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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785421

RESUMO

In an enclosure with nine collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) from the Rio de Janeiro city Zoo, Brazil, one specimen was found dead and two others developed prostration, apathy and dehydration, resulting on its death. Necropsy of two animals pointed to pulmonary and renal damage. Histological examination revealed vasculitis in spleen from both P. tajacu, suggesting a systemic viral infection. Lungs from one specimen showed fibrinoid vasculitis, alveolar damage with hyaline membrane, and interstitial lymphocytes infiltration. Virome analysis in anal wash samples from the latter two animals revealed a new type of Betacoronavirus, lineage A, provisionally named Ptajacu-CoV.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1926): 20200035, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370675

RESUMO

Previous studies to understand the evolution of interspecific variation in mammalian social organization (SO; composition of social units) produced inconsistent results, possibly by ignoring intraspecific variation. Here we present systematic data on SO in artiodactyl populations, coding SO as solitary, pair-living, group-living, sex-specific or variable (different kinds of SOs in the same population). We found that 62% of 245 populations and 83% of species (83/100) exhibited variable SO. Using Bayesian phylogenetic mixed-effects models, we simultaneously tested whether research effort, habitat, sexual dimorphism, breeding seasonality or body size predicted the likelihood of different SOs and inferred the ancestral SO. Body size and sexual dimorphism were strongly associated with different SOs. Contingent on the small body size (737 g) and putative sexual monomorphism of the earliest fossil artiodactyl, the ancestral SO was most likely to be pair-living (probability = 0.76, 95% CI = 0-1), followed by variable (p = 0.19, 95% CI = 0-0.99). However, at body size values typical of extant species, variable SO becomes the dominant form (p = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.18-1.00). Distinguishing different kinds of 'variable' highlights transitions from SOs involving pair-living to SOs involving solitary and/or group-living with increasing body size and dimorphism. Our results support the assumption that ancestral artiodactyl was pair-living and highlight the ubiquity of intraspecific variation in SO.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Evolução Biológica , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Caracteres Sexuais
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231724, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muskoxen are a key species of Arctic ecosystems and are important for food security and socio-economic well-being of many Indigenous communities in the Arctic and Subarctic. Between 2009 and 2014, the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated for the first time in this species in association with multiple mortality events in Canada and Alaska, raising questions regarding the spatiotemporal occurrence of the pathogen and its potential impact on muskox populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We adapted a commercial porcine E. rhusiopathiae enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to test 958 blood samples that were collected from muskoxen from seven regions in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic between 1976 and 2017. The cut-off between negative and positive results was established using mixture-distribution analysis, a data-driven approach. Based on 818 samples for which a serological status could be determined and with complete information, we calculated trends in sample seroprevalences in population time-series and compared them with population trends in the investigated regions. RESULTS: Overall, 219/818 (27.8%, 95% Confidence Interval: 24.7-31.0) samples were classified as positive for exposure to E. rhusiopathiae. There were large variations between years and regions. Seropositive animals were found among the earliest serum samples tested; 1976 in Alaska and 1991 in Canada. In Alaskan muskoxen, sample seroprevalence increased after 2000 and, in two regions, peak seroprevalences occurred simultaneously with population declines. In one of these regions, concurrent unusual mortalities were observed and E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from muskox carcasses. In Canada, there was an increase in sample seroprevalence in two muskox populations following known mortality events that had been attributed to E. rhusiopathiae. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate widespread exposure of muskoxen to E. rhusiopathiae in western Canada and Alaska. Although not new to the Arctic, we documented an increased exposure to the pathogen in several regions concurrent with population declines. Understanding causes for the apparent increased occurrence of this pathogen and its association with large scale mortality events for muskoxen is critical to evaluate the implications for wildlife and wildlife-dependent human populations in the Arctic.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/microbiologia , Infecções por Erysipelothrix , Erysipelothrix/isolamento & purificação , Alaska , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Infecções por Erysipelothrix/epidemiologia , Infecções por Erysipelothrix/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1926): 20193000, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345142

RESUMO

In many regions of the world, populations of large wildlife have been displaced by livestock, and this may change the functioning of aquatic ecosystems owing to significant differences in the quantity and quality of their dung. We developed a model for estimating loading rates of organic matter (dung) by cattle for comparison with estimated rates for hippopotamus in the Mara River, Kenya. We then conducted a replicated mesocosm experiment to measure ecosystem effects of nutrient and carbon inputs associated with dung from livestock (cattle) versus large wildlife (hippopotamus). Our loading model shows that per capita dung input by cattle is lower than for hippos, but total dung inputs by cattle constitute a significant portion of loading from large herbivores owing to the large numbers of cattle on the landscape. Cattle dung transfers higher amounts of limiting nutrients, major ions and dissolved organic carbon to aquatic ecosystems relative to hippo dung, and gross primary production and microbial biomass were higher in cattle dung treatments than in hippo dung treatments. Our results demonstrate that different forms of animal dung may influence aquatic ecosystems in fundamentally different ways when introduced into aquatic ecosystems as a terrestrially derived resource subsidy.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/fisiologia , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Animais , Biomassa , Herbivoria , Quênia , Gado/fisiologia , Recursos Naturais , Rios
5.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 222-227, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212567

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is the most common zoonotic disease worldwide and is considered endemic in countries with tropical climates. It is caused by 10 species of the Leptospira genus and by more than 275 serovars which can affect a wide range of vertebrates. In the Americas, 122 species of four classes of vertebrates have been reported to be infected or exposed to many Leptospira species. Many of these reports are from zoos and rehabilitation centers. Mexico has one single study that reported antibody titers against Leptospira in zoo animals. The purpose of this research was to identify the degree of exposure of some captive mammals and reptiles in Veracruz, a Mexican state with endemic leptospirosis, through microagglutination using 14 live strains of five Leptospira species. Sera samples were collected from 55 animals of 11 species from two classes (Mammalia and Reptilia), four orders (Primates, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Crocodilia), and nine genera. The more prevalent serovars were Icterohaemorrhagiae and Tarassovi and the highest titers were reactive to the serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae with a value of 1: 51,200.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Artiodáctilos , Carnívoros , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Primatas , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
6.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109917, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063305

RESUMO

Use of wild tree species by smallholder farmers for various purposes is crucially important for their daily livelihoods. However, the growing demand for these natural resources could lead to their overexploitation and environmental change. The aims of this ethnobotanical research in the Wechiau Community-based Hippopotamus Sanctuary (WCHS) were to i) document wild tree species, uses and analyze their cultural importance, ii) investigate socio-demographic variables of smallholder farmers influencing their traditional knowledge on wild tree species and uses, and iii) examine smallholder farmers ' perceptions about the establishment of the WCHS. To attain the above-stated aims, 135 smallholder farmers were interviewed in nine villages belonging to the Waala and Birfor ethnic groups. The primary data were subjected to rigorous statistical analysis (using Cognitive Salience index reflecting cultural importance, univariate and use value analysis). Given the results of this study, the WCHS is enriched with 43 ethnoecologically important wild tree species belonging to 22 families and 41 genera. This study showed that eight topmost wild tree species in descending order of cultural importance included Vitellaria paradoxa, Burkea Africana, Diospyrous mespiliformis, Bombax costatum, Parkia biglobosa, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Terminalia avicennioides and Acacia gourmaensis. It is also established in this paper that the family cultural importance for Fabaceae and Sapotaceae is predominantly high as reflected in the frequency and ranking of citations of wild tree species under these families by local informants. The 43 wild tree species cited by local informants were categorized into nine different uses including food (9 species), forage (30), firewood (40), medicine (6), construction (9), soil improvement (3), social use (2), gardening (5) and fiber/ropes (2). Among these use categories, firewood, forage, food and construction topped the list as the most culturally important to the smallholder farmers. It is also revealed that the traditional knowledge on varied wild tree species and their uses was significantly affected by age of smallholder farmers (ps < 0.05), but not ethnicity and other factors. This study thus suggests the need for community-based conservation measures for sustainable management of natural resources for rural livelihood improvement in the tropics and sub-tropics.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos , Árvores , Animais , Grupos Étnicos , Etnobotânica , Gana , Humanos
7.
Behav Processes ; 171: 104031, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899275

RESUMO

Captive-born animals frequently lose their anti-predatory abilities due to the absence of encounters with their predators, but these abilities can be regained through specific training. Anti-predator training can, thus, enhance the success of reintroduction programs with predator naïve animals. In addition, a good memory is important to guarantee the effects of the anti-predator training and increase survival rate after release into the wild. In the present study, anti-predator training sessions were applied to 11 captive-born collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu), followed by memory tests at 30, 60 and 90 days after the end of the training sessions. The collared peccaries responded appropriately to training against predators, showing alert, escape and predator avoidance behaviors after anti-predator training; however, the animals maintained these acquired behaviors for only 30 days after the end of the anti-predator training. After 60 days, peccaries responded to the predator in a 'relaxed' manner, exhibiting no anti-predator behaviors. For the trained collared peccaries to be released into the wild, reinforcement in the anti-predator training would be required at least 30 days prior to release.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Condicionamento Clássico , Reação de Fuga , Memória , Reforço Psicológico , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Brasil , Feminino , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Theriogenology ; 142: 320-327, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711691

RESUMO

To optimize the protocols for assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) in collared peccary (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758), we evaluated various conditions for oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) and chemical activation. Initially, we assessed the IVM rates, cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) quality, and oocyte morphometry in the absence or presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF). There was no difference between the COCs matured in absence or presence of EGF for the expansion of cumulus cells (97.6% ±â€¯1.2 vs. 100% ±â€¯0.0), presence of first polar body (65.9% ±â€¯1.2 vs. 70.5% ±â€¯1.8), nuclear status in second metaphase (62.5% ±â€¯11.6 vs. 68.4% ±â€¯4.9), cytoplasmic maturation (100.0% ±â€¯0.7 vs. 75.0% ±â€¯0.7), reactive oxygen species levels (0.5 ±â€¯0.2 vs. 0.3 ±â€¯0.1), and mitochondrial membrane potential (1.1 ±â€¯0.2 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1). However, the zona pellucida thickness of matured COCs was reduced in the presence of EGF. Thus, the EGF group was used for further experiments. The oocytes were artificially activated with ionomycin and four secondary activator combinations [6-dimethylaminopurine (6D), 6D and cytochalasin B (6D + CB), cycloheximide (CHX), and CHX and CB (CHX + CB)]. The effect of immature COCs based on cumulus cell layers and cytoplasm homogeneity (GI and GII or GIII COCs) on embryonic development and quality was evaluated. There was no difference in the cleavage rates among the groups of secondary activators. The cleavage rates of embryos derived from GI/GII and GIII COCs were greater than 72.2% and 25.0%, respectively. Moreover, treatment with CHX showed a reduction in the cleavage rate of embryos derived from GIII COCs when compared to the cleavage rate of embryos derived from GI/GII COCs (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, higher rates of blastocyst/total GI and GII COCs were observed in the 6D group (27.6% ± 0.3) compared to CHX group (6.9% ± 0.3). Additionally, only 6D treatment resulted in the production of embryos derived from GIII COCs (25.0% ± 0.2). The percentage of the ICM/total cell ratio was also greater in blastocysts derived from 6D (42.5% ± 19.0), 6D + CB (37.9% ± 21.9), and CHX + CB (43.8% ± 19.6) groups when compared to CHX (3.6% ± 0.1) group. Thus, the combination of ionomycin and 6D could produce collared peccary embryos by activation of both GI/GII COCs and GIII COCs. These optimized IVM conditions using EGF and chemical activation using ionomycin and 6D in collared peccaries form the first steps for establishing ARTs to conserve this species.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Artiodáctilos , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Ionomicina/farmacologia , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Partenogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenina/farmacologia , Animais , Artiodáctilos/embriologia , Células Cultivadas , Células do Cúmulo/citologia , Células do Cúmulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células do Cúmulo/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/farmacologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/métodos , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear/veterinária , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/fisiologia , Oogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Oogênese/fisiologia , Partenogênese/fisiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0219652, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805046

RESUMO

Accurately estimating hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) numbers is difficult due to their aggressive nature, amphibious lifestyle, and habit of diving and surfacing. Traditionally, hippos are counted using aerial surveys and land/boat surveys. We compared estimates of numbers of hippos in a lagoon in the Okavango Delta, counted from land to counts from video taken from a DJI Phantom 4TM drone, testing for effectiveness at three heights (40 m, 80 m, and 120 m) and four times of day (early morning, late morning, early afternoon, and late afternoon). In addition, we determined effectiveness for differentiating age classes (juvenile, subadult, and adult), based on visual assessment and measurements from drone images, at different times and heights. Estimates in the pool averaged 9.18 (± 0.25SE, range 1-14, n = 112 counts). Drone counts at 40 m produced the highest counts of hippos, 10.6% higher than land counts and drone counts at 80 m, and 17.6% higher than drone counts at 120 m. Fewer hippos were counted in the early morning, when the hippos were active and most likely submerged, compared to all other times of day, when they tended to rest in shallow water with their bodies exposed. We were able to assign age classes to similar numbers of hippos from land counts and counts at 40 m, although land counts were better at identifying juveniles and subadults. Early morning was the least effective time to age hippos given their active behaviour, increasingly problematic with increasing height. Use of a relatively low-cost drone provided a rigorous and repeatable method for estimating numbers and ages of hippos, other than in the early morning, compared to land counts, considered the most accurate method of counting hippos.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Artiodáctilos , Monitoramento Biológico , Envelhecimento , Animais , Botsuana , Feminino , Masculino , População , Dinâmica Populacional
10.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 211: 106229, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785636

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate environmental effects in a semiarid region on collared peccary seminal plasma content and sperm motility. Ejaculates from 12 mature males were obtained during the peak of rainy and dry periods of the Caatinga biome. Samples were evaluated for semen volume, pH, as well as sperm concentration, morphology, osmotic response, membrane integrity, chromatin condensation, and kinetic motility. Seminal plasma was evaluated for ions and organic compounds. The values for chloride, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, citric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, albumin, and fructosamine were similar during the dry and rainy periods; however, concentrations of fructose (849.2 mg/dL compared with 119.4 mg/dL) and calcium (32.3 mg/dL compared with 15.6 mg/dL) were greater during the rainy compared with dry period (P < 0.05). There were correlations (P < 0.05) among values for semen variables and biochemical contents, particularly between fructose and sperm velocity average pathway (r = 0.65), velocity straight line (r = 0.78), velocity curvilinear (r = 0.57), amplitude lateral head (r = 0.62), linearity (r = 0.41), and subpopulation with a medium velocity (r = -0.75). Furthermore, values for relative humidity were positively correlated with concentrations of fructose (r = 0.49), while air temperature (r = -0.43) and wind velocity values (r = 0.66) were negatively affected by concentration of fructose (P < 0.05). There were novel results regarding collared peccary seminal plasma biochemistry indicating there are important correlations with values for semen variables that are affected by the environment in a semiarid climate.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Sêmen/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Masculino , Chuva
11.
Cryobiology ; 91: 53-60, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678072

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate different permeating cryoprotectants to vitrify testicular tissue biopsies from adult collared peccaries. Five pairs of testicles were dissected into fragments (9 mm³) that were allocated to non-vitrified (control) and vitrified groups using a solid-surface method following exposure to different cryoprotectants (3.0 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 3.0 M ethylene glycol (EG) or 1.5 M DMSO + 1.5 M EG). After warming, samples were evaluated for histomorphology, ultrastructure, viability, and proliferative capacity potential. The appropriate conservation of the ultrastructural organization of the seminiferous tubule in terms of lumen presence and cell junctions was only observed at the use of DMSO/EG combination. Regardless of the cryoprotectant, the vitrification effectively preserved cell nuclear visualization and condensation similarly as observed at the non-vitrified group. Moreover, DMSO/EG combination provided a better preservation of basal membranes of seminiferous tubules than DMSO (P < 0.05). The occurrence of cell swelling was more evident in the use of DMSO than EG (P < 0.05), but both isolate cryoprotectants were similar to the DMSO/EG combination. Only the DMSO/EG combination maintained the proliferative capacity potential for spermatogonia (3.69 NORs/cell) and Sertoli cell (3.19 NORs/cell) similar to controls (3.46 and 3.31 NORS/cell, respectively). Moreover, ~40% cell viability was found after vitrification independent of cryoprotectant. In conclusion, DMSO/EG in combination is better than DMSO or EG alone for SSV of testicular tissue biopsies from adult collared peccaries.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/veterinária , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Etilenoglicol/farmacologia , Testículo/citologia , Animais , Artiodáctilos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Criopreservação/métodos , Crioprotetores/química , Feminino , Masculino , Vitrificação
12.
Cryobiology ; 91: 77-83, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639331

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate different vitrification methods using distinct cryoprotectants (CPAs) for the preservation of collared peccary ovarian preantral follicles (PFs). Ovarian pairs from six females were fragmented and three fragments (fresh control group) were immediately evaluated for morphology, viability, cell proliferation capacity (assessed by quantifying the number of argyrophilic nucleolus organizer regions - NORs), and apoptosis (by the identification of activated caspase-3 expression). The remaining 18 fragments were vitrified using the solid surface vitrification (SSV) method or the ovarian tissue cryosystem (OTC) with 3 M ethylene glycol (EG), 3 M dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or a combination of the two (1.5 M EG/1.5 M DMSO). After two weeks, samples were rewarmed and evaluated as described previously. The OTC with any of the CPAs provided a similar conservation of morphologically normal PFs as the fresh control group (75.6 ±â€¯8.6%); however, the SSV was only efficient with DMSO alone (63.9 ±â€¯7.6%). Regarding the viability or cell proliferation, all tested groups provided post rewarming values similar to those observed for the fresh control group, 84.0 ±â€¯2.9% viable cells with 2.0 ±â€¯0.2 NORs. Related to apoptosis analysis, only the OTC with EG (46.7%) and the SSV method with EG (43.4%) or the combination of EG and DMSO (33.4%) provided similar values to those found for the fresh control group (36.7%). Our findings indicate the utilization of a closed system, the OTC, with 3 M EG as the CPA for the vitrification of collared peccary ovarian tissue.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/fisiologia , Criopreservação/veterinária , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Etilenoglicol/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Criopreservação/métodos , Feminino , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Vitrificação
13.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223617, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596894

RESUMO

Food intake may limit the ability of browsing mammals to gain body mass during the growing season when the leaves and stems of woody plants are most abundant. Moose are highly productive browsers with high demands for energy and nutrients, particularly during lactation. Using an indigestible marker, we estimated dry matter intake of free ranging adult female moose with and without calves over three growing seasons. During the same period, we analyzed forage quality. Intakes were highest in late spring (280 ± 19 g·kg-0.75·d-1) when forage quality peaked; however, intakes declined by 39% throughout the summer as temperatures increased and as acid detergent fiber content of browse increased. Digestibility of dry matter declined over summer from 71% to 57% among browse. Intakes were similar for moose with and without calves. Heat loads may impair the ability of moose to consume sufficient energy and nutrients. Warming and habitat change can adversely affect browser populations when poor forage qualities and low dry matter intakes combine to suppress digestible intakes of energy and nutrients.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/fisiologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Valor Nutritivo
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007700, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is one of the main vector borne zoonotic diseases that affects a wide range of ruminants and human beings in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A rapid and specific test for RVF diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A first-line lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (LFT) was developed for the detection of the nucleoprotein (N) of the RVF virus (RVFV). Its diagnostic performance characteristics were evaluated using reference stocks isolates recovered from different hosts and in geographic regions mimicking clinical specimens and from known RVF negative serum samples. A high level of diagnostic accuracy (DSe (35/35), DSp (167/169)) was observed, including the absence of cross-reactivity with viruses belonging to different genera. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The fact no specialized reagents and laboratory equipment are needed, make this assay a valuable, first-line diagnostic tool in resource-poor diagnostic territories for on-site RVFV detection, however the staff require training.


Assuntos
Imunoensaio/métodos , Febre do Vale de Rift/diagnóstico , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Artiodáctilos/virologia , Culicidae/virologia , Nucleoproteínas/análise , Febre do Vale de Rift/sangue , Febre do Vale de Rift/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 453, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. are causative agents of gastrointestinal diseases in a wide variety of vertebrate hosts. Mortality resulting from the disease is low in livestock, although severe cryptosporidiosis has been associated with fatality in young animals. METHODS: The goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the prevalence and molecular data on Cryptosporidium infections in selected terrestrial domestic and wild ungulates of the families Bovidae (bison, buffalo, cattle, goat, impala, mouflon sheep, sheep, yak), Cervidae (red deer, roe deer, white-tailed deer), Camelidae (alpaca, camel), Suidae (boar, pig), Giraffidae (giraffes) and Equidae (horses). Data collection was carried out using PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Cochran databases, with 429 papers being included in this systematic analysis. RESULTS: The results show that overall 18.9% of ungulates from the investigated species were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. Considering livestock species (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses and buffaloes), analysis revealed higher Cryptosporidium infection prevalence in ungulates of the Cetartiodactyla than in those of the Perissodactyla, with cattle (29%) being the most commonly infected farm animal. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the investigated domestic ungulates are considered potential sources of Cryptosporidium contamination in the environment. Control measures should be developed to reduce the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in these animals. Furthermore, literature on wild populations of the named ungulate species revealed a widespread presence and potential reservoir function of wildlife.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens , Artiodáctilos , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Equidae , Gado , Animais , Prevalência
16.
Zygote ; 27(5): 315-320, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412974

RESUMO

We compare the efficiency of mechanical or enzymatic methods, and their combination, for the isolation of ovarian preantral follicles (PFs) from collared peccaries. The ovaries from six females were subjected to the different methods investigated here. For the enzymatic method, ovary fragments were exposed to collagenase type IV in TCM-HEPES medium; the mechanical procedure was based on ovarian cortex dissociation by using a scalpel blade. The residual solution obtained after the mechanical isolation was subjected to the enzymatic procedure. The number of isolated PFs was quantified and classified as primordial, primary, or secondary; their viability was assessed using trypan blue dye assay. To confirm the results, PFs derived from the most efficient method were evaluated for integrity using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and subjected to a 24 h in vitro culture for subsequent evaluation of viability by using fluorescent probes. A higher number of PFs (P < 0.05) was obtained from the enzymatic method (961.7 ± 132.9) in comparison with the mechanical method (434.3 ± 88.9), but no difference was observed between the two methods and their combination (743.2 ± 92.8). The trypan blue assay showed that the enzymatic method (98.7 ± 0.6%) provided the highest percentage of viable follicles (P < 0.05). Furthermore, SEM confirmed the ultrastructural integrity of the surface architecture of peccary PFs isolated by the enzymatic procedure; epifluorescence microscopy was used to confirm their viability (86.0%). In conclusion, we suggest that the enzymatic method investigated here is useful for the isolation of viable ovarian PFs from collared peccaries.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos , Folículo Ovariano , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/veterinária , Animais , Colagenases , Feminino , Corantes Fluorescentes , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos
17.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2239-2248, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmission of Salmonella in veterinary hospitals is typically associated with environmental contamination. Links between isolates recovered from hospitalized large animals and environment suggest animals as the likely source. Therefore, understanding factors influencing shedding is key in control. Shedding in hospitalized animals has been investigated, but many studies focused on subsets of animals limiting generalizability. OBJECTIVE: (1) Investigate factors associated with fecal shedding of Salmonella among hospitalized large animals at a veterinary hospital. (2) Compare results obtained using 2 comparison groups for risk factor analysis-large animals with high confidence in negative shedding status and those with potential for misclassification of shedding status. ANIMALS: Large animals admitted from March 2002 through December 2012. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among all hospitalized large animals that were routinely cultured as part of infection control efforts. Animal and hospital factors were evaluated. Data on factors of interest were collected retrospectively from electronic medical records. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between animal factors and fecal shedding of Salmonella enterica. RESULTS: During the study period, 5.9% (648/11 061) of hospitalized large animals were culture positive for Salmonella, with the majority being cattle (72%; 467/648) and horses (22%; 143/648). Although the odds of shedding varied by comparison group, overall, 69.4% of animal shedding could be attributed to systemic illness (population attributable fraction) in this study. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Findings of this study inform our understanding of factors affecting Salmonella shedding in hospitalized large animals, thus improving our ability for implementation of evidence-based control measures.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Artiodáctilos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Colorado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia
18.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 208: 106112, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405481

