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3.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(1): 107­109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199002

RESUMO

Tapeworms Moniezia benedeni are cosmopolitan parasites of wild and domestic ruminants. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of those tapeworms in European bison in Bialowieza Primeval Forest. Parasitological necropsy of small intestine of 26 bison, aged from 3 months to 26 years was performed in years 2007­2011. Tapeworms M. benedeni were isolated from 11 examined animals and the prevalence of infection was estimated on 42.3%. Intensity of infection was ranging from 2 to 25 tapeworms and the mean intensity was estimated on 5.8 specimens. Prevalence in the group of calves reached 50% and in adult bison ­ 33.3%. Intensity of infection in calves was estimated on 2 to 5 tapeworms while in adult animals it was ranging from 1 to 2 parasites. High prevalence of tapeworms M. benedeni in European bison might result from poor condition or weak immunity of eliminated animals.


Assuntos
Bison , Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Bison/parasitologia , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Florestas , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230496, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187203

RESUMO

Mobile devices for on-field DNA analysis have been used for medical diagnostics at the point-of-care, forensic investigations and environmental surveys, but still have to be validated for ancient DNA studies. We report here on a mobile laboratory that we setup using commercially available devices, including a compact real-time PCR machine, and describe procedures to perform DNA extraction and analysis from a variety of archeological samples within 4 hours. The process is carried out on 50 mg samples that are identified at the species level using custom TaqMan real-time PCR assays for mitochondrial DNA fragments. We evaluated the potential of this approach in museums lacking facilities for DNA studies by analyzing samples from the Enlène (MIS 2 layer) and the Portel-Ouest cave (MIS 3 deposits), and also performed experiments during an excavation campaign at the Roc-en-Pail (MIS 5) open-air site. Enlène Bovinae bone samples only yielded DNA for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), whereas Portel-Ouest cave coprolites contained cave hyena (Crocuta crocuta spelaea) DNA together, for some of them, with DNA for the European bison sister species/subspecies (Bison schoetensacki/Bb1-X), thus highlighting the cave hyena diet. Roc-en-Pail Bovinae bone and tooth samples also contained DNA for the Bison schoetensacki/Bb1-X clade, and Cervidae bone samples only yielded reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) DNA. Subsequent DNA sequencing analyses confirmed that correct species identification had been achieved using our TaqMan assays, hence validating these assays for future studies. We conclude that our approach enables the rapid genetic characterization of tens of millennia-old archeological samples and is expected to be useful for the on-site screening of museums and freshly excavated samples for DNA content. Because our mobile laboratory is made up of commercially available instruments, this approach is easily accessible to other investigators.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Arqueologia , Bison , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Fósseis , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228243, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999727

RESUMO

The coexistence of large mammals and humans in the contemporary landscape is a big challenge for conservationists. Wild ungulates that forage on arable fields are exposed to the negative effects of pesticides, and this problem also applies to protected species for which intoxication by pesticides may pose a health risk and directly affect the effectiveness of conservation efforts. In this paper we assessed the threat posed by pesticides to the European bison Bison bonasus, a species successfully restituted after being extinct in the wild. We studied samples of B. bonasus liver from three free-living populations in Poland (Bialowieska, Knyszynska, and Borecka forests) and captive individuals from breeding centres. LC-QTOF-MS/MS two-step analysis for the detection, identification and confirmation of pesticide residues in liver samples, which included MS and targeted MS/MS scans, was conducted. It was found that European bison are exposed to pesticides as a result of crop depredation: the presence of tetraconazole, fluopyram and diazinon residues in 12 liver samples was confirmed. The concentration levels of the detected substances were quite low, but in the liver samples more than one substance was usually found, and the potential health risk to European bison may result from the synergistic interaction of these substances. The place of occurrence of the population, abundance, and the management regime affect the exposure of European bison to pesticides. Due to the high conservation status of the European bison, the monitoring of intoxication by pesticides should be included in the conservation plans of this species. This issue should also be more widely included in the study of other wild ungulates because knowledge about the impact of pesticides on wildlife is still insufficient.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Bison , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Feminino , Fígado/química , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Praguicidas/análise , Polônia
6.
Ambio ; 49(1): 271-280, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905056

RESUMO

Wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) were reintroduced into Alaska after a 170-year absence in the state. Wildlife reintroductions may cause problems by damaging property, spreading disease, increasing fear levels, and human injury and death. We examined the influence of urban Alaskan's wildife value orientations (WVO; domination and mutualism), fear, and attitudes toward wood bison on their behavioral intention to support lethal management under specific situations. We hypothesized that: (a) domination, mutualism and fear would influence public attitudes toward wood bison, and (b) attitudes would predict an individual's behavioral intention to support lethal management of the newly restored bison population. We collected data through a self-administered questionnaire randomly distributed to residents in Anchorage (n = 243) and Fairbanks (n = 272). Regression analyses indicated that both mutualism and domination positively correlated with attitudes, and fear negatively correlated with attitudes. Attitudes did not predict behavioral intention to support lethal management practices. Both WVOs and fear predicted behavioral intentions. The model helps to illustrate how cognitive and emotional components can influence acceptance of newly restored herbivore species. Our findings also suggested that for situations where an attitude may not exist, people may use more basic value orientations and emotions when thinking about how they would react in specific situations.


Assuntos
Bison , Alaska , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Humanos
7.
Meat Sci ; 159: 107923, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530428

RESUMO

We evaluated the effect of lactic acid spray on micro-flora, instrumental color, shelf-life and sensory attributes of buffalo meat displayed under Modified Atmosphere Packaging. Buffalo calf carcasses (n = 12) were sliced into equal sagittal halves, n = 6 halves were randomly assigned to each of four treatments i.e. 2% LA, 4% LA, 6% LA and control. Afterwards, sirloin and tenderloin were vacuum packed and aged for 7 days. Later, steaks were packed in high-oxygen MAP. Microbial load, instrumental color, shelf-life and sensory attributes were evaluated at different days. Aerobic plate count of sprayed carcass and steaks was significantly lower than un-sprayed control. Similarly, though non-significant, redness and chroma value of sprayed carcass meat was found better than un-sprayed control. Lactic acid sprayed meat did not differ in terms of sensory attributes. It is concluded that spraying buffalo carcasses with 2-4% lactic acid after slaughter not only enhances microbial quality but it may also improve its instrumental color.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bison , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Carne/normas
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(51): 25707-25713, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754040

RESUMO

Newly emerging plants provide the best forage for herbivores. To exploit this fleeting resource, migrating herbivores align their movements to surf the wave of spring green-up. With new technology to track migrating animals, the Green Wave Hypothesis has steadily gained empirical support across a diversity of migratory taxa. This hypothesis assumes the green wave is controlled by variation in climate, weather, and topography, and its progression dictates the timing, pace, and extent of migrations. However, aggregate grazers that are also capable of engineering grassland ecosystems make some of the world's most impressive migrations, and it is unclear how the green wave determines their movements. Here we show that Yellowstone's bison (Bison bison) do not choreograph their migratory movements to the wave of spring green-up. Instead, bison modify the green wave as they migrate and graze. While most bison surfed during early spring, they eventually slowed and let the green wave pass them by. However, small-scale experiments indicated that feedback from grazing sustained forage quality. Most importantly, a 6-fold decadal shift in bison density revealed that intense grazing caused grasslands to green up faster, more intensely, and for a longer duration. Our finding broadens our understanding of the ways in which animal movements underpin the foraging benefit of migration. The widely accepted Green Wave Hypothesis needs to be revised to include large aggregate grazers that not only move to find forage, but also engineer plant phenology through grazing, thereby shaping their own migratory movements.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Bison/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Plantas , Animais , Clima , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Modelos Biológicos , Montana , Estações do Ano , Wyoming
9.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0198308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697680

RESUMO

Recently, several wild or semi-wild herds of European bison have been reintroduced across Europe. It is essential for future successful bison reintroductions to know how the European bison use different habitats, which environmental parameters drive their habitat selection, and whether their habitat use and behavioural patterns in new reintroduction sites differ from habitats where European bison have been roaming freely for a long time. Here, we address these questions for a 40-ha enclosed site that has been inhabited by semi-free ranging European bison since 2012. The site, Vorup Meadows, is adjacent to the Gudenå river in Denmark and consists of human-modified riparian meadows. During 2013 we monitored the behavioural pattern and spatial use of the 11 bison present and in parallel carried out floristic analyses to assess habitat structure and food quality in the enclosure. We tested habitat use and selection against environmental parameters such as habitat characteristics, plant community traits, topography, and management area (release area vs. meadow area) using linear regression and spatial models. The bison herd had comparable diurnal activity patterns as observed in previous studies on free-roaming bison herds. Topography emerged as the main predictor of the frequency of occurrence in our spatial models, with high-lying drier areas being used more. Bison did not prefer open areas over areas with tree cover when accounting for habitat availability. However, they spent significantly more time in the release area, a former agricultural field with supplementary fodder, than expected from availability compared to the rest of the enclosure, a meadow with tree patches. We wish to increase awareness of possible long-term ethological effects of the release site and the management protocols accomplished here that might reduce the ecological impact by the bison in the target habitat, and thereby compromise or even oppose the conservation goals of the conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bison/fisiologia , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Árvores/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225579, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774834

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to evaluate to what extent different assays of innate immunity reveal similar patterns of variation across ungulate species. We compared several measures of innate antibacterial immune function across seven different ungulate species using blood samples obtained from captive animals maintained in a zoological park. We measured mRNA expression of two receptors involved in innate pathogen detection, toll-like receptors 2 and 5 (TLR2 and 5), the bactericidal capacity of plasma, as well as the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Species examined included aoudad (Ammotragus lervia), American bison (Bison bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens), Roosevelt elk (Cervus canadensis roosevelti), fallow deer (Dama dama), sika deer (Cervus nippon), and Damara zebra (Equus quagga burchellii). Innate immunity varied among ungulate species. However, we detected strong, positive correlations between the different measures of innate immunity-specifically, TLR2 and TLR5 were correlated, and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was positively associated with TLR2, TLR5, and bacterial killing ability. Our results suggest that ecoimmunological study results may be quite robust to the choice of assays, at least for antibacterial innate immunity; and that, despite the complexity of the immune system, important sources of variation in immunity in natural populations may be discoverable with comparatively simple tools.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/imunologia , Bactérias/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/sangue , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bison/imunologia , Cervos/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
11.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(Supplement): S158-S162, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619619

RESUMO

Processing adds value to agricultural products, making them more nutritious and economically competitive. Brown rice, by its unremoved bran, contains substantial amounts of protein, dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins; while buffalo's milk has higher protein and calcium and lower cholesterol than other dairy milks. These were suitable ingredients to develop healthy and nutritious value-added product. An ice cream sandwich was developed using brown rice flour (BRF) substituted at 0, 40, 50 and 60% (wt/wt), and fresh buffalo's milk. Acceptability of the product was determined through a consumer survey (n=100; 15 to 30 y old). Consumer sensory evaluation showed that cracker substituted with 50% BRF complemented with buffalo's milk-based ice cream produced an acceptable ice cream sandwich. This resulted in a brown rice cracker ice cream sandwich (BRICS) that has 164 kcal, 8 g fat, 5.7 g protein, 20 g carbohydrates and key minerals. Product testing revealed that taste, mouthfeel, and aroma were the top attributes considered by respondents in buying ice cream products, and BRICS achieved high acceptability rating in these attributes. BRICS obtained an overall acceptability rating of 8.9 in a 9-point hedonic scale. Eighty eight percent (88%) of the respodents were willing to buy BRICS at PhP15-20. Therefore, BRICS is a convenient, nutritious, and marketable value-added product made from BRF and buffalo's milk.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Sorvetes/análise , Leite , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza , Adulto , Animais , Bison , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paladar
12.
Environ Manage ; 64(5): 553-563, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578626

RESUMO

Unfenced plains bison are rare and only occur in a small number of locations throughout Canada and the United States. We examined management guidelines for maintenance of genetic health and population persistence for a small and isolated population of plains bison that occupy the interface between a protected national park and private agricultural lands. To address genetic health concerns, we measured genetic diversity relative to other populations and assessed the potential effects of genetic augmentation. We then used individual-based population viability analyses (PVA) to determine the minimum abundance likely to prevent genetic diversity declines. We assessed this minimum relative to a proposed maximum social carrying capacity related to bison use of human agricultural lands. We also used the PVA to assess the probability of population persistence given the limiting factors of predation, hunting, and disease. Our results indicate that genetic augmentation will likely be required to achieve genetic diversity similar to that of other plains bison populations. We also found that a minimum population of 420 bison yields low probability of additional genetic loss while staying within society-based maxima. Population estimates based on aerial surveys indicated that the population has been below this minimum since 2007. Our PVA simulations indicate that current hunting practices will result in undesirable levels of population extinction risk and further declines in genetic variability. Our study demonstrates that PVA can be used to evaluate potential management scenarios as they relate to long-term genetic conservation and population persistence for rare species.


Assuntos
Bison , Animais , Canadá , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Variação Genética , Parques Recreativos
13.
Behav Processes ; 168: 103959, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513830

RESUMO

Despite the abundant empirical evidence on lateralized social behaviours, a clear understanding of the relative roles of two brain hemispheres in social processing is still lacking. This study investigated visual lateralization in social interactions of free-ranging European bison (Bison bonasus). The bison were more likely to display aggressive responses (such as fight and side hit), when they viewed the conspecific with the right visual field, implicating the left brain hemisphere. In contrast, the responses associated with positive social interactions (female-to-calf bonding, calf-to-female approach, suckling) or aggression inhibition (fight termination) occurred more likely when the left visual field was in use, indicating the right hemisphere advantage. The results do not support either assumptions of right-hemisphere dominance for control of various social functions or hypotheses about simple positive (approach) versus negative (withdrawal) distinction between the hemispheric roles. The discrepancy between the studies suggests that in animals, the relative roles of the hemispheres in social processing may be determined by a fine balance of emotions and motivations associated with the particular social reaction difficult to categorize for a human investigator. Our findings highlight the involvement of both brain hemispheres in the control of social behaviour.


Assuntos
Bison/fisiologia , Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Meio Social , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Federação Russa , Comportamento Social , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
14.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 3009-3017, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509247

RESUMO

Despite their nutritional benefits, consumption of red meat from alternative sources such as bison, elk, and horse is low when compared to beef. Sensory attributes and drivers of liking were identified for these meats using the Preferred Attributes Elicitation (PAE) and Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) methods. For the PAE study, 25 panelists evaluated beef, horse, bison, and elk meats in three different group sessions (n = 7, 7, and 11), whereas 63 panelists participated in the CATA study. Consumers in both PAE and CATA studies associated horse meat with dry and fibrous appearance, whereas beef was associated with meaty/beefy flavor and aroma: bison with metallic and livery aroma and intense aftertaste and elk meat with livery, fishy, metallic flavor, musky aroma, and bloody aftertaste. Penalty analysis on the CATA data identified similar drivers of meat liking as the PAE groups. The attributes were juiciness, meaty/beefy aroma, tender texture, meaty/beefy flavor, and mild flavor and aroma. Attributes with significantly negative mean impact on liking were dryness, tough texture, livery flavor, and aftertaste. Association of these attributes with horse and elk meats has implication on drivers of dislike for these meat types. Cluster analysis identified a small group of consumers with preference for horse and elk meats, and this may present niche market opportunities for these meat types. Results showed that the PAE method was comparable to CATA for the evaluation of meat from different species and for identification of drivers of liking and that both methods are effective for meat sensory characterization. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Lean red meat from unconventional sources such as elk, bison, and horse has unique sensory attributes that may influence acceptance. This study characterized the sensory attributes of these meats and their impact on liking using two rapid consumer descriptive profiling methods-PAE and CATA. Undesirable flavor and aftertaste attributes were identified as the major drivers of disliking for these unconventional meats. Both methods gave similar description of the samples, thus confirming the suitability of PAE for descriptive meat profiling by consumer panels.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Carne/análise , Paladar , Adulto , Animais , Bison , Bovinos , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes/análise
15.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(6): 899-904, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510908

RESUMO

A prior multilocus sequence typing (MLST) study reported that Mycoplasma bovis isolates from North American bison possess sequence types (STs) different from those found among cattle. The 42 bison isolates evaluated were obtained in 2007 or later, whereas only 19 of 94 (~20%) of the available cattle isolates, with only 1 from North America, were from that same time. We compared STs of additional, contemporary, North American cattle isolates with those from bison, as well as isolates from 2 North American deer, all originating during the same timeframe, to more definitively assess potential strain-related host specificity and expand our understanding of the genetic diversity of M. bovis. From 307 isolates obtained between 2007 and 2017 (209 from cattle, 96 from bison, 2 from deer), we identified 49 STs, with 39 found exclusively in cattle and 5 exclusively in bison. Four STs were shared between bison and cattle isolates; one ST was found in cattle and in a deer. There was no clear association between ST and the health status of the animal of origin. An MLST-based phylogeny including 41 novel STs identified in our study reveals that STs found in bison fall within several divergent lineages that include STs found exclusively in cattle.


Assuntos
Bison , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Cervos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma bovis/classificação , Animais , Canadá , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/classificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/classificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma bovis/genética , Estados Unidos
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(38): 19019-19024, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481609

RESUMO

A recent study of mammoth subfossil remains has demonstrated the potential of using relatively low-coverage high-throughput DNA sequencing to genetically sex specimens, revealing a strong male-biased sex ratio [P. Pecnerová et al., Curr. Biol. 27, 3505-3510.e3 (2017)]. Similar patterns were predicted for steppe bison, based on their analogous female herd-based structure. We genetically sexed subfossil remains of 186 Holarctic bison (Bison spp.), and also 91 brown bears (Ursus arctos), which are not female herd-based, and found that ∼75% of both groups were male, very close to the ratio observed in mammoths (72%). This large deviation from a 1:1 ratio was unexpected, but we found no evidence for sex differences with respect to DNA preservation, sample age, material type, or overall spatial distribution. We further examined ratios of male and female specimens from 4 large museum mammal collections and found a strong male bias, observable in almost all mammalian orders. We suggest that, in mammals at least, 1) wider male geographic ranges can lead to considerably increased chances of detection in fossil studies, and 2) sexual dimorphic behavior or appearance can facilitate a considerable sex bias in fossil and modern collections, on a previously unacknowledged scale. This finding has major implications for a wide range of studies of fossil and museum material.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , Fósseis , Mamíferos/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Museus , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bison/genética , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Mamutes/genética , Filogenia , Ursidae/genética
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 275: 108917, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473050

RESUMO

The European bison, Bison bonasus is the largest terrestrial mammal in Europe; it is also on the red list, being recognized as vulnerable to extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The species suffers from low genetic variability, rendering it vulnerable to various environmental and biological threats. This study presents the first molecular confirmation of Eimeria bovis infection in European bison, and details a 1708 bp nucleotide sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in European bison-derived E. bovis (GenBank: MK691697). It also describes two multiplex PCR assays based on 18S rRNA gene for identifying Eimeria bovis oocysts and developmental stages in European bison and cattle. These yielded DNA banding patterns common for those of Eimeria spp. (250 bp for the first assay and 305 bp for the second assay) and species-specific E. bovis DNA in positive samples (344 bp and 586 bp, respectively). Both multiplex PCRs yielded bands characteristic of Eimeria spp. and E. bovis in samples containing DNA of oocysts from both bison and cattle. Moreover, convergent results were obtained for the DNA of the wall of colon in both assays, indicating the presence of developmental stages of Eimeria spp. other than E. bovis. Despite displaying the same sporulation time (four days), and similar general morphological features, the E. bovis oocysts derived from European bison were significantly narrower than those obtained from cattle (t = -6.19, p < 0.001), with a significantly higher shape index (length/width ratio) (t = 3.94, p <  0.001). The result provides further evidence for infection of European bison with a highly-pathogenic bovine protozoan, E. bovis.


Assuntos
Bison/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/ultraestrutura , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/isolamento & purificação , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/ultraestrutura , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
18.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(9): 2915-2930, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298814

RESUMO

Climate warming and human landscape transformation during the Holocene resulted in environmental changes for wild animals. The last remnants of the European Pleistocene megafauna that survived into the Holocene were particularly vulnerable to changes in habitat. To track the response of habitat use and foraging of large herbivores to natural and anthropogenic changes in environmental conditions during the Holocene, we investigated carbon (δ13 C) and nitrogen (δ15 N) stable isotope composition in bone collagen of moose (Alces alces), European bison (Bison bonasus) and aurochs (Bos primigenius) in Central and Eastern Europe. We found strong variations in isotope compositions in the studied species throughout the Holocene and diverse responses to changing environmental conditions. All three species showed significant changes in their δ13 C values reflecting a shift of foraging habitats from more open in the Early and pre-Neolithic Holocene to more forest during the Neolithic and Late Holocene. This shift was strongest in European bison, suggesting higher plasticity, more limited in moose, and the least in aurochs. Significant increases of δ15 N values in European bison and moose are evidence of a diet change towards more grazing, but may also reflect increased nitrogen in soils following deglaciation and global temperature increases. Among the factors explaining the observed isotope variations were time (age of samples), longitude and elevation in European bison, and time, longitude and forest cover in aurochs. None of the analysed factors explained isotope variations in moose. Our results demonstrate the strong influence of natural (forest expansion) and anthropogenic (deforestation and human pressure) changes on the foraging ecology of large herbivores, with forests playing a major role as a refugial habitat since the Neolithic, particularly for European bison and aurochs. We propose that high flexibility in foraging strategy was the key for survival of large herbivores in the changing environmental conditions of the Holocene.


Assuntos
Bison , Herbivoria , Animais , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Europa Oriental
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2006: 165-177, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230280

RESUMO

Bison are an iconic species of cultural, conservation, and commercial interest. Various assisted reproductive technologies have been tested in bison over the last few decades (e.g., superovulation and embryo transfer), but their efficiencies are low. Since 2007, several methods for producing bison embryos in vitro have been published. All of these methods are based on cattle embryo production models and have varying degrees of success with regard to embryo production rates. In this chapter, a brief summary of these reports is presented followed by a detailed protocol that has been successfully used to produce bison embryos in vitro and live offspring following embryo transfer.


Assuntos
Bison/embriologia , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/métodos , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Superovulação , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino
20.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217687, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150486

RESUMO

Accuracy of genome-wide association studies, and the successful implementation of genomic selection depends on the level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome and also the persistence of LD phase between populations. In the present study LD between adjacent SNPs and LD decay between SNPs was calculated in three Iranian water buffalo populations. Persistence of LD phase was evaluated across these populations and effective population size (Ne) was estimated from corrected r2 information. A set of 404 individuals from three Iranian buffalo populations were genotyped with the Axiom Buffalo Genotyping 90K Array. Average r2 and |D'| between adjacent SNP pairs across all chromosomes was 0.27 and 0.66 for AZI, 0.29 and 0.68 for KHU, and 0.32 and 0.72 for MAZ. The LD between the SNPs decreased with increasing physical distance from 100Kb to 1Mb between markers, from 0.234 to 0.018 for AZI, 0.254 to 0.034 for KHU, and 0.297 to 0.119 for MAZ, respectively. These results indicate that a density of 90K SNP is sufficient for genomic analyses relying on long range LD (e.g. GWAS and genomic selection). The persistence of LD phase decreased with increasing marker distances across all the populations, but remained above 0.8 for AZI and KHU for marker distances up to 100Kb. For multi-breed genomic evaluation, the 90K SNP panel is suitable for AZI and KHU buffalo breeds. Estimated effective population sizes for AZI, KHU and MAZ were 477, 212 and 32, respectively, for recent generations. The estimated effective population sizes indicate that the MAZ is at risk and requires careful management.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Genoma/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Animais , Bison , Cruzamento , Genótipo , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
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