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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 799-813, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480560

RESUMO

Although parrot species are infrequently infected by hemoparasites in the wild, some fatal infections have been reported in captive individuals. Conversely birds of prey are frequently infected by hemoparasites. In this study, 193 captive birds from Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) centers in Madrid, Spain, belonging to orders Psittaciformes, Accipitriformes, Strigiformes, and Falconiformes, were blood-sampled in search of parasite infections. Molecular and microscopic analyses were conducted to detect parasites of the following genera: Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Trypanosoma, Babesia, and Lankesterella. Infections by microfilariae and Coccidia were also searched in blood samples. Surprisingly, infections by Haemoproteus syrnii, a common parasite from owls, were detected in the cadavers of two species of parrots, Trichoglossus haematodus and Psittacula cyanocephala. The same haplotype was also detected in the cadavers of two owl species, Tyto alba and Strix rufipes. All these birds were housed and died in the same center. Infections by species of Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, and Trypanosoma were also found in different species of raptors. Nocturnal raptors (Strigiformes) show significantly higher prevalence of infection by blood parasites than diurnal raptors (Falconiformes and Accipitriformes). In conclusion, a potential fatal transmission of Haemoproteus syrnii, from Strigiformes to Psittaciformes species, is reported and several infections by different blood parasites were detected in birds of prey. These results emphasize the importance of increasing prevention measures to avoid or reduce the transmission of blood parasites among birds from different species housed in these types of centers.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Psittaciformes/parasitologia , Estrigiformes/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Haplótipos , Filogenia
3.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 685-691, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067667

RESUMO

Owls are predators that perform important ecological functions. There are several threats to owl conservation such as the bioaccumulation of chemicals through environmental contamination. The high probability of bioaccumulation in these animals is related to their role as predators and high trophic positions. The objective of this study was to quantify four elements (cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead) as the biomarkers of environmental exposure in owls. To this end, we analyzed pellets and feathers of different owl species. These matrices were contaminated with all four elements, with chromium most commonly detected. Chromium and nickel were found in the pellets in all 10 months of the study, and May was the month with the highest concentrations of all the elements. Tyto furcata appears to bioaccumulate more elements in its feathers than Megascops spp. and Athene cunicularia. Our findings showed bioaccumulation of these four elements in owls and their environment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Plumas/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Estrigiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Cromo/análise , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Níquel/análise
4.
Zootaxa ; 4779(4): zootaxa.4779.4.3, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055767

RESUMO

The Japanese species of the genus Strigiphilus Mjöberg, 1910 (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) are revised. Six species are recorded, including a new species belonging to the cursitans species-group: Strigiphilus stenocephalus new species, described from the type host Otus bakkamoena semitorques and based on specimens originally identified and reported by Uchida (1949) as Strigiphilus rostratus (Burmeister, 1838). A lectotype for Strigiphilus laticephalus (Uchida, 1949) (type host: Strix aluco yamadae) is designated and redescribed, and this louse species is synonymized under Strigiphilus cursor (Burmeister, 1838). Strigiphilus ceblebrachys (Denny, 1842), S. heterogenitalis Emerson Elbel, 1957 and S. tuleskovi Balát, 1958 are recorded for the first time in Japan. Also, Strix uralensis and Otus sunia japonicus are recorded as new hosts for Strigiphilus heterogenitalis and S. tuleskovi respectively.


Assuntos
Anoplura , Heterópteros , Iscnóceros , Estrigiformes , Animais , Japão
5.
Zootaxa ; 4830(3): zootaxa.4830.3.4, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056145

RESUMO

After reviewing the systematics and distribution of the living and fossil small West Indian taxa of Tytonidae (Tyto), we reached the following conclusions: (1) Strix tuidara J. E. Gray, 1827, type locality of Brazil, is the earliest available and correct name to be used in a binomen for New World mainland barn owls; (2) the North American mainland subspecies Tyto tuidara pratincola (Bonaparte, 1838), new combination, is resident in the Bahamas ("Tyto perlatus lucayanus" Riley, 1913, is a synonym), where it probably did not colonize until after the European introduction of Rattus Fischer, in Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti) where it became established in the 20th century, and subsequently in Puerto Rico; (3) Tyto furcata (Temminck, 1827) of Cuba, Jamaica and the Cayman Islands is a different species restricted to its insular distribution, with "T. alba niveicauda" Parkes Phillips, 1978, of the Isle of Pines (now Isla de la Juventud) as a synonym; (4) the distinct species Tyto glaucops (Kaup, 1852), now endemic to Hispaniola, once occurred in Puerto Rico, as the fossil species "T. cavatica" Wetmore, 1920, is here shown to be a synonym; (5) the smallest taxon Tyto insularis (Pelzeln, 1872) of the southern Lesser Antilles is treated as a separate species, in which the nominate subspecies T. i. insularis (St. Vincent, Grenada, and the Grenadines) differs slightly but consistently in coloration from T. i. nigrescens (Lawrence, 1878) of Dominica; (6) another barn owl, Tyto maniola, new species, of this group of small tytonids from the West Indies inhabited Cuba during part of the Quaternary, and is here named and described.


Assuntos
Estrigiformes , Animais , Fósseis , Ratos , Índias Ocidentais
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236155, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915780

RESUMO

Large brains in prey may select for adoption of anti-predator behavior that facilitates escape. Prey species with relatively large brains have been shown to be less likely to fall prey to predators. This results in the prediction that individuals that have been captured by predators on average should have smaller brains than sympatric conspecifics. We exploited the fact that Eurasian pygmy owls Glaucidium passerinum hoard small mammals and birds in cavities and nest-boxes for over-winter survival, allowing for comparison of the phenotype of prey with that of live conspecifics. In Northern Europe, main prey of pygmy owls are voles of the genera Myodes and Microtus, while forest birds and shrews are the most important alternative prey. Large fluctuations (amplitude 100-200-fold) in vole populations induce rapid numerical responses of pygmy owls to main prey populations, which in turn results in varying predation pressure on small birds. We found, weighed and measured 153 birds in food-stores of pygmy owls and mist-netted, weighed and measured 333 live birds of 12 species in central-western Finland during two autumns with low (2017) and high (2018) pygmy owl predation risk. In two autumns, individuals with large brains were captured later compared to individuals with small brains, consistent with the hypothesis that such individuals survived for longer. Avian prey of pygmy owls had smaller heads than live birds in autumn 2018 when predation risk by pygmy owls was high. This difference in head size was not significant in 2017 when predation risk by pygmy owls was reduced. Finally, avian survivors were in better body condition than avian prey individuals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that pygmy owls differentially prey on birds in poor condition with small brains. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that predation risk imposed by pygmy owls on small birds in boreal forests varies depending on the abundance of the main prey (voles).


Assuntos
Comportamento Predatório , Estrigiformes , Animais , Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Estações do Ano , Musaranhos/fisiologia , Estrigiformes/fisiologia , Taiga
7.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(5): 517-528, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776273

RESUMO

Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 is a large genus of acanthocephalans mainly parasitic in various strigiform and falconiform birds. Some species of Centrorhynchus have not been adequately described. Here, the detailed morphology of C. clitorideus (Meyer, 1931) was studied using light and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy, based on newly collected specimens from the little owl Athene noctua (Scopoli) (Strigiformes: Strigidae) in Pakistan. Partial sequences of the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) of C. clitorideus were generated for the first time. No nucleotide variation was detected for the partial 18S and 28S regions, but 3.30% of intraspecific nucleotide divergence was found for the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analyses based on 28S and 18S sequence data showed that C. clitorideus formed a sister relationship with Centrorhynchus sp. MGV-2005 or Centrorhynchus sp. MGV-2005 + C. microcephalus (Bravo-Hollis, 1947), respectively.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Estrigiformes/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/genética , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Paquistão , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Am Nat ; 196(2): 257-269, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673089

RESUMO

Kin selection and reciprocation of biological services are distinct theories invoked to explain the origin and evolutionary maintenance of altruistic and cooperative behaviors. Although these behaviors are not considered to be mutually exclusive, the cost-benefit balance of behaving altruistically or cooperating reciprocally and the conditions promoting a switch between such different strategies have rarely been tested. Here, we examine the association between allofeeding, allopreening, and vocal solicitations in wild barn owl (Tyto alba) broods under different food abundance conditions: natural food provisioning and after an experimental food supplementation. Allofeeding was performed mainly by elder nestlings (hatching is asynchronous) in prime condition, especially when the cost of forgoing a prey was small (when parents allocated more prey to the food donor and after food supplementation). Nestlings preferentially shared food with the siblings that emitted very intense calls, thus potentially increasing indirect fitness benefits, or with the siblings that provided extensive allopreening to the donor, thus possibly promoting direct benefits from reciprocation. Finally, allopreening was mainly directed toward older siblings, perhaps to maximize the probability of being fed in return. Helping behavior among relatives can therefore be driven by both kin selection and direct cooperation, although it is dependent on the contingent environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Irmãos , Estrigiformes/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Comportamento de Nidação , Suíça , Vocalização Animal
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140407, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603947

RESUMO

Variation of habitats and resources important for farmland birds seems to be only partly captured by ordinary statistics on land-use and agricultural production. For instance, densities of rodents being prey for owls and raptors or structures of rural architecture providing nesting sites for many species are central for bird diversity but are not reported in any official statistics. Thus, modelling species distributions, population abundance and trends of farmland birds may miss important predictive habitat elements. Here, we involve local socio-economy factors as a source of additional information on rural habitat to test whether it improves predictions of barn owl occurrence in 2768 churches across Poland. Barn owls occurred in 778 churches and seemed to prefer old churches made of brick located in regions with a milder climate, higher share of arable land and pastures, low road density and low levels of light pollution. Including data on local unemployment, the proportion of elder citizens, commune income per citizen, the share of citizens with high education and share of farmers among working population improved the model substantially and some of these variables predicted barn owl occurrence better than several land-use and climate data. Barn owls were more likely to occur in areas with high unemployment, a higher proportion of older citizens in a local population and higher share of farmers among working population. Importantly, the socio-economy variables were correlated with the barn owl occurrence despite all climatic, infrastructure and land-use data were present in the model. We conclude that the socio-economy of local societies may add important but overlooked information that links to spatial variation in farmland biodiversity.


Assuntos
Estrigiformes , Agricultura , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Polônia
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2975-2981, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683557

RESUMO

Haemosporidia infections may cause major damage to avian populations and represent a concern for veterinarians working in zoological parks or wildlife rescue centres. Following the fatal infection of 9 Great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) at Mulhouse zoological park, between summer 2013 and 2015, a prospective epidemiological investigation was performed in captive strigiform birds in France in 2016. The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in captive Strigiformes and to estimate the infection dynamics around the nesting period. Blood samples were taken from 122 strigiform birds representing 14 species from 15 French zoological parks. Parasites were detected by direct examination of blood smears and by PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Haemosporidian parasites were detected in 59 birds from 11 zoos. Three distinct Haemoproteus mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences (haplotypes A and C for H. syrnii and haplotype B for Haemoproteus sp.) as well as two species of Plasmodium were detected. The overall prevalence of Haemoproteus infection was 12.8%. The percentage of birds infected by Haemoproteus varied according to the period of sampling. Nesting season seemed to be at greater risk with an average prevalence of 53.9% compared with winter season with an average prevalence of 14.8%, related to the abundance of the vectors. The prevalence of Plasmodium infection in Strigiformes did not exceed 8% throughout the year. This study confirmed how significant Haemosporidia infection could be in Strigiformes from zoological parks in France. The nesting season was identified as a period of higher risk of infection and consequently the appropriate period to apply prophylactic measures.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estrigiformes/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Citocromos b/genética , França/epidemiologia , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/sangue , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
11.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 115012, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593922

RESUMO

Some metals and metalloids (e.g. Pb, Hg, Cd and As) are well-known for their bioaccumulation capacity and their toxic effects on birds, but concerns on other minor elements and rare earth elements (ME and REE) are growing due to their intensive use in modern technology and potential toxicity. Vitamins and carotenoids play essential roles in nestling growth and proper development, and are known to be affected by the metals classically considered as toxic. However, we are unaware of any attempts to evaluate the exposure to 50 elements and related effects in plasma vitamins and carotenoids in raptor species. The main goals of this study are: (i) to assess the exposure to 50 elements (i.e. classic toxic elements, trace elements, REE and ME) in nestling Eagle owls (Bubo bubo) inhabiting three differently polluted environments (mining, industrial and control areas) in southeastern Spain, and (ii) to evaluate how element exposure affects plasma vitamin and carotenoid levels, hematocrit and body measurements (mass and wing length) of the individuals. Our results show that local contamination in the mining area contributes to increased blood concentrations of Pb, As and Tl in nestlings, while diet differences between control and mining/industrial areas may account for the different levels of Mn, Zn, and Sr in blood, and lutein in plasma. Plasma tocopherol levels were increased in the mining-impacted environment, which may be a mechanism of protection to prevent toxic element-related oxidative stress. Plasma α-tocopherol was enhanced by 20% at blood Pb concentrations ≥8 ng/ml, and nestlings exhibited up to 56% increase in α-tocopherol levels when blood Pb concentrations reached 170 ng/ml. Tocopherol seems to be a sensitive biomarker under an exposure to certain toxic elements (e.g. Pb, As, Tl).


Assuntos
Estrigiformes , Oligoelementos , Animais , Mineração , Espanha , Vitaminas
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7267, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350332

RESUMO

Inhibition of return (IOR) is the reduction of detection speed and/or detection accuracy of a target in a recently attended location. This phenomenon, which has been discovered and studied thoroughly in humans, is believed to reflect a brain mechanism for controlling the allocation of spatial attention in a manner that enhances efficient search. Findings showing that IOR is robust, apparent at a very early age and seemingly dependent on midbrain activity suggest that IOR is a universal attentional mechanism in vertebrates. However, studies in non-mammalian species are scarce. To explore this hypothesis comparatively, we tested for IOR in barn owls (Tyto alba) using the classical Posner cueing paradigm. Two barn owls were trained to initiate a trial by fixating on the center of a computer screen and then turning their gaze to the location of a target. A short, non-informative cue appeared before the target, either at a location predicting the target (valid) or a location not predicting the target (invalid). In one barn owl, the response times (RT) to the valid targets compared to the invalid targets shifted from facilitation (lower RTs) to inhibition (higher RTs) when increasing the time lag between the cue and the target. The second owl mostly failed to maintain fixation and responded to the cue before the target onset. However, when including in the analysis only the trials in which the owl maintained fixation, an inhibition in the valid trials could be detected. To search for the neural correlates of IOR, we recorded multiunit responses in the optic tectum (OT) of four head-fixed owls passively viewing a cueing paradigm as in the behavioral experiments. At short cue to target lags (<100 ms), neural responses to the target in the receptive field (RF) were usually enhanced if the cue appeared earlier inside the RF (valid) and were suppressed if the cue appeared earlier outside the RF (invalid). This was reversed at longer lags: neural responses were suppressed in the valid conditions and were unaffected in the invalid conditions. The findings support the notion that IOR is a basic mechanism in the evolution of vertebrate behavior and suggest that the effect appears as a result of the interaction between lateral and forward inhibition in the tectal circuitry.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Fluxo Óptico/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Estrigiformes/fisiologia , Animais
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369484

RESUMO

Examination of genetic polymorphisms in outbred wild-living species provides insights into the evolution of complex systems. In higher vertebrates, the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor gives rise to α-, ß-, and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH), which are involved in numerous physiological aspects. Genetic defects in POMC are linked to metabolic disorders in humans and animals. In the present study, we undertook an evolutionary genetic approach complemented with biochemistry to investigate the functional consequences of genetic polymorphisms in the POMC system of free-living outbred barn owl species (family Tytonidae) at the molecular level. Our phylogenetic studies revealed a striking correlation between a loss-of-function H9P mutation in the ß-MSH receptor-binding motif and an extension of a poly-serine stretch in γ3-MSH to ≥7 residues that arose in the barn owl group 6-8 MYA ago. We found that extension of the poly-serine stretches in the γ-MSH locus affects POMC precursor processing, increasing γ3-MSH production at the expense of γ2-MSH and resulting in an overall reduction of γ-MSH signaling, which may be part of a negative feedback mechanism. Extension of the γ3-MSH poly-serine stretches ≥7 further markedly increases peptide hormone stability in plasma, which is conserved in humans, and is likely relevant to its endocrine function. In sum, our phylogenetic analysis of POMC in wild living owls uncovered a H9P ß-MSH mutation subsequent to serine extension in γ3-MSH to 7 residues, which was then followed by further serine extension. The linked MSH mutations highlight the genetic plasticity enabled by the modular design of the POMC gene.


Assuntos
Mutação com Perda de Função , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Estrigiformes/classificação , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais não Endogâmicos , Sítios de Ligação , Evolução Molecular , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Filogenia , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/química , Estabilidade Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Estrigiformes/genética , Estrigiformes/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
14.
J Neurosci ; 40(21): 4172-4184, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300047

RESUMO

The nucleus isthmi pars magnocellularis (Imc), a group of inhibitory neurons in the midbrain tegmentum, is a critical component of the spatial selection network in the vertebrate midbrain. It delivers long-range inhibition among different portions of the space map in the optic tectum (OT), thereby mediating stimulus competition in the OT. Here, we investigate the properties of relative strength-dependent competitive interactions within the Imc, in barn owls of both sexes. We find that when Imc neurons are presented simultaneously with one stimulus inside the receptive field and a second, competing stimulus outside, they exhibit gradual or switch-like response profiles as a function of relative stimulus strength. They do so both when the two stimuli are of the same sensory modality (both visual) or of different sensory modalities (visual and auditory). Moreover, Imc neurons signal the strongest stimulus in a dynamically flexible manner, indicating that Imc responses reflect an online comparison between the strengths of the competing stimuli. Notably, Imc neurons signal the strongest stimulus more categorically, and earlier than the OT. Paired recordings at spatially aligned sites in the Imc and OT reveal that although some properties of stimulus competition, such as the bias of competitive response profiles, are correlated, others such as the steepness of response profiles, are set independently. Our results demonstrate that the Imc is itself an active site of competition, and may be the first site in the midbrain selection network at which stimulus competition is resolved.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This work sheds light on the functional properties of a small group of inhibitory neurons in the vertebrate midbrain that play a key part in how the brain selects a target among competitors. A better understanding of the functioning of these neurons is an important building block for the broader understanding of how distracters are suppressed, and of spatial attention and its dysfunction.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Tegmento Mesencefálico/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Estrigiformes
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231591, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294116

RESUMO

A robust adaptation to environmental changes is vital for survival. Almost all living organisms have a circadian timing system that allows adjusting their physiology to cyclic variations in the surrounding environment. Among vertebrates, many birds are also seasonal species, adapting their physiology to annual changes in photoperiod (amplitude, length and duration). Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) are nocturnal birds of prey that use vocalization as their principal mechanism of communication. Diurnal and seasonal changes in vocalization have been described for several vocal species, including songbirds. Comparable studies are lacking for owls. In the present work, we show that male Tawny Owls present a periodic vocalization pattern in the seconds-to-minutes range that is subject to both daily (early vs. late night) and seasonal (spring vs. summer) rhythmicity. These novel theory-generating findings appear to extend the role of the circadian system in regulating temporal events in the seconds-to-minutes range to other species.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Estações do Ano , Estrigiformes/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 192, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human psittacosis, caused by Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, is likely underdiagnosed and underreported, since tests for C. psittaci are often not included in routine microbiological diagnostics. Source tracing traditionally focuses on psittacine pet birds, but recently other animal species have been gaining more attention as possible sources for human psittacosis. This review aims to provide an overview of all suspected animal sources of human psittacosis cases reported in the international literature. In addition, for each animal species the strength of evidence for zoonotic transmission was estimated. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using four databases (Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Proquest). Articles were included when there was mention of at least one human case of psittacosis and a possible animal source. Investigators independently extracted data from the included articles and estimated strength of evidence for zoonotic transmission, based on a self-developed scoring system taking into account number of human cases, epidemiological evidence and laboratory test results in human, animals, and the environment. RESULTS: Eighty articles were included, which provided information on 136 different situations of possible zoonotic transmission. The maximum score for zoonotic transmission was highest for turkeys, followed by ducks, owls, and the category 'other poultry'. Articles reporting about zoonotic transmission from unspecified birds, psittaciformes and columbiformes provided a relatively low strength of evidence. A genotypical match between human and animal samples was reported twenty-eight times, including transmission from chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, peafowl, pigeons, ducks, geese, songbirds, parrot-like birds and owls. CONCLUSIONS: Strong evidence exists for zoonotic transmission from turkeys, chickens and ducks, in addition to the more traditionally reported parrot-like animal sources. Based on our scoring system, the evidence was generally stronger for poultry than for parrot-like birds. Psittaciformes should not be disregarded as an important source of human psittacosis, still clinicians and public health officials should include poultry and birds species other than parrots in medical history and source tracing.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Columbidae/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Psitacose/microbiologia , Saúde Pública , Administração em Saúde Pública , Aves Canoras/microbiologia , Estrigiformes/microbiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0226089, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049995

RESUMO

There is a growing need to understand how species respond to habitat changes and the potential key role played by natal dispersal in population dynamics, structure and gene flow. However, few studies have explored differences in this process between conspecifics living in natural habitats and those inhabiting landscapes highly transformed by humans, such as cities. Here, we investigate how individual traits and social characteristics can influence the natal dispersal decisions of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) living in urban and rural areas, as well as the consequences in terms of reproductive success and apparent survival. We found short dispersal movements among individuals, with differences between urban and rural birds (i.e., the former covering shorter distances than the latter), maybe because of the higher conspecific density of urban compared to rural areas. Moreover, we found that urban and rural females as well as bold individuals (i.e., individuals with shorter flight initiation distance) exhibited longer dispersal distances than their counterparts. These dispersal decisions have effects on individual fitness. Individuals traveling longer distances increased their reproductive prospects (productivity during the first breeding attempt, and long term productivity). However, the apparent survival of females decreased when they dispersed farther from their natal territory. Although further research is needed to properly understand the ecological and evolutionary consequences of dispersal patterns in transformed habitats, our results provide information about the drivers and the consequences of the restricted natal movements of this species, which may explain its population structuring through restricted gene flow between and within urban and rural areas.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Pradaria , Personalidade/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , População Rural , Estrigiformes/fisiologia , População Urbana , Animais , Argentina , Cruzamento , Feminino , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais
18.
J Morphol ; 281(4-5): 450-464, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053241

RESUMO

Barn Owls (Tytonidae) are nocturnal raptors with the largest geographical distribution among Strigiformes. Several osteological, morphometrical, and biomechanical studies of this species were performed by previous authors. Nevertheless, the myology of forelimb and tail of the Barn Owls is virtually unknown. This study is the first detailed myological study performed on the wing and tail of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata). A total of 11 specimens were dissected and their morphology and muscle masses were described. Although T. furcata has the wing and tail myological pattern present in other species of Strigiformes, some peculiarities were observed including a difference in the attachment of m. pectoralis propatagialis due to the lack of the os prominence, and the presence of an osseous arch in the radius that seems to widen the anchorage area of the mm. pronator profundus, extensor longus alulae, and extensor longus digiti majoris. Furthermore, the m. biceps brachii has an unusual extra belly that flexes the forearm. The interosseous muscles have a small size and lacks ossified tendons. This feature may be indicative of a lower specialization in the elevation and flexion of the digiti majoris. Forelimb and tail muscle mass account for 10.66 and 0.24% of the total body mass, respectively. Forelimb muscle mass value is similar to the nocturnal (Strigiformes) and diurnal (Falconidae and Accipitridae) raptors, while the tail value is lower than in the diurnal raptors (Falconidae and Accipitridae). The myological differences with other birds of prey are here interpreted in association with their "parachuting" hunting style. This work complements our knowledge of the axial musculature of the American Barn owls, and provides important information for future studies related to functional morphology and ecomorphology.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Estrigiformes/anatomia & histologia , Cauda/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Tamanho do Órgão , Estrigiformes/fisiologia
19.
Oecologia ; 192(3): 699-711, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008080

RESUMO

Fluctuations in the abundance of main prey species might shape animal communities, by inducing numerical responses and dietary shifts in predators. Whether numerical responses and dietary shifts differ among individuals of different age and sex has so far gained little attention. These differences could affect how much predators consume main and alternative prey, thus causing variation in predation pressure on main and alternative prey species. We studied the effect of fluctuating main prey abundance (voles) in autumn on the age and sex composition of a food-hoarding population of Eurasian pygmy owls Glaucidium passerinum (327 individuals), and on the species composition of their food stores in western Finland during 2003-2017 (629 food stores). Numbers of yearlings (< 1-year old) of both sexes and adult (+ 1-year old) females increased with increasing vole abundance. During low vole abundance, adult owls stored more small birds and less small mammals than yearlings. Females stored more small mammals than males and showed a tendency to store less birds. The amount of consumed birds (the most important alternative prey), and in particular of crested, willow, great, and blue tits, increased with low vole densities. Our results show that numerical, functional, and total responses of pygmy owls, and probably also other vertebrate predators, to the availability of the main prey in winter are shaped by the age and sex composition of the predator population, which both show large spatio-temporal variation in boreal forests.


Assuntos
Comportamento Predatório , Estrigiformes , Animais , Arvicolinae , Feminino , Finlândia , Cavalos , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional
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