RESUMO

The establishment of protocols for the control of the ovarian function of collared peccaries is recommended for the development of assisted reproductive techniques. The goals were to (1) compare a gonadotropin combination with prostaglandin analogue to synchronize timing of onset of estrus among animals, and (2) elucidate the effects of the most desirable protocol for performing an artificial insemination study and macroscopic evaluation of the ovaries. Three of five females treated with a double administration of 120 µg prostaglandin (cloprostenol) at a 9-day interval expressed symptoms of estrus 9 days after the second injection. One female presented estrus after 6 days, whereas other did not respond to the treatment. All females (5/5) treated with a single dose containing 400 IU eCG and 200 IU hCG manifested estrus 6 days after the hormone injection. In a second experiment, ten females that were estrous synchronized using eCG/hCG, were artificially inseminated with fresh semen and monitored for pregnancy every 30 days. Although there was no detection of fetuses by ultrasonic examination, seven females (7/10) had greater than basal progesterone values for 60 days after the treatments were imposed. Ovaries from two females treated with eCG/hCG were collected 6 days post-injection. There was confirmation of an ovarian stimulation as a result of the presence of 88 and 25 antral follicles, as well as three and eight hemorrhagic structures in ovaries of each female, respectively. It, therefore, is proposed that eCG/hCG can be used as an effective treatment for estrous synchronization in collared peccaries.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/fisiologia , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Animais , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Cloprostenol/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino
19.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 208: 106123, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405484

RESUMO

The relative timing of the main fetal development events in species determine the extent of fetal development at birth, which range along a gradient of having altricial and precocial traits. The results from this study allow for description of important fetal developments in collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) using data from 118 embryo/fetuses from 68 pregnant peccaries obtained over a period of 15 years through collaborative methods with local hunters in the Amazon. The chronological order of emergence of external characteristics in relation to the total dorsal length (TDL) was: differentiated genitalia, limbs and eyelid buds (TDL ≥ 4.5 cm), fusioned eyelids and outer ear (TDL ≥ 5.6 cm), dorsal gland (TDL ≥ 7.3 cm), skin (TDL ≥ 9.2 cm), tactile pelage (TDL ≥ 12.9 cm), coverage pelage (TDL ≥ 17.0 cm), opened eyelids (TDL ≥ 21.5 cm) and tooth eruption (TDL ≥ 24.5 cm). The formula of fetal age was ∛W = 0.079 (t - 27.6), with a linear relationship between TDL and gestational age. The relative weight of tubular gastrointestinal organs, lungs, spleen and thymus increased during fetal development. In contrast, the relative weight of kidneys and liver consistently decreased during the fetal development period. Results of this study indicate the collared peccary is a precocial species and that changes during fetal development are very similar to those in other Suiform species.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/embriologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Feto/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(30): 15253-15261, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285343

RESUMO

Because the white matter of the cerebral cortex contains axons that connect distant neurons in the cortical gray matter, the relationship between the volumes of the 2 cortical compartments is key for information transmission in the brain. It has been suggested that the volume of the white matter scales universally as a function of the volume of the gray matter across mammalian species, as would be expected if a global principle of wiring minimization applied. Using a systematic analysis across several mammalian clades, here we show that the volume of the white matter does not scale universally with the volume of the gray matter across mammals and is not optimized for wiring minimization. Instead, the ratio between volumes of gray and white matter is universally predicted by the same equation that predicts the degree of folding of the cerebral cortex, given the clade-specific scaling of cortical thickness, such that the volume of the gray matter (or the ratio of gray to total cortical volumes) divided by the square root of cortical thickness is a universal function of total cortical volume, regardless of the number of cortical neurons. Thus, the very mechanism that we propose to generate cortical folding also results in compactness of the white matter to a predictable degree across a wide variety of mammalian species.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Substância Cinzenta/anatomia & histologia , Neurônios/citologia , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Artiodáctilos/anatomia & histologia , Artiodáctilos/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Conectoma , Substância Cinzenta/citologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Primatas/anatomia & histologia , Primatas/fisiologia , Roedores/anatomia & histologia , Roedores/fisiologia , Escandêntias/anatomia & histologia , Escandêntias/fisiologia , Substância Branca/citologia , Substância Branca/fisiologia
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