharyngeal cavity, crop/oesophagus, droppings/cloaca, or conjunctival swabs of avian species were inspected for flagellates. Phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS1-5.8s rRNA-ITS2 sequences from selected samples was performed to investigate the genetic diversity of the isolates. Investigation of 737 birds revealed an infection rate of 15.7% in the upper gastrointestinal tract, 7.3% in the faecal samples, and 0.7% involvement of the conjunctiva. Phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS1-5.8s rRNA-ITS2 sequences from selected samples, identified genotypes A and B of Trichomonas gallinae and genogroups A-C and E of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. A novel ITS genotype of intestinal trichomonads was also detected in hooded crow (Corvus cornix) and common mynah (Acridotheres tristis). In the present study, in addition to Columbiformes and Falconiformes, trichomonads were detected in Passeriformes and Galliformes with the involvement of organs other than the gastrointestinal tract. Genotype A T. gallinae was detected in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), a laughing dove (Spilopelia senegalensis), a common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulates), and a canary (Serinus canaria). Distinct genotype B was detected in a common mynah and a budgerigar. Genogroups A-C of T. gallinarum were also demonstrated in Galliformes and Anseriformes. Furthermore, two novel trichomonad ITS genotypes were detected in hooded crows and a common mynah warranting detailed multi-locus molecular analysis.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSITS diversity of trichomonads was shown in various avian species.Diversity of the parasites' target organ and clinical manifestations was demonstrated.Two novel ITS genotype trichomonads from common mynah and hooded crow were identified.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Trichomonadida/genética , Animais , Anseriformes/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Canários/parasitologia , Columbiformes/parasitologia , Corvos/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , Falconiformes/parasitologia , Galliformes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Melopsittacus/parasitologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Psittaciformes/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S/genética , Estorninhos/parasitologia , Trichomonadida/classificação , Trichomonas/genética
8.
J Appl Anim Welf Sci ; 23(2): 131-139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526053

RESUMO

The standard method of obtaining body temperature in a bird can be a stressful event, making routine evaluations challenging. Twenty-eight privately owned birds in good health were enrolled in the study to compare digital and infrared (IR) temperature readings. Digital thermometer readings in the cloaca were compared with two different IR thermometers, Ototemp (OT) and VetTemp (VT), used at the skin of the cloaca, breast, axillary area and tympanic membrane. The majority of the IR temperature readings were not significantly different from the cloacal digital reading. Additionally, the different IR thermometers read close to each other at individual reading sites. The IR measurements at the axilla (OT, mean = 40.35°C, SD = 1.24°C; VT, mean = 40.20°C, SD = 1.38°C) were most similar to the standard cloacal measurement (mean = 40.83°C, SD = 0.88°C). For veterinarians who currently avoid measuring cloacal body temperatures to prevent unnecessary stress on avian patients utilizing IR thermometers in the axillary region provide a less invasive and reasonable measurement of core body temperature in birds to allow for a more comprehensive assessment of health status.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Psittaciformes , Termômetros/veterinária , Animais , Axila , Cloaca , Feminino , Masculino , Temperatura Cutânea , Termômetros/classificação , Membrana Timpânica
9.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(4): 413-418, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833310

RESUMO

A non-albicans Candida species was identified in 6 birds exhibiting clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal disease. The clinical disease signs noted in these 6 birds included diarrhea, regurgitation, and melena, and were considered concurrent or identified secondary to other comorbidities. Candida glabrata was identified in a yellow-naped Amazon parrot (Amazona auropalliata), a ring-necked dove (Streptopelia capicola), a blue-and-gold macaw (Ara ararauna), and 2 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Candida krusei was identified in a white-crowned parrot (Pionus senilis). Fungal culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification was correlated with results of fecal and/or crop Gram's stains, and DNA sequencing was used in one case. Three cases resolved after treatment, 2 birds died, and 1 was lost to follow-up. Non-albicans Candida infections are an emerging issue in human health care and are known to have an increased resistance to antifungal drugs. Similar to Candida albicans, these non-albicans Candida species are often identified in patients that have a history of prior antibiotic exposure. Recent data in human medicine describe a shift in species distribution away from C albicans dominance and toward other species, including C glabrata and C krusei. Both species are considered normal flora within the human and bird mycobiota and may emerge to cause disease, especially when the normal gastrointestinal environment has been disrupted.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Candidíase/veterinária , Columbidae , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Psittaciformes , Amazona , Animais , Doenças das Aves/tratamento farmacológico , Candida glabrata/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Cacatuas , Evolução Fatal , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Papagaios , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária
10.
Zootaxa ; 4563(3): zootaxa.4563.3.8, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716534

RESUMO

The long-tailed parakeets of the genus Psittacula Cuvier, 1800 have thus far been regarded as a homogeneous and monophyletic group of parrots. We used nucleotide sequences of two genetic markers (mitochondrial CYTB, nuclear RAG-1) to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Psittacula and closely related species. We found that the Asian genus Psittacula is apparently paraphyletic because two genera of short-tailed parrots, Psittinus Blyth, 1842 and Tanygnathus Wagler, 1832, cluster within Psittacula, as does †Mascarinus Lesson, 1830. To create monophyletic genera, we propose recognition of the following genera: Himalayapsitta Braun, 2016 for P. himalayana, P. finschii, P. roseata, and P. cyanocephala; Nicopsitta Braun, 2016 for P. columboides and P. calthrapae; Belocercus S. Müller, 1847 for P. longicauda; Psittacula Cuvier, 1800 for P. alexandri and P. derbiana; Palaeornis Vigors, 1825 for †P. wardi and P. eupatria; and Alexandrinus Braun, 2016 for P. krameri, †P. exsul, and P. (eques) echo. Additionally, Psittacula krameri and P. alexandri are paraphyletic species, which should be split to form monophyletic species.


Assuntos
Papagaios , Psittaciformes , Psittacula , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Mitocôndrias , Filogenia
11.
J Comp Pathol ; 171: 38-52, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540624

RESUMO

Psittacines (e.g. parrots, macaws and cockatoos) are common companion animals that are also kept in zoos and private breeding collections. Despite this popularity, long-term, comprehensive studies of diagnostic data from captive psittacines are rare. This study was conducted to assess trends in disease prevalence and to describe causes of morbidity and mortality in psittacines submitted for post-mortem examination to the veterinary hospital and diagnostic laboratory at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Post-mortem reports of 1,850 psittacines from 1998 to 2017 were assessed and included 110 species from 45 genera. Birds were often diagnosed with infectious disease processes (n = 823; 44.5%), including viral (n = 428; 23.1%), bacterial (n = 284; 15.4%) and fungal (n = 161; 8.7%). Non-infectious disease processes (n = 1,076; 58.2%) were most commonly degenerative (n = 465; 25.1%), metabolic (n = 392; 21.2%) or haemodynamic (n = 270; 14.6%). Exploratory statistical analyses, used to guide further research, revealed significant correlations and associations among disease processes and genera, age categories and sex. This 19-year retrospective study is the first to be conducted in Canada for psittacine birds and provides a broad overview of disease prevalence that can be used as a baseline to inform other studies addressing common and uncommon diseases affecting these birds in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Infecções/veterinária , Psittaciformes , Animais , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Infecções/diagnóstico , Infecções/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Virus Genes ; 55(6): 802-814, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463770

