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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 398, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In December 2019 a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that is causing the current COVID-19 pandemic was identified in Wuhan, China. Many questions have been raised about its origin and adaptation to humans. In the present work we performed a genetic analysis of the Spike glycoprotein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 and other related coronaviruses (CoVs) isolated from different hosts in order to trace the evolutionary history of this protein and the adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 to humans. RESULTS: Based on the sequence analysis of the S gene, we suggest that the origin of SARS-CoV-2 is the result of recombination events between bat and pangolin CoVs. The hybrid SARS-CoV-2 ancestor jumped to humans and has been maintained by natural selection. Although the S protein of RaTG13 bat CoV has a high nucleotide identity with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2, the phylogenetic tree and the haplotype network suggest a non-direct parental relationship between these CoVs. Moreover, it is likely that the basic function of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of S protein was acquired by the SARS-CoV-2 from the MP789 pangolin CoV by recombination and it has been highly conserved.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Coronaviridae/genética , Recombinação Genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Quirópteros/virologia , Eutérios/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Furina/metabolismo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
2.
Open Vet J ; 10(2): 164-177, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821661

RESUMO

Viruses are having great time as they seem to have bogged humans down. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are the three major coronaviruses of present-day global human and animal health concern. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is identified as the newest disease, presumably of bat origin. Different theories on the evolution of viruses are in circulation, yet there is no denying the fact that the animal source is the skeleton. The whole world is witnessing the terror of the COVID-19 pandemic that is following the same path of SARS and MERS, and seems to be more severe. In addition to humans, several species of animals are reported to have been infected with these life-threatening viruses. The possible routes of transmission and their zoonotic potentialities are the subjects of intense research. This review article aims to overview the link of all these three deadly coronaviruses among animals along with their phylogenic evolution and cross-species transmission. This is essential since animals as pets or food are said to pose some risk, and their better understanding is a must in order to prepare a possible plan for future havoc in both human and animal health. Although COVID-19 is causing a human health hazard globally, its reporting in animals are limited compared to SARS and MERS. Non-human primates and carnivores are most susceptible to SARS-coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, respectively, whereas the dromedary camel is susceptible to MERS-coronavirus. Phylogenetically, the trio viruses are reported to have originated from bats and have special capacity to undergo mutation and genomic recombination in order to infect humans through its reservoir or replication host. However, it is difficult to analyze how the genomic pattern of coronaviruses occurs. Thus, increased possibility of new virus-variants infecting humans and animals in the upcoming days seems to be the biggest challenge for the future of the world. One health approach is portrayed as our best way ahead, and understanding the animal dimension will go a long way in formulating such preparedness plans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Vírus da SARS/classificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Betacoronavirus/genética , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Gatos , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Cães , Eutérios/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Leões/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Primatas/virologia , Cães Guaxinins/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Serpentes/virologia , Tigres/virologia , Viverridae/virologia
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1928): 20200943, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517606

RESUMO

The estimation of the timing of major divergences in early mammal evolution is challenging owing to conflicting interpretations of key fossil taxa. One contentious group is Haramiyida, the earliest members of which are from the Late Triassic. Many phylogenetic analyses have placed haramiyidans in a clade with multituberculates within crown Mammalia, thus extending the minimum divergence date for the crown group deep into the Triassic. A second taxon of interest is the eutherian Juramaia from the Middle-Late Jurassic Yanliao Biota, which is morphologically very similar to eutherians from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota and implies a very early origin for therian mammals. Here, we apply Bayesian tip-dated phylogenetic methods to investigate these issues. Tip dating firmly rejects a monophyletic Allotheria (multituberculates and haramiyidans), which are split into three separate clades, a result not found in any previous analysis. Most notably, the Late Triassic Haramiyavia and Thomasia are separate from the Middle Jurassic euharamiyidans. We also test whether the Middle-Late Jurassic age of Juramaia is 'expected' given its known morphology by assigning an age prior without hard bounds. Strikingly, this analysis supports an Early Cretaceous age for Juramaia, but similar analyses on 12 other mammaliaforms from the Yanliao Biota return the correct, Jurassic age. Our results show that analyses incorporating stratigraphic data can produce results very different from other methods. Early mammal evolution may have involved multiple instances of convergent morphological evolution (e.g. in the dentition), and tip dating may be a method uniquely suitable to recognizing this owing to the incorporation of stratigraphic data. Our results also confirm that Juramaia is anomalous in exhibiting a much more derived morphology than expected given its age, which in turn implies very high rates of evolution at the base of therian mammals.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Mamíferos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Biota , Eutérios , Fósseis , Mandíbula , Filogenia
5.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 265-274, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549554

RESUMO

The thoracic limb anatomy of anteaters in the family Myrmecophagidae is specialized for accessing termite and ant nests and for defense purposes. In the case of the northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana), the forelimbs are also adapted for arboreal and terrestrial locomotion. Unfortunately, this species faces many conservation threats, such as habitat loss and traffic accidents, and injured individuals are frequently taken to wildlife rehabilitation centers. However, lack of knowledge of the radiographic osteoanatomy of this species may prevent appropriate management of injuries and thereby reduce the chances of successful release and survival. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this article describes for the first time the radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the northern tamandua using four standard views and one additional view. The additional orthogonal view helps visualize structures, such as the hamatus process and the sesamoid bone, that are otherwise difficult to visualize due to the natural forearm position of anteaters. Additionally, some fractures and physeal growth plates were identified in one juvenile individual. Further radiographic investigations should be conducted on anteaters to provide more tools for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of these animals.


Assuntos
Cingulados/anatomia & histologia , Membro Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Eutérios/anatomia & histologia , Membro Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Radiografia/veterinária
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4389089, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596311

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new viral infection caused by the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Genomic analyses have revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is related to Pangolin and Bat coronaviruses. In this report, a structural comparison between the Sars-CoV-2 Envelope and Membrane proteins from different human isolates with homologous proteins from closely related viruses is described. The analyses here reported show the high structural similarity of Envelope and Membrane proteins to the counterparts from Pangolin and Bat coronavirus isolates. However, the comparisons have also highlighted structural differences specific of Sars-CoV-2 proteins which may be correlated to the cross-species transmission and/or to the properties of the virus. Structural modelling has been applied to map the variant sites onto the predicted three-dimensional structure of the Envelope and Membrane proteins.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/química , Alphacoronavirus/química , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronaviridae/química , Coronaviridae/classificação , Coronaviridae/genética , Eutérios/virologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Conformação Proteica , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade da Espécie , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética
7.
Genomics ; 112(5): 3226-3237, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540495

RESUMO

A global emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic demands various studies related to genes and genomes of the SARS-CoV2. Among other important proteins, the role of accessory proteins are of immense importance in replication, regulation of infections of the coronavirus in the hosts. The largest accessory protein in the SARS-CoV2 genome is ORF3a which modulates the host response to the virus infection and consequently it plays an important role in pathogenesis. In this study, an attempt is made to decipher the conservation of nucleotides, dimers, codons and amino acids in the ORF3a genes across thirty-two genomes of Indian patients. ORF3a gene possesses single and double point mutations in Indian SARS-CoV2 genomes suggesting the change of SARS-CoV2's virulence property in Indian patients. We find that the parental origin of the ORF3a gene over the genomes of SARS-CoV2 and Pangolin-CoV is same from the phylogenetic analysis based on conservation of nucleotides and so on. This study highlights the accumulation of mutation on ORF3a in Indian SARS-CoV2 genomes which may provide the designing therapeutic approach against SARS-CoV2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Sequência Conservada , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Mutação , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Biológica , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Eutérios/virologia , Genoma Viral , Genômica , Humanos , Índia , Pandemias , Filogenia , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/química , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1929): 20200665, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576117

RESUMO

Early lagomorphs are central to our understanding of how the brain evolved in Glires (rodents, lagomorphs and their kin) from basal members of Euarchontoglires (Glires + Euarchonta, the latter grouping primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Here, we report the first virtual endocast of the fossil lagomorph Megalagus turgidus, from the Orella Member of the Brule Formation, early Oligocene, Nebraska, USA. The specimen represents one of the oldest nearly complete lagomorph skulls known. Primitive aspects of the endocranial morphology in Megalagus include large olfactory bulbs, exposure of the midbrain, a small neocortex and a relatively low encephalization quotient. Overall, this suggests a brain morphology closer to that of other basal members of Euarchontoglires (e.g. plesiadapiforms and ischyromyid rodents) than to that of living lagomorphs. However, the well-developed petrosal lobules in Megalagus, comparable to the condition in modern lagomorphs, suggest early specialization in that order for the stabilization of eye movements necessary for accurate visual tracking. Our study sheds new light on the reconstructed morphology of the ancestral brain in Euarchontoglires and fills a critical gap in the understanding of palaeoneuroanatomy of this major group of placental mammals.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Eutérios , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Lagomorpha , Bulbo Olfatório , Filogenia , Primatas , Roedores
9.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(6): 4827-4833, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-277073

RESUMO

Pangolins, or scaly anteaters, have recently been flagshiped as one of the most illegally traded mammals, and as a corollary, as potential intermediate hosts at the origin of the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to improve the traceability of their trade, we developed 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the white-bellied pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), the species most frequently found on African bushmeat markets. We genotyped 24 white-bellied pangolins from the Douala market, Cameroon, originating from the Ebo forest c. 75 km north-east of Douala. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 12 (mean = 6.95), and mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.592 (0.208-0.875) and 0.671 (0.469-0.836), respectively. Genetic diversity was higher than that cross-estimated from microsatellite loci developed for other species of pangolins. Two loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two loci showed linkage disequilibrium. Genetic variance (PCoA) was increased with the addition of 13 pangolins of unknown origin, possibly suggesting that the Douala market is fed from differentiated source populations of white-bellied pangolins. Each of the 37 individuals had a unique multilocus genotype. The unbiased probability of identity (uPI) and the probability of identity among siblings (PIsibs) were both very low (uPI = 8.443 e-21; PIsibs = 1.011 e-07). Only five microsatellite loci were needed to reach the conservative value of PIsibs < 0.01, overall indicating a powerful discriminating power of our combined loci. These 20 newly developed microsatellite loci might prove useful in tracing the local-to-global trade of the white-bellied pangolin, and will hopefully contribute to the DNA-assisted implementation of future conservation strategies at reasonable costs.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Eutérios/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão , Alelos , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Eutérios/virologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(5): e1008421, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260623

RESUMO

The outbreak of a novel corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the city of Wuhan, China has resulted in more than 1.7 million laboratory confirmed cases all over the world. Recent studies showed that SARS-CoV-2 was likely originated from bats, but its intermediate hosts are still largely unknown. In this study, we assembled the complete genome of a coronavirus identified in 3 sick Malayan pangolins. The molecular and phylogenetic analyses showed that this pangolin coronavirus (pangolin-CoV-2020) is genetically related to the SARS-CoV-2 as well as a group of bat coronaviruses but do not support the SARS-CoV-2 emerged directly from the pangolin-CoV-2020. Our study suggests that pangolins are natural hosts of Betacoronaviruses. Large surveillance of coronaviruses in pangolins could improve our understanding of the spectrum of coronaviruses in pangolins. In addition to conservation of wildlife, minimizing the exposures of humans to wildlife will be important to reduce the spillover risks of coronaviruses from wild animals to humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Eutérios/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Coronaviridae/classificação , Coronaviridae/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
12.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186537

RESUMO

In numerous instances, tracking the biological significance of a nucleic acid sequence can be augmented through the identification of environmental niches in which the sequence of interest is present. Many metagenomic data sets are now available, with deep sequencing of samples from diverse biological niches. While any individual metagenomic data set can be readily queried using web-based tools, meta-searches through all such data sets are less accessible. In this brief communication, we demonstrate such a meta-metagenomic approach, examining close matches to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in all high-throughput sequencing data sets in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive accessible with the "virome" keyword. In addition to the homology to bat coronaviruses observed in descriptions of the SARS-CoV-2 sequence (F. Wu, S. Zhao, B. Yu, Y. M. Chen, et al., Nature 579:265-269, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3; P. Zhou, X. L. Yang, X. G. Wang, B. Hu, et al., Nature 579:270-273, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7), we note a strong homology to numerous sequence reads in metavirome data sets generated from the lungs of deceased pangolins reported by Liu et al. (P. Liu, W. Chen, and J. P. Chen, Viruses 11:979, 2019, https://doi.org/10.3390/v11110979). While analysis of these reads indicates the presence of a similar viral sequence in pangolin lung, the similarity is not sufficient to either confirm or rule out a role for pangolins as an intermediate host in the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2. In addition to the implications for SARS-CoV-2 emergence, this study illustrates the utility and limitations of meta-metagenomic search tools in effective and rapid characterization of potentially significant nucleic acid sequences.IMPORTANCE Meta-metagenomic searches allow for high-speed, low-cost identification of potentially significant biological niches for sequences of interest.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Eutérios/virologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Metagenômica/métodos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pneumopatias/virologia , Alinhamento de Sequência
13.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 169-182, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244904

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread over 210 countries and territories beyond China shortly. On February 29, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) denoted it in a high-risk category, and on March 11, 2020, this virus was designated pandemic, after its declaration being a Public Health International Emergency on January 30, 2020. World over high efforts are being made to counter and contain this virus. The COVID-19 outbreak once again proves the potential of the animal-human interface to act as the primary source of emerging zoonotic diseases. Even though the circumstantial evidence suggests the possibility of an initial zoonotic emergence, it is too early to confirm the role of intermediate hosts such as snakes, pangolins, turtles, and other wild animals in the origin of SARS-CoV-2, in addition to bats, the natural hosts of multiple coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The lessons learned from past episodes of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV are being exploited to retort this virus. Best efforts are being taken up by worldwide nations to implement effective diagnosis, strict vigilance, heightened surveillance, and monitoring, along with adopting appropriate preventive and control strategies. Identifying the possible zoonotic emergence and the exact mechanism responsible for its initial transmission will help us to design and implement appropriate preventive barriers against the further transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This review discusses in brief about the COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 with a particular focus on the role of animals, the veterinary and associated zoonotic links along with prevention and control strategies based on One-health approaches.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Saúde Única , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Camelus , Gatos , Quirópteros , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cães , Eutérios , Furões , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Modelos Animais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Serpentes , Tigres , Vacinas Virais , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Viverridae , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Zoonoses/virologia
14.
Curr Biol ; 30(11): 2196-2203.e3, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232567

RESUMO

The unprecedented pandemic of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, in China and beyond has had major public health impacts on a global scale [1, 2]. Although bats are regarded as the most likely natural hosts for SARS-CoV-2 [3], the origins of the virus remain unclear. Here, we report a novel bat-derived coronavirus, denoted RmYN02, identified from a metagenomic analysis of samples from 227 bats collected from Yunnan Province in China between May and October 2019. Notably, RmYN02 shares 93.3% nucleotide identity with SARS-CoV-2 at the scale of the complete virus genome and 97.2% identity in the 1ab gene, in which it is the closest relative of SARS-CoV-2 reported to date. In contrast, RmYN02 showed low sequence identity (61.3%) to SARS-CoV-2 in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and might not bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Critically, and in a similar manner to SARS-CoV-2, RmYN02 was characterized by the insertion of multiple amino acids at the junction site of the S1 and S2 subunits of the spike (S) protein. This provides strong evidence that such insertion events can occur naturally in animal betacoronaviruses.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Mutagênese Insercional , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/química , Eutérios/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus da SARS/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química
16.
Nature ; 583(7815): 286-289, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380510

RESUMO

The current outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) poses unprecedented challenges to global health1. The new coronavirus responsible for this outbreak-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-shares high sequence identity to SARS-CoV and a bat coronavirus, RaTG132. Although bats may be the reservoir host for a variety of coronaviruses3,4, it remains unknown whether SARS-CoV-2 has additional host species. Here we show that a coronavirus, which we name pangolin-CoV, isolated from a Malayan pangolin has 100%, 98.6%, 97.8% and 90.7% amino acid identity with SARS-CoV-2 in the E, M, N and S proteins, respectively. In particular, the receptor-binding domain of the S protein of pangolin-CoV is almost identical to that of SARS-CoV-2, with one difference in a noncritical amino acid. Our comparative genomic analysis suggests that SARS-CoV-2 may have originated in the recombination of a virus similar to pangolin-CoV with one similar to RaTG13. Pangolin-CoV was detected in 17 out of the 25 Malayan pangolins that we analysed. Infected pangolins showed clinical signs and histological changes, and circulating antibodies against pangolin-CoV reacted with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2. The isolation of a coronavirus from pangolins that is closely related to SARS-CoV-2 suggests that these animals have the potential to act as an intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2. This newly identified coronavirus from pangolins-the most-trafficked mammal in the illegal wildlife trade-could represent a future threat to public health if wildlife trade is not effectively controlled.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Eutérios/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , China , Quirópteros/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Genômica , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Malásia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Recombinação Genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Células Vero , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
17.
J Infect Dis ; 222(2): 223-233, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433742

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was discovered as a novel pathogen in the 2002-2003 SARS epidemic. The emergence and disappearance of this pathogen have brought questions regarding its source and evolution. Within the genome sequences of 281 SARS-CoVs, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and SARS-related CoVs (SARSr-CoVs), a ~430 bp genomic region (from 27 701 bp to 28 131 bp in AY390556.1) with regular variations was investigated. This ~430 bp region overlaps with the ORF8 gene and is prone to deletions and nucleotide substitutions. Its complexity suggested the need for a new genotyping method for coronaviruses related to SARS-similar coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, SARSr-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2). Bat SARSr-CoV presented 3 genotypes, of which type 0 is only seen in bat SARSr-CoV, type I is present in SARS in the early phase, and type II is found in all SARS-CoV-2. This genotyping also shows potential usage in distinguishing the SARS-similar coronaviruses from different hosts and geographic areas. This genomic region has important implications for predicting the epidemic trend and studying the evolution of coronavirus.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Vírus da SARS/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Quirópteros/virologia , Eutérios/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Genes Virais , Variação Genética , Humanos , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Deleção de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Viverridae/virologia
18.
Curr Biol ; 30(11): 2196-2203.e3, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416074

RESUMO

The unprecedented pandemic of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, in China and beyond has had major public health impacts on a global scale [1, 2]. Although bats are regarded as the most likely natural hosts for SARS-CoV-2 [3], the origins of the virus remain unclear. Here, we report a novel bat-derived coronavirus, denoted RmYN02, identified from a metagenomic analysis of samples from 227 bats collected from Yunnan Province in China between May and October 2019. Notably, RmYN02 shares 93.3% nucleotide identity with SARS-CoV-2 at the scale of the complete virus genome and 97.2% identity in the 1ab gene, in which it is the closest relative of SARS-CoV-2 reported to date. In contrast, RmYN02 showed low sequence identity (61.3%) to SARS-CoV-2 in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and might not bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Critically, and in a similar manner to SARS-CoV-2, RmYN02 was characterized by the insertion of multiple amino acids at the junction site of the S1 and S2 subunits of the spike (S) protein. This provides strong evidence that such insertion events can occur naturally in animal betacoronaviruses.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Mutagênese Insercional , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/química , Eutérios/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus da SARS/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(5): e1008421, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407364

RESUMO

The outbreak of a novel corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the city of Wuhan, China has resulted in more than 1.7 million laboratory confirmed cases all over the world. Recent studies showed that SARS-CoV-2 was likely originated from bats, but its intermediate hosts are still largely unknown. In this study, we assembled the complete genome of a coronavirus identified in 3 sick Malayan pangolins. The molecular and phylogenetic analyses showed that this pangolin coronavirus (pangolin-CoV-2020) is genetically related to the SARS-CoV-2 as well as a group of bat coronaviruses but do not support the SARS-CoV-2 emerged directly from the pangolin-CoV-2020. Our study suggests that pangolins are natural hosts of Betacoronaviruses. Large surveillance of coronaviruses in pangolins could improve our understanding of the spectrum of coronaviruses in pangolins. In addition to conservation of wildlife, minimizing the exposures of humans to wildlife will be important to reduce the spillover risks of coronaviruses from wild animals to humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Eutérios/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Coronaviridae/classificação , Coronaviridae/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
20.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 169-182, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393111

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread over 210 countries and territories beyond China shortly. On February 29, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) denoted it in a high-risk category, and on March 11, 2020, this virus was designated pandemic, after its declaration being a Public Health International Emergency on January 30, 2020. World over high efforts are being made to counter and contain this virus. The COVID-19 outbreak once again proves the potential of the animal-human interface to act as the primary source of emerging zoonotic diseases. Even though the circumstantial evidence suggests the possibility of an initial zoonotic emergence, it is too early to confirm the role of intermediate hosts such as snakes, pangolins, turtles, and other wild animals in the origin of SARS-CoV-2, in addition to bats, the natural hosts of multiple coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The lessons learned from past episodes of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV are being exploited to retort this virus. Best efforts are being taken up by worldwide nations to implement effective diagnosis, strict vigilance, heightened surveillance, and monitoring, along with adopting appropriate preventive and control strategies. Identifying the possible zoonotic emergence and the exact mechanism responsible for its initial transmission will help us to design and implement appropriate preventive barriers against the further transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This review discusses in brief about the COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 with a particular focus on the role of animals, the veterinary and associated zoonotic links along with prevention and control strategies based on One-health approaches.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Saúde Única , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Camelus , Gatos , Quirópteros , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cães , Eutérios , Furões , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Modelos Animais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Serpentes , Tigres , Vacinas Virais , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Viverridae , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Zoonoses/virologia
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