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1.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(3): 378-391, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755515

RESUMO

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the cause of complicated and difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections such as sepsis, urinary tract infection, catheter related infections, pneumonia and surgical site infections in intensive care units. The biggest problem in infections with K.pneumoniae is that treatment options are limited due to multiple antibiotic resistance and consequently the increased morbidity and mortality. The widespread and improper use of carbapenems can lead to epidemics that are difficult to control, especially in intensive care units because of the acquired resistance to this group of antibiotics. Outbreaks and sporadic cases caused by carbapenem resistant K.pneumoniae (CRKP) species have been reported all over the world in recent years with increased frequency. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors related to carbepenem resistance and mortality caused by K.pneumoniae infections in a university hospital anesthesia intensive care unit. The study was conducted between January 1st, 2016, and December 31st, 2018. Retrospective data were obtained from the patient and laboratory-based surveillance records. Adult patients (≥ 18 years) with K.pneumoniae growth in the blood, urine, abscess and tracheal aspirate samples collected 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit were considered as the relevant infection locus-related agent and treated with antibacterial therapy. Clinical samples collected from patients were inoculated onto 5% sheep blood and eosin-methylene-blue (EMB) agar except the blood samples. Blood samples were cultured in blood culture bottles and incubated in an automated system. Gram staining was performed for the samples showing growth signal within five days and then inoculated onto 5% sheep blood and EMB agar media and were incubated for 18-24 hours at 35.5-37°C. Identification of the isolates was performed using Bruker IVD MALDI Biotyper 2.3 (Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Almanya) based on "matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)". K.pneumoniae isolates were identified by obtaining reliability scores of 2.0 and above in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed with Phoenix 100 (BD, New Jersey, ABD) automated system. Interpretations were made according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guidelines. Combination disk diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction based tests were used to show the presence of carbapenemase in CRKP isolates. A total of 88 patients with K.pneumoniae infection were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 74 ± 15 (range= 21-93) years and 60.2% were female. CRKP was detected in 32 patients (36.4%) and carbapenem-sensitive K.pneumoniae (CSKP) was detected in 56 patients. The presence of OXA-48 was found to be 68.8% in the carbapenem screening test performed by combination disc method in patients with CRKP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that previous use of colistin [Odds ratio (OR)= 19.108; 95% confidence interval (CI)= 2.027-180.133; p= 0.010] and aminoglycoside (OR= 12.189; 95% CI= 1.256-118.334; p= 0.031) was an independent risk factor in terms of CRCP among the patients with K.pneumoniae infection. The 28-day mortality rates were 71.9% in the CRKP group (23/32) and 37.5% in the CSKP group (21/56). Presence of CRKP in terms of 28-day mortality (OR= 5.146; 95% CI= 1.839-14.398; p= 0.002) was an independent risk factor. The data obtained in this study will guide for conducting effective and continuous surveillance studies and implementing rational antibiotic programs to prevent the increase in CRKP.


Assuntos
Carbapenêmicos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pneumonia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/mortalidade , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos
2.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110905, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721340

RESUMO

The new Model for the Agent-based simulation of Faecal Indicator Organisms (MAFIO) is applied to a small (0.42 km2) Scottish agricultural catchment to simulate the dynamics of E. coli arising from sheep and cattle farming, in order to provide a proof-of-concept. The hydrological environment for MAFIO was simulated by the "best" ensemble run of the tracer-aided ecohydrological model EcH2O-iso, obtained through multi-criteria calibration to stream discharge (MAE: 1.37 L s-1) and spatially-distributed stable isotope data (MAE: 1.14-3.02‰) for the period April-December 2017. MAFIO was then applied for the period June-August for which twice-weekly E. coli loads were quantified at up to three sites along the stream. Performance in simulating these data suggested the model has skill in capturing the transfer of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) from livestock to streams via the processes of direct deposition, transport in overland flow and seepage from areas of degraded soil. Furthermore, its agent-based structure allowed source areas, transfer mechanisms and host animals contributing FIOs to the stream to be quantified. Such information is likely to have substantial value in the context of designing and spatially-targeting mitigation measures against impaired microbial water quality. This study also revealed, however, that avenues exist for improving process conceptualisation in MAFIO (e.g. to include FIO contributions from wildlife) and highlighted the need to quantitatively assess how uncertainty in the spatial extent of surface flow paths in the simulated hydrological environment may affect FIO simulations. Despite the consequent status of MAFIO as a research-level model, its encouraging performance in this proof-of-concept study suggests the model has significant potential for eventual incorporation into decision support frameworks.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Rios , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Ovinos , Microbiologia da Água
3.
Gene ; 758: 144968, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707304

RESUMO

The hair follicle is an excellent mini-system illustrating the mechanisms governing organogenesis and regeneration. Although the general mechanisms modulating skin and hair follicle development are widely studied in mouse and chicken models, the delicate network regulating skin and hair diversity remains largely unclear. Sheep is an additional model to address the various wool characteristics observed in nature. The coarse and fine wool sheep with diverse fibers were examined to show differences in the primary wool follicle size and skin thickness. The molecular dynamics in skin staged at the primary wool follicle induction between two sheep lines were investigated by RNA-sequencing analyses to generate 1994 differentially expressed genes revealing marker genes for epithelium (6 genes), dermal condensate (38 genes) and dermal fibroblast (58 genes) highly correlated with skin and wool follicle morphological differences. The DEGs were enriched in GO terms represented by epithelial cell migration and differentiation, regulation of hair follicle development and ectodermal placode formation, and KEGG pathways typified by WNT and Hedgehog signaling pathways governing the differences of skin structure. The qPCR detection of 9 genes confirmed the similar expression tendency with RNA-sequencing profiles. This comparative study of coarse and fine wool sheep skin reveals the presence of skin and wool follicle differences at primary wool follicle induction stage, and indicates the potential effectors (APCDD1, FGF20, DKK1, IGFBP3 and SFRP4) regulating the skin compartments during the early morphogenesis of primary wool follicles to shape the variable wool fiber thickness in later developmental stages.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Piloso/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele/genética , Lã/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ovinos , Transcriptoma/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008461, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706772

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease that has important veterinary and public health consequences as well as economic impact in sub Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four selected districts of Borena Pastoral setting in Southern Ethiopia from October 2017 to February 2018 to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and assess associated risk factors in cattle, sheep, goats and occupationally associated humans. A total of 750 cattle, 882 sheep and goats and 341 human subjects were screened for evidence of brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) with positive results confirmed by Competitive-ELISA(c-ELISA). Structured questionnaires were used for collection of metadata from individual animals, herders and animal attendants to test the association between explanatory and outcome variables. The overall animal level prevalence was 2.4% (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.4-3.7) in cattle, 3.2% (95% CI: 2.1-4.6) in sheep and goats, and 2.6% (95% CI: 1.2-5) in humans occupationally linked to livestock production systems. Herd size, parity, and history of abortion were risk factors associated with Brucella seropositivity (P<0.05) in cattle whereas in sheep and goats the results showed that district, age group, flock size, and history of abortion were significantly associated risk factors with Brucella seropositivity (P<0.05). Assisting calving and presence of seropositive animals in a household (P<0.05) were significantly associated with Brucella seropositivity in humans. Evidence of brucellosis in various animal species and the associated human population illustrates the need for a coordinated One Health approach to controlling brucellosis so as to improve public health and livestock productivity.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1262: 19-38, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613578

RESUMO

Embryology and histology are subjects that are viewed as particularly challenging by students in higher education. This negative perception is the result of many factors such as restricted access to lab facilities, lack of allocated time to these labs, and the complexity of the subject itself. One main factor that influences this viewpoint is the difficulty of grasping 3D orientation of sectioned tissues, especially regarding embryology. Attempts have been made previously to create alternative teaching methods to help alleviate these issues, but few have explored 3D visualisation. We aimed to address these issues by creating 3D embryological reconstructions from serial histology sections of a sheep embryo. These were deployed in a mobile application that allowed the user to explore the original sections in sequence, alongside the counterpart 3D model. The application was tested against a currently available eHistology programme on a cohort of life sciences graduates (n = 14) through qualitative surveys and quantitative testing through labelling and orientation-based tests. The results suggest that using a 3D modality such as the one described here significantly improves student comprehension of orientation of slides compared to current methods (p = 0.042). Furthermore, the developed application was deemed more interesting, useful, and usable than current eHistology tools (p < 0.05). Modalities such as that developed here could therefore provide a more effective approach to learning these challenging subjects potentially increasing student engagement with embryology and histology.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Instrução por Computador , Embrião de Mamíferos , Embriologia , Animais , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Instrução por Computador/normas , Embriologia/educação , Técnicas Histológicas , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Aprendizagem , Ovinos
6.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(8): 1095-1099, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639226

RESUMO

Introduction. Empirical vancomycin (VAN) treatment failure for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia, with significantly higher mortality, has been reported for MRSA strains with reduced VAN susceptibility.Aim. Our goal was to study the effect of sub-culture on VAN minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values compared to direct susceptibility of MRSA-positive blood cultures.Methodology. Using 19 MRSA-positive blood cultures and 19 seeded MRSA-positive blood cultures, we compared the VAN MICs from direct susceptibility testing of MRSA-positive blood cultures and MRSA sub-cultured from positive blood cultures.Results. In comparing direct VAN MICs from MRSA-positive blood cultures and standard agar dilution, nearly half of the MICs from agar dilution were lower, with one sample decreasing from 1.5 to 0.75 µg ml-1. Furthermore, in seeded blood cultures, 80 % or more showed lower values from standard agar dilution compared to direct VAN MICs.Conclusion. Our results reveal a trend towards lower MICs after positive blood culture isolates are sub-cultured. Some clinical failures among MRSA infections treated with VAN may result from this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Hemocultura/métodos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ovinos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0214497, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639963

RESUMO

The Bashbay sheep (Ovis aries), an indigenous breed of Xinjiang, China, has many excellent characteristics. It is resistant to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection, the causative agent of mycoplasma ovipneumonia, a chronic respiratory disease that is harmful to the sheep industry. To date, knowledge regarding the mechanisms responsible for M. ovipneumoniae pathogenesis in scant. Herein, we report the results of transcriptome profiling of lung tissues from Bashbay sheep experimentally infected with an M. ovipneumoniae strain at 4 and 14 days post-infection, in comparison to mock-infected animals (0 d). Transcriptome profiling was performed by deep RNA sequencing, using the Illumina platform. The analysis of differentially expressed genes was performed to determine concomitant gene-specific temporal patterns of mRNA expression in the lungs after M. ovipneumoniae infection. We found 1048 differentially expressed genes (575 up-regulated, 473 down-regulated) when comparing transcriptomic data at 4 and 0 days post-infection, and 2823 (1362 up-regulated, 1461 down-regulated) when comparing 14 versus 0 days post-infection. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes at 4 and 14 versus 0 days post-infection were enriched in 245 and 287 pathways, respectively, and the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway was considered most closely related to MO infection (p < 0.01). Two pathways (LAMP-TLR2/TLR6-MyD88-MKK6-AP1-IL1B and LAMP-TLR8MyD88-IRF5-RANTES) were identified based on the TLR signaling pathway from differentially expressed genes related M. ovipneumoniae infection. Gene Ontology analysis showed that differentially expressed genes in different groups were enriched for 1580 and 4561 terms, where those most closely related to M. ovipneumoniae infection are positive regulators of inflammatory responses (p < 0.01). These results could aid in understanding how M. ovipneumoniae infection progresses in the lungs and may provide useful information regarding key regulatory pathways.


Assuntos
Pulmão/metabolismo , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae/patogenicidade , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/genética , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/veterinária , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4079-4090, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606665

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop efficient localized therapy of sertaconazole nitrate for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Methods: Sertaconazole nitrate-loaded cationic liposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration method and coated with different concentrations of pectin (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2%) to develop mucoadhesive liposomes. The formulated mucoadhesive vesicles were characterized in terms of morphology, entrapment efficiency, particle size, zeta value, mucoadhesive properties and drug release. The selected formula was incorporated into a gel base and further characterized by an ex vivo permeation study in comparison with conventional sertaconazole gel. Also, the in vivo study was performed to assess the efficacy of sertaconazole mucoadhesive liposomal gel in treating rats with vaginal candidiasis. Results: The mucoadhesive liposomes were spherical. Coating liposomes with pectin results in increased entrapment efficiency and particle size compared with uncoated vesicles. On the contrary, zeta values were reduced upon coating liposomes with pectin indicating efficient coating of liposomes with pectin. Mucoadhesive liposomes showed a more prolonged and sustained drug release compared with uncoated liposomes. Ex vivo study results showed that mucoadhesive liposomal gel increased sertaconazole tissue retention and reduced drug tissue penetration. In the invivo study, the mucoadhesive liposomal gel showed a significant reduction in the microbial count with a subsequent reduction in inflammatory responses with the lowest histopathological change compared with conventional gel. Conclusion: The study confirmed the potentiality of employing mucoadhesive liposomes as a successful carrier for the vaginal delivery of antifungal drugs.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Muco/química , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Adesividade , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipossomos/ultraestrutura , Mucinas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ovinos , Eletricidade Estática , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Vagina/patologia , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 986-996, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608761

RESUMO

The environmental risks posed by heavy metals (HMs) in animal manure are increasing because of the use of trace metals as additives in feedstuffs. Manure samples were collected, and published literature was reviewed in this study to systematically analyze the HMs content in animal manure and compare the results to different sources of animal manures. Results show that the distribution of HMs content in animal manure was skewed. The ranges were between not detected (ND)-147 mg·kg-1 for Cd, ND-1919 mg·kg-1 for Pb, 0.003-2278 mg·kg-1 for Cr, ND-978 mg·kg-1 for As, ND-103 mg·kg-1 for Hg, ND-1747 mg·kg-1 for Cu, ND-11547 mg·kg-1 for Zn, and 1.22-1140 mg·kg-1 for Ni. The means (medians) of those elements were 2.31(0.72) mg·kg-1, 13.5(8.96) mg·kg-1, 36.3(12.0) mg·kg-1, 14.0(3.52) mg·kg-1, 0.97(0.07) mg·kg-1, 282(115) mg·kg-1, 656(366) mg·kg-1, and 21.8 (13.1) mg·kg-1 for Cd, Pb, Cr, As, Hg, Cu, Zn, and Ni, respectively. Means were significantly higher (1-13 times) than the medians. According to maximum limits of Cd, Pb, Cr, As, and Hg for organic fertilizers NY 525-2012, about 12.3% (for Cd), 2.58% (for Pb), 2.76% (for Cr), 20.6% (for As), and 3.69% (for Hg) of the data were above the limits. According to the composting regulations of Germany, about 53.9% (for Cu), 45.7% (for Zn), and 0.59% (for Ni) exceeded the maximum limits. The heavy metal contents in animal manure of different regions differs significantly. As and Cd contents in animal manure in the Shandong Province tend to be higher with their average values at 1.7 times and 10.1 times of the mean contents for national scale, respectively; the heavy metal contents in eastern China tend to be higher. Cd and As contents in animal manure tend to be higher in Northeast and Eastern China, while Cu and Zn contents were higher in Eastern and South China. After comparing HMs content in different sources of manures, we found that Cd, As, Hg, Cu, Zn, and Ni mean contents in pig manure were 1.0-3.0 times, 1.8-6.8 times, 1.1-15.8 times, 4.9-17.5 times, 2.7-12.0 times, and 1.7-2.1 times that of cattle manure, sheep manure, and poultry manure. The Pb content in poultry manure was the highest, with the mean being 2.8, 2.5, and 2.2 times higher than pig manure, cattle manure, and sheep manure, respectively. When recycling animal manure into the crop field, the accumulation rates for Cd were under 0.02 mg·(kg·a)-1 in over 90% of the circumstances and the accumulation rates for Pb were all below 0.15 mg·(kg·a)-1. When applying poultry manure, Cr in soil is easily accumulated with the maximum accumulation rate of 0.28 mg·(kg·a)-1.


Assuntos
Esterco/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Animais , Bovinos , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Ovinos , Solo/química , Suínos
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 487, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621254

RESUMO

There has been a growing pressure of human activities, especially road network, on natural habitats of the world, which has led to habitat degradation and loss of ecosystem services. To mitigate the impacts of human activities, appropriate studies quantifying ecosystem services and assessing ecological impacts of road network are essential. The main goal of this study was modeling habitat quality and habitat degradation of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province in the southwestern part of Iran, which is among the most important habitats for wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) classified as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. In this study, we used the habitat quality module of the InVEST software (Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs), which was driven from land use/cover data, information on anthropogenic threats, and expert knowledge. We tested the reliability of the habitat quality values by comparing them with the distribution map of wild sheep obtained from the Department of the Environment. Then, to have a more comprehensive assessment of the roads' effects on the natural habitats of this province, considering ecosystem services model, the Spatial Road Disturbance Index (SPROADI) was applied as a landscape index. The results of this study revealed that the east and north eastern parts of the study area which were among the most suitable habitats for wild sheep were highly affected by road network. Overall, findings of our study provided useful information on the spatially explicit distribution of habitat quality and degradation which were a valuable input for conservation planning and enhancing ecosystem services.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ovinos
11.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(25): 1956-1961, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629596

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy (PECD) assisted by neurophysiology monitoring (NM) in the treatment of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR). Methods: The clinical data of 55 patients with CSR treated in the Department of Spinal Surgery of Henan Provincial People's Hospital from April 2015 to May 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. Among them, 29 patients were treated with multi-mode NM-assisted PECD (NM group) and 26 patients with PECD alone (PECD group). The gender, age, operation time, bleeding volume, average hospital stay and complications between the two groups were recorded and compared. In addition, the visual analogue score (VAS) of neck and upper limb pain and the score of Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) were compared between the two groups before operation, 1 month after the operation and at the last follow-up. These data between groups were compared by independent sample t test. Results: All patients in both groups were followed-up for at least 18 months. Neck VAS and upper limb VAS scores of two groups at 1 month post operation (neck: 2.1±1.2, 2.0±1.1; upper lamb: 2.4±1.2, 2.2±0.8) and the last follow-up (neck:0.8±0.5, 0.7±0.5; upper lamb: 0.8±0.7, 0.8±0.5) decreased significantly when compared with those before the operation (neck: 6.0±1.0, 5.9±1.0; upper lamb: 7.1±0.9, 7.4±0.9) (t=12.670-27.305, all P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (t=-1.107-0.917, all P>0.05). JOA scores of two groups at 1 month after the operation (12.7±0.8, 12.6±0.8), and at the last follow-up (14.6±0.7, 14.4±0.8) were all improved significantly from those before the operation (11.1±1.0, 10.9±0.8) (t=-11.074, -14.829, -9.603, -13.086, all P<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (t=0.842, 0.003, both P>0.05). There was also no significant difference in bleeding volume, and operation time between the two groups, (t=-0.615, -0.922, P>0.05) but the average hospital stay and incidence of complications in the NM group were significantly lower than those in the PECD group (t=-2.815, χ(2)=4.755, both P<0.05). Conclusion: Multimode NM-assisted PECD in the treatment of CSR achieves satisfactory results, reducing the average hospital stay, reducing complications and improving surgical safety.


Assuntos
Discotomia Percutânea , Fusão Vertebral , Animais , Vértebras Cervicais , Humanos , Monitorização Neurofisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ovinos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 37(2): 163-169, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730483

RESUMO

From the scrapie of the sheep to the bovine spongiform encephalitis, and from the kuru to the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, tenacious investigators searched for the mysterious agent of these neurological disorders, till Stanley Prusiner discovered and described the prion in the eighties, wining the Nobel Prize in 1997. But this was not the end of the fantastic history of the incredible protein designed prion by Prusiner, because now the investigation on neuroscience has founded prion-like proteins playing an important role in the genesis of the long-term memory.


Assuntos
Doenças Priônicas , Animais , Bovinos , Prêmio Nobel , Príons , Scrapie , Ovinos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628680

RESUMO

Archaeology has yet to capitalise on the opportunities offered by bioarchaeological approaches to examine the impact of the 11th-century AD Norman Conquest of England. This study utilises an integrated multiproxy analytical approach to identify and explain changes and continuities in diet and foodways between the 10th and 13th centuries in the city of Oxford, UK. The integration of organic residue analysis of ceramics, carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of human and animal bones, incremental analysis of δ13C and δ15N from human tooth dentine and palaeopathological analysis of human skeletal remains has revealed a broad pattern of increasing intensification and marketisation across various areas of economic practice, with a much lesser and more short-term impact of the Conquest on everyday lifestyles than is suggested by documentary sources. Nonetheless, isotope data indicate short-term periods of instability, particularly food insecurity, did impact individuals. Evidence of preferences for certain foodstuffs and cooking techniques documented among the elite classes were also observed among lower-status townspeople, suggesting that Anglo-Norman fashions could be adopted across the social spectrum. This study demonstrates the potential for future archaeological research to generate more nuanced understanding of the cultural impact of the Norman Conquest of England, while showcasing a method which can be used to elucidate the undocumented, everyday implications of other large-scale political events on non-elites.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/química , Culinária/história , Dieta/história , Classe Social/história , Animais , Arqueologia/métodos , Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Bovinos , Cerâmica/análise , Feminino , Cabras , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ovinos , Suínos , Dente/química , Reino Unido
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 736: 139573, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474276

RESUMO

Fecal pollution of water bodies poses a serious threat for public health and ecosystems. Microbial source tracking (MST) is used to track the source of this pollution facilitating better management of pollution at the source. In this study we tested 12 MST markers to track human, ruminant, sheep, horse, pig and gull pollution to assess their usefulness as an effective management tool of water quality. First, the potential of the selected markers to track the source was evaluated using fresh fecal samples. Subsequently, we evaluated their performance in a catchment with different impacts, considering land use and environmental conditions. All MST markers showed high sensitivity and specificity, although none achieved 100% for both. Although some of the MST markers were detected in hosts other than the intended ones, their abundance in the target group was always several orders of magnitude higher than in the non-target hosts, demonstrating their suitability to distinguish between sources of pollution. The MST analysis matched the land use in the watershed allowing an accurate assessment of the main sources of pollution, in this case mainly human and ruminant pollution. Correlating environmental parameters including temperature and rainfall with MST markers provided insight into the dynamics of the pollution in the catchment. The levels of the human marker showed a significant negative correlation with rainfall in human polluted areas suggesting a dilution of the pollution, whereas at agricultural areas the ruminant marker increased with rainfall. There were no seasonal differences in the levels of human marker, indicating human pollution as a constant pressure throughout the year, whereas the levels of the ruminant marker was influenced by the seasons, being more abundant in summer and autumn. MST analysis integrated with land use and environmental data can improve the management of fecal polluted areas and set up best practice.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Cavalos , Humanos , Ovinos , Suínos , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
15.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(7): 581-593, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare analgesic efficacy and fetal effects between transdermal administration of fentanyl and IM administration of buprenorphine in pregnant sheep. ANIMALS: 12 healthy pregnant ewes. PROCEDURES: Before study initiation, each ewe was confirmed pregnant with a single fetus between 113 and 117 days of gestation. Ewes were randomly assigned to receive buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg, IM, q 8 h for 48 hours beginning 1 hour before anesthesia induction; n = 6) or fentanyl (a combination of transdermal fentanyl patches sufficient to deliver a dose of 2 µg of fentanyl/kg/h applied between the dorsal borders of the scapulae 24 hours before anesthesia induction; 6). Ewes were anesthetized and underwent a surgical procedure to instrument the fetus with an arterial catheter and place a catheter in utero for collection of amniotic fluid samples. Physiologic variables and behavioral changes indicative of pain were assessed, and amniotic fluid and blood samples from ewes and fetuses were collected for determination of drug concentrations at predetermined times. RESULTS: Both protocols provided acceptable postoperative analgesia with no adverse effects observed in the ewes or fetuses. Compared with the buprenorphine protocol, the fentanyl protocol induced more profound analgesia, decreased the requirement for isoflurane during surgery, and was associated with a shorter anesthesia recovery time. Fetal indices did not differ significantly between the 2 analgesic protocols. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that both protocols provided acceptable analgesia. However, the fentanyl protocol was superior in regard to the extent of analgesia induced, inhalant-sparing effects, and anesthesia recovery time.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Fentanila , Dor Pós-Operatória , Administração Cutânea , Analgésicos , Analgésicos Opioides , Animais , Feminino , Feto , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Gravidez , Ovinos
16.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(1): 155-165, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556374

RESUMO

In the present study, sheep manure (0%, 10% and 20% w/w) and biochar derived from coniferous tree woods (0%, 2.5% and 5% w/w) were incorporated into a multi-MTE contaminated soil from a former iron mine site and incubated for 10 days. A seeds of barley were grown in the amended soil and different morphological traits were measured after 30 days. Results indicated that MTE stress reduced the shoot length, stem diameter, leaf area, number of leaves and dry biomass as compared to the control. Organic amendments application increased soil pH and was found to affect significantly almost all the measured parameters. Animal manure was found effective in improvement of the morphological characteristics of barley plants comparing to biochar amendments. Our results suggested that animal manure could be used for reducing the effect of MTE on the morphological proprieties of barley grown in a former iron mine soil.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Hordeum , Esterco , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Animais , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental , Ovinos , Solo
17.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 211-216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592460

RESUMO

Hydatid cyst, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and Fasciola spp. are common parasites among ruminants. The current study was conducted to assess the prevalence of these parasites in cattle and sheep slaughtered in Sabzevar abattoir, from April 2014 to March 2016. Total of 1653 cattle and 26720 sheep were inspected for helminthic infections of liver and lung in different seasons. The prevalence rates were found to be 684 (2.55%) and 235 (14.21%) in sheep and cattle, respectively. The infection rate of liver in cattle was estimated to be 5.86%, 0.84% and 5.68% for hydatid cysts, Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum, respectively and lung infection with hydatid cyst in cattle was 1.81%. Moreover, the liver infection rate of sheep was estimated to be 0.87%, 0.06% and 2.13% with hydatid cysts, Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum, respectively and lung infection with hydatid cyst was 0.35%. The rate of infection with D. dendriticum was higher in the both animals than the other parasites. The results of this study indicated that the prevalence of the aforementioned parasites was high, which caused high economic losses. Therefore, sanitary and preventive measures should be taken.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças dos Bovinos , Dicrocelíase , Equinococose , Fasciolíase , Doenças dos Ovinos , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/veterinária , Dicrocoelium , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Fasciola , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
18.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(5): 908-919, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567274

RESUMO

A multiplex PCR method was developed to detect the main pathogens of Qinghai Tibetan sheep endometritis. First, the genomes of five standard bacterial strains were extracted and specific primers were selected; the multiplex PCR method was established by using the genome of the standard strain as a template. The samples were collected by sterile cotton swab from Tibetan sheep uterus, and then placed in LB medium and numbered. After 48 h, the genomes of cultured bacteria were extracted and detected by single PCR method, then the positive samples were recorded. The positive samples detected by single PCR were selected for multiplex PCR detection and recorded again. The coincidence rate between these two methods was calculated to measure the accuracy of multiplex PCR. In order to identify the species of the pathogen, 30 positive samples verified by single and multiplex PCR were randomly selected for bacterial isolation and identification. In the 600 samples, the infected ratio of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) was 47.33%, Escherichia coli 34.83%, Staphylococcus aureus 6.5%, Salmonella and Trueperella pyogenes were negatively detected. Among the positive samples detected by multiplex PCR, the positive ratio of GBS was 45.50%, E. coli 33.50%, S. aureus 6.5%. Comparison of two detection results, Multiplex PCR detection coincidence rate is more than 95%. The isolated pathogens were identified as E. coli, GBS and S. aureus, which was consistent with the results of two methods. The multiplex PCR method was successfully established and the main pathogens of endometritis in Qinghai Tibetan sheep were GBS, E. coli and S. aureus.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Endometrite , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Endometrite/microbiologia , Endometrite/veterinária , Feminino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Tibet
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008194, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598388

RESUMO

Rabies virus infections normally cause universally lethal encephalitis across mammals. However, 'abortive infections' which are resolved prior to the onset of lethal disease have been described in bats and a variety of non-reservoir species. Here, we surveyed rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 332 unvaccinated livestock of 5 species from a vampire bat rabies endemic region of southern Peru where livestock are the main food source for bats. We detected rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 11, 5 and 3.6% of cows, goats and sheep respectively and seropositive animals did not die from rabies within two years after sampling. Seroprevalence was correlated with the number of local livestock rabies mortalities reported one year prior but also one year after sample collection. This suggests that serological status of livestock can indicate the past and future levels of rabies risk to non-reservoir hosts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of anti-rabies antibodies among goats and sheep, suggesting widespread abortive infections among livestock in vampire bat rabies endemic areas. Future research should resolve the within-host biology underlying clearance of rabies infections. Cost-effectiveness analyses are also needed to evaluate whether serological monitoring of livestock can be a viable complement to current monitoring of vampire bat rabies risk based on animal mortalities alone.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Remissão Espontânea , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Peru , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(6): 872-876, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564552

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of human brucellosis (HB) in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Ningxia) from 2012 to 2018 and the correlation between HB and the number of livestock stocks, so as to provide reference for the development of preventive measures. Methods: Data on the incidence of HB was collected from the Infectious Disease Report Information Management System of Ningxia, 2012 to 2018. Data related to HB incidence in Ningxia from 2012 to 2018 was then analyzed by global spatial autocorrelation and local spatial autocorrelation analysis methods through the geographic information system (GIS). SPSS (23.0) Spearman correlation was used to analyze the correlation between the incidence of HB and the number of cattle, sheep and pigs. Results: From 2012 to 2018, the incidence of HB showed an overall increase in Ningxia, with an annual growth in 2012-2015 but declined between 2015 and 2018. Results from the global autocorrelation analysis showed that the distribution of HB in the counties and districts of Ningxia appeared non-randomly, with Moran's I value as positive in 2012, 2013 and 2016 indicating the distribution was positive in space. Through local autocorrelation analysis, results showed that "H-H" concentration area was mainly concentrated in central while the "L-L" concentration area was mainly in the northern part of Ningxia. As for the results from correlation analysis between HB and animal husbandry, it showed that the incidence of HB was positively correlated with the number of sheep in stock (r=0.692, P=0.000). Conclusions: The epidemic situation of HB expressed different degrees of aggregation. Areas with high incidence were mostly concentrated in central Ningxia, and with certain degree of correlation with the number of sheep in stock. Corresponding measures should be taken to control the different aggregation situation. Programs on quarantine and immunization for sheep should also be strengthened.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Gado , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Ovinos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Suínos
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