RESUMO

The establishment of viral pathogens in new host environments following spillover events probably requires adaptive changes within both the new host and pathogen. After many generations, signals for ancient cross-species transmission may become lost and a strictly host-adapted phylogeny may mimic true co-divergence while the virus may retain an inherent ability to jump host species. The mechanistic basis for such processes remains poorly understood. To study the dynamics of virus-host co-divergence and the arbitrary chances of spillover in various reservoir hosts with equal ecological opportunity, we examined structural constraints of capsid protein in extant populations of Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) during known spillover events. By assessing reservoir-based genotype stratification, we identified co-divergence defying signatures in the evolution BFDV which highlighted primordial processes of cryptic host adaptation and competing forces of host co-divergence and cross-species transmission. We demonstrate that, despite extensive surface plasticity gathered over a longer span of evolution, structural constraints of the capsid protein allow opportunistic host switching in host-adapted populations. This study provides new insights into how small populations of endangered psittacine species may face multidirectional forces of infection from reservoirs with apparently co-diverging genotypes.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/genética , Infecções por Circoviridae/genética , Circovirus/genética , Evolução Molecular , Animais , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/patogenicidade , Fluxo Gênico , Genótipo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Papagaios/genética , Papagaios/virologia , Filogenia , Psittaciformes/genética , Psittaciformes/virologia
13.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(5): 719-725, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423916

RESUMO

Aves polyomavirus 1, psittacine beak and feather disease virus, and psittacid herpesvirus 1 are important pathogens of psittacine birds with the potential to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Using publically available nucleotide sequences, we developed and validated a triplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay to rapidly detect these 3 viruses. The assay had high analytical sensitivity, detecting <6 copies of viral DNA per reaction, and 100% analytical specificity, showing no cross-reactivity with 59 other animal pathogens. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from psittacine birds diagnosed at postmortem as infected with each of the viruses as well as virus-negative birds were used to validate the utility of the assay. Birds were selected for the positive cohort if they showed histologic evidence of infection (i.e., characteristic inclusion bodies in tissues); birds in the negative cohort had final diagnoses unrelated to the pathogens of interest. The triplex rtPCR assay confirmed 98% of histopathology-positive cases, and also identified subclinical infections that were not observed by histologic examination, including coinfections. Birds that tested positive only by rtPCR had significantly higher cycle threshold values compared to those with histologic evidence of infection. Positive, negative, and overall percentage agreements as well as the kappa statistic between the results of the assay and histopathology were high, demonstrating the usefulness of the assay as a tool to confirm disease diagnoses, and to improve detection of subclinical infections.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Psittaciformes/virologia , Alphaherpesvirinae/genética , Alphaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/genética , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Vírus de DNA/genética , DNA Viral , Herpesviridae/genética , Papagaios/virologia , Polyomaviridae/genética , Polyomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Polyomavirus/genética , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
14.
J Med Entomol ; 56(6): 1610-1613, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206583

RESUMO

Quill mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) are a family of about 400 ectoparasite species known to infest birds for over 140 yr. All previously identified quill mites occur in the calamus, a cavity of the bird feather, where they spent their entire life except for a short dispersion period. In this study, we report the first record of quill mites dwelling in the quill walls during their entire life cycle. In short, we found all of the different life stages of the species Lawrencipicobia poicephali (Skoracki & Dabert 2002) (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) in the quill wall in 33 host individuals of six different host species from many different locations in Sub-Saharan Africa. Hosts were collected over a time period spanning more than 70 yr. Lastly, we report six new avian hosts for this ectoparasite species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Plumas/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/fisiologia , Psittaciformes , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia
15.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(2): 141-149, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251501

RESUMO

Avian polyomavirus disease and psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) are both contagious viral diseases in psittacine birds with similar clinical manifestations and characterized by abnormal feathers. To determine the prevalence of Aves polyomavirus 1 (APyV) and beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) in captive, exotic psittacine birds in Chile, feathers from 250 psittacine birds, representing 17 genera, were collected and stored during the period 2013-2016. Polymerase chain reaction testing was used to detect APyV and BFDV were detected in feather bulb samples. The results indicated that 1.6% (4/250) of the samples were positive for APyV, 23.2% (58/250) were positive to BFDV, and 0.8% (2/250) were positive to both APyV and BFDV. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of APyV and BFDV prevalence in captive, exotic psittacine birds in South America. Analysis of 2 Chilean partial sequences of the gene encoding agnoprotein 1a (APyV) and the replication-associated protein (BFDV) extends the knowledge of genomic variability for both APyV and BFDV isolates and their spectrum of hosts. No geographical marker was detected for the local isolates.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Psittaciformes , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/genética , Filogenia , Polyomavirus/classificação , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
16.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(1): 7-14, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124606

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia is common in captive Psittaciformes. A point-of-care cholesterol analyzer would be useful to monitor hypercholesterolemia in psittacine birds. We compare a point-of-care cholesterol analyzer (PTS-Diagnostics CardioChek) with a reference laboratory analyzer (Roche Cobas c501) and provide initial assessment of precision and accuracy. A prospective method comparison study was designed to compare the CardioChek and Cobas c501 by assessment of clinical and analytical agreement using Passing-Bablock regression analysis and difference plots. Initial accuracy was assessed by running cholesterol standards, and initial precision was assessed by calculating between-run coefficient of variation on samples from selected birds. A total of 42 psittacine birds were sampled. No significant constant bias was found between the Cobas and CardioChek. However, a significant negative proportional bias was evident, suggesting that the point-of-care analyzer tended to underestimate cholesterol values. Lipemia and hemolysis had strong effects on increasing bias. Hematocrit, glucose level, and genus had no significant impact on bias, controlling for lipemia and hemolysis. Accuracy of the CardioCheck was suboptimal to that of the Cobas, but precision was good. When defining hypercholesterolemia as >8 mmol/L (309 mg/dL), the CardioChek had a sensitivity of 57% and specificity of 96%. There was neither analytical nor clinical agreement between the CardioChek and Cobas c501. Values obtained from the CardioChek cannot be used to determine or monitor hypercholesterolemia in parrots in the absence of analyzer-specific reference intervals.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Colesterol/sangue , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/veterinária , Hipercolesterolemia/veterinária , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Psittaciformes , Animais , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/diagnóstico , Animais de Estimação , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão
17.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(1): 22-28, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124608

RESUMO

We determined the prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci genotypes in asymptomatic and symptomatic birds in northeast Iran. Samples were collected from 11 species of Psittaciformes and 1 species of Columbiformes from 2015 to 2016. Choanal cleft and cloacal swab samples, fresh fecal samples, and/or tissue samples of 70 symptomatic and 130 asymptomatic birds were collected and tested by molecular detection (nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR] testing specific for C psittaci). Results showed C psittaci was detected in 37 (18.5%) of 200 birds (18/37 symptomatic and 19/37 asymptomatic birds) by nested PCR assay. Of the PCR-positive samples, 14 products were positive for oligonucleotide sets CTU/CTL by a second PCR assay and genotyped by outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequencing. Of the 10 samples positive for genotype A (cockatiels [Nymphicus hollandicus, n = 5], ring-necked parakeet [Psittacula krameri, n = 2], African gray parrot [Psittacus erithacus, n = 3]), 6 samples were from asymptomatic and 4 from symptomatic birds. Genotype B was observed in 3 samples from symptomatic birds (P krameri [n = 2], pigeon [Columba livia, n = 1]), and provisional genotype I was detected in one symptomatic cockatiel. These findings revealed the importance of monitoring imported asymptomatic birds in developing countries, especially the Middle East, where there is no systematic monitoring. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the detection of C psittaci provisional genotype I in cockatiels.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Columbiformes , Genótipo , Psittaciformes , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Sequência de Bases , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Columbiformes/microbiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia
18.
Eur J Protistol ; 69: 70-87, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981203

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is a common parasitic infection in birds that is caused by more than 25 Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. Many of the genotypes that cause avian cryptosporidiosis are poorly characterized. The genetic and biological characteristics of avian genotype III are described here and these data support the establishment of a new species, Cryptosporidium proventriculi. Faecal samples from the orders Passeriformes and Psittaciformes were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium by microscopy and sequencing, and infections were detected in 10 of 98 Passeriformes and in 27 of 402 Psittaciformes. Cryptosporidium baileyi was detected in both orders. Cryptosporidium galli and avian genotype I were found in Passeriformes, and C. avium and C. proventriculi were found in Psittaciformes. Cryptosporidium proventriculi was infectious for cockatiels under experimental conditions, with a prepatent period of six days post-infection (DPI), but not for budgerigars, chickens or SCID mice. Experimentally infected cockatiels shed oocysts more than 30 DPI, with an infection intensity ranging from 4,000 to 60,000 oocysts per gram (OPG). Naturally infected cockatiels shed oocysts with an infection intensity ranging from 2,000 to 30,000 OPG. Cryptosporidium proventriculi infects the proventriculus and ventriculus, and oocysts measure 7.4 × 5.8 µm. None of the birds infected C. proventriculi developed clinical signs.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Psittaciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Vet Rec ; 184(15): 476, 2019 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755457

RESUMO

Parrot bornaviruses (PaBV) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease in psittacine birds, but have also been linked to other clinical signs, including behavioural disorders and neurological signs. The aim of this study was to correlate PaBV infection in birds showing feather-damaging behaviour or neurological signs for which no other cause of disease could be identified. Psittacine birds presented to a private practice were divided into three groups: birds with neurological signs (n=28), birds showing feather-damaging behaviour (n=42) and birds presented for routine examinations (n=56). Swabs of crop and cloaca were collected and investigated for the presence of PaBV-RNA using real time RT-PCR. Additionally, serum samples were taken and examined for the presence of anti-PaBV antibodies by immunofluorescence test. PaBV infection was detected in one of the test systems in 40.5 per cent of all birds (n=126) investigated. In the clinically healthy birds (n=56), 19.6 per cent of the birds were positive in at least one of the PaBV tests, compared with 52.38 per cent of the feather-damaging (n=42) and 64.28 per cent of the neurologically diseased birds (n=28). Interestingly, the anti-PaBV antibody titres in birds with neurological signs were highest up to 1:20 480. High antibody titres (up to 1:5120) were also found in the feather-damaging group, whereas the birds of the control group, if PaBV positive, had only very low titres. Similarly, the highest viral load was found in the group of the neurologically diseased birds, followed by feather-damaging birds, whereas PaBV-positive birds in the control group demonstrated only low viral RNA shedding. A clear correlation between severity of clinical signs, amount of viral shedding and high levels of antibody titres was observed for most of the neurologically diseased birds and also for few birds with feather-damaging behaviour. For the first time, these results clearly indicate a correlation between PaBV infection and neurological signs in birds without gastrointestinal signs presented to the veterinarian in practice. It also may demonstrate a possible correlation with feather-damaging behaviour and anti-PaBV antibody presence. The antibody titre seems to represent a diagnostic tool to correlate clinical signs to PaBV as a cause.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Bornaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Mononegavirales/veterinária , Psittaciformes , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Plumas , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mononegavirales/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mononegavirales/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/veterinária , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Animais de Estimação , RNA Viral/análise
20.
Prev Vet Med ; 164: 10-12, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771889

RESUMO

This study aimed to perform the detection and molecular characterization of Giardia spp. in Psittaciformes from the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. Fecal samples were obtained from 359 adult exotic captive Psittaciformes belonging to 13 genera, randomly selected from 33 aviaries located in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil during a bird exhibition at the 2015 Ornithological Championship of the Ornithological Federation of Brazil (FOB). Nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the small subunit rRNA gene identified Giardia spp. in 93/359 (25.9%) fecal samples and 25/33 (75.8%) aviaries. Genetic sequencing identified G. psittaci in 12 birds from six genera. Zoonotic Giardia species was not detected in fecal samples from Psittaciformes.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Psittaciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardia/genética , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico/genética
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