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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 728: 138749, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570306

RESUMO

The presence of pyrethroid compounds in hepatic tissue of Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) is reported for the first time. Twelve pyrethroids were determined in 50 animals from eight locations of the Brazilian coast. The highest average concentration of total pyrethroids (∑PYR) was 1166 ng.g-1 lw, with values ranging from 148 to 5918 ng.g-1 lw, in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, while the Espírito Santo State had the highest median, 568 ng.g-1 lw. Permethrin was the predominant compound in most areas, contributing for 42% to 81% of the ∑PYR, whereas cypermethrin was the most abundant compound in Guanabara and Sepetiba bays (79% and 81%, respectively), both located in Rio de Janeiro State. Biological factors were not correlated with pyrethroids concentration. Tetramethrin and es/fenvalerate compounds were negatively correlated to the age, suggesting degradation/metabolization capacity in these animals that increases throughout life. Despite being metabolized and excreted, the wide use of these pollutants is reflected in relevant concentrations found in Guiana dolphins. This is the first study evaluating pyrethroids in a representative number of hepatic samples and covering >2600 km of coast. The overall lack of information on pyrethroids in cetaceans highlights the importance of understanding the profile and distribution of these pollutants in dolphins which exclusively inhabit the Southwestern Atlantic coast.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Brasil , Biomarcadores Ambientais
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 733: 138880, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446048

RESUMO

False killer whales are long-lived, slow to mature, apex predators, and therefore susceptible to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Hawaiian waters are home to three distinct populations: pelagic; Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) insular; and main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) insular. Following a precipitous decline over recent decades, the MHI population was listed as "endangered" under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. This study assesses the risk of POP exposure to these populations by examining pollutant concentrations and ratios from blubber samples (n = 56) related to life history characteristics and MHI social clusters. Samples were analyzed for PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, and some organochlorine pesticides. Skin samples (n = 52) were analyzed for stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N to gain insight into MHI false killer whale foraging ecology. Pollutant levels were similar among populations, although MHI whales had a significantly higher mean ratio of DDTs/PCBs than NWHI whales. The ∑PCB concentrations of 28 MHI individuals (68%) sampled were equal to or greater than suggested thresholds for deleterious health effects in marine mammals. The highest POP values among our samples were found in four stranded MHI animals. Eight of 24 MHI adult females have not been documented to have given birth; whether they have yet to reproduce, are reproductive senescent, or are experiencing reproductive dysfunction related to high POP exposure is unknown. Juvenile/sub-adults had significantly higher concentrations of certain contaminants than those measured in adults, and may be at greater risk of negative health effects during development. Multivariate analyses, POP ratios, and stable isotope ratios indicate varying risk of POP exposure, foraging locations and potentially prey items among MHI social clusters. Our findings provide invaluable insight into the ongoing risk POPs pose to the MHI population's viability, as well as consideration of risk for the NWHI and pelagic stocks.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Hawaii , Isótopos
3.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 139: 93-102, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351240

RESUMO

Crassicauda spp. (Nematoda) infest the cranial sinuses of several odontocetes, causing diagnostic trabecular osteolytic lesions. We examined skulls of 77 Indian Ocean humpback dolphins Sousa plumbea and 69 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus, caught in bather-protecting nets off KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) from 1970-2017, and skulls of 6 S. plumbea stranded along the southern Cape coast in South Africa from 1963-2002. Prevalence of cranial crassicaudiasis was evaluated according to sex and cranial maturity. Overall, prevalence in S. plumbea and T. aduncus taken off KZN was 13 and 31.9%, respectively. Parasitosis variably affected 1 or more cranial bones (frontal, pterygoid, maxillary and sphenoid). No significant difference was found by gender for either species, allowing sexes to be pooled. However, there was a significant difference in lesion prevalence by age, with immature T. aduncus 4.6 times more likely affected than adults, while for S. plumbea, the difference was 6.5-fold. As severe osteolytic lesions are unlikely to heal without trace, we propose that infection is more likely to have a fatal outcome for immature dolphins, possibly because of incomplete bone development, lower immune competence in clearing parasites or an over-exuberant inflammatory response in concert with parasitic enzymatic erosion. Cranial osteolysis was not observed in mature males (18 S. plumbea, 21 T. aduncus), suggesting potential cohort-linked immune-mediated resistance to infestation. Crassicauda spp. may play a role in the natural mortality of S. plumbea and T. aduncus, but the pathogenesis and population level impact remain unknown.


Assuntos
Crânio , Animais , Golfinhos , Oceano Índico , Masculino , África do Sul
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320415

RESUMO

Populations of freshwater dolphins are declining in response to increased human pressure, including habitat degradation, overfishing, bycatch, poaching and obstruction of free-flowing river corridors by dams. At least three river dolphin species occur in South America: the Amazonian river dolphin, or boto (Inia geoffrensis), the Bolivian river dolphin (Inia boliviensis) and the tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis). A fourth species, the Araguaian boto (Inia araguaiaensis), been proposed for the Tocantins-Araguaia, a large river basin in northern Brazil. Here we show that the Araguaian boto population in the Tocantins River is relatively small (N = 1083, CV = 0.52). During a survey to estimate density and abundance, 138 groups (198 individuals) of botos were observed along a ~600 km stretch of the Tocantins River in five different habitats (river margin, river channel, channel, island margin, and a dam reservoir). Overall, lower densities of the Araguaian boto were registered downstream of the Tucuruí dam, the world's fifth largest hydropower dam. Density was 68% lower in the river margin habitat downstream (0.23 ind./km2, CV = 0.92) than upstream (0.72 ind./km2, CV = 0.53). In addition, density within the Tucuruí reservoir decreases from upstream areas towards the dam. Geographic post-stratification of data into sub-regions (downstream, reservoir, upstream) in relation to the Tucuruí dam helped to reduce CV by ~70%, which illustrates the high variability in the encounter rate in these areas. Our findings suggest that the Araguaian boto population has been impacted by the construction of the Tucuruí dam. The construction of other dams proposed for the Tocantins-Araguaia basin should be planned strategically to minimize overlapping with the Araguaian boto distribution. Coordinated conservation actions are imperative to prevent the Araguaian boto from reaching extinction or near-extinction as some of their Asian counterparts such as the Yangtze, Ganges, and Indus river dolphins.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Golfinhos/fisiologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Extinção Biológica , Rios , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Geografia
5.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt A): 114480, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283460

RESUMO

Bioaccumulation of Hg and Cd from food is a complex ecological process that has been oversimplified in the past. Common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) provide a powerful model to biomonitor metal concentrations in marine environments worldwide. We combined proportions-based nutritional geometry with metal analysis, stomach content analysis and the proximate composition of prey, to yield novel insights into the accumulation of Hg and Cd. Our analysis showed an age-related accumulation trend for Cd and Hg in kidney and liver, with highest concentrations found at 18 years of age. When viewed through the lens of nutritional ecology, Argentine anchovy (58.1 Mass %) and South American long-finned squid (22.7 Mass %), provided most of the dietary intake of protein (P) and lipids (L) (P:L ratio = 2.6:1.0) and also represented the main source for Cd and Hg levels accumulated in their bodies. This study presents unprecedented evidence on metal accumulation in relation to age and nutritional intake in a marine predator.


Assuntos
Golfinhos Comuns , Golfinhos , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Argentina , Cádmio , Monitoramento Ambiental
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 153: 110975, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275533

RESUMO

Titanium (Ti), used in many dailyuse products, such as shampoos and sunscreen filters, in the form of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), may elicit adverse marine biota effects. Marine mammal Ti data is scarce, and subcellular distribution and detoxification information is non-existent. Ti concentrations and metalloprotein detoxification in Pontoporia blainvillei and Steno bredanensis dolphins from Southeastern Brazil were assessed. Metallothionein (MT) concentrations were determined spectrophotometrically, total and subcellular Ti, by ICP-MS and detoxification, by HPLC-ICP-MS. Ti detoxification occurred through MT complexation. Statistical Ti-MT associations were observed in S. bredanensis liver, indicating TiO2 NPs contamination, as Ti binds to MT only as NPs. MT-Ti correlations were observed for both the coastal (P. blainvillei) and offshore (S. bredanensis) dolphins, evidencing oceanic TiO2 diffusion. Ti detoxification through binding to reduced glutathione occurred in both species. Thermostable subcellular fractions are a valuable tool for cetacean Ti detoxification assessments and should be applied to conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/metabolismo , Titânio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , Inativação Metabólica
7.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168368

RESUMO

Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is a powerful method to study the occurrence, movement and behavior of echolocating odontocetes (toothed whales) in the wild. However, in areas occupied by more than one species, echolocation clicks need to be classified into species. The present study investigated whether the echolocation clicks produced by small, at-risk, resident sympatric populations of Indian Ocean humpback dolphin (Sousa plumbea) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in Menai Bay, Zanzibar, East Africa, could be classified to allow species specific monitoring. Underwater sounds of S. plumbea and T. aduncus groups were recorded using a SoundTrap 202HF in January and June-August 2015. Eight acoustic parameters, i.e. -10 dB duration, peak, centroid, lower -3 and lower -10 dB frequencies, and -3 dB, -10 dB and root-mean-squared bandwidth, were used to describe and compare the two species' echolocation clicks. Statistical analyses showed that S. plumbea clicks had significantly higher peak, centroid, lower -3 and lower -10 dB frequencies compared to T. aduncus, whereas duration and bandwidth parameters were similar for the two species. Random Forest (RF) classifiers were applied to determine parameters that could be used to classify the two species from echolocation clicks and achieved 28.6% and 90.2% correct species classification rates for S. plumbea and T. aduncus, respectively. Both species were classified at a higher rate than expected at random, however the identified classifiers would only be useful for T. aduncus monitoring. The frequency and bandwidth parameters provided most power for species classification. Further study is necessary to identify useful classifiers for S. plumbea. This study represents a first step in acoustic description and classification of S. plumbea and T. aduncus in the western Indian Ocean region, with potential application for future acoustic monitoring of species-specific temporal and spatial occurrence in these sympatric species.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/fisiologia , Golfinhos/fisiologia , Ecolocação/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Oceano Índico , Oceano Pacífico , Especificidade da Espécie , Tanzânia
8.
Science ; 367(6484): 1313-1314, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193315
10.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 254-260, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206795

RESUMO

The Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, is a small cetacean species found on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America from Honduras to Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The nematode Halocercus brasiliensis infects this cetacean, resulting in lung pathologies and death. The present study aimed to conduct a morphological and morphometric study of specimens of H. brasiliensis collected from S. guianensis from the coast of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. For this study, 7 dolphins were collected and examined for the presence of lung parasites. Nematodes were collected and processed for light microscopy, and lung fragments were processed for histological analysis. The nematodes were identified as H. brasiliensis according to their morphology and morphometry. The histopathological analysis revealed mineralization of the bronchiolar cartilage and inflammatory process. The parasitic infections by H. brasiliensis in S. guianensis can contribute to the debilitating status of these cetaceans, resulting in their stranding and accidental capture in fishing nets.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea/anatomia & histologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Feminino , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Metastrongyloidea/classificação , Metastrongyloidea/patogenicidade , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110674, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726239

RESUMO

The odontocetes are at the top of the trophic chains, and because they accumulate numerous compounds throughout life, they are considered as bioindicators of ecosystem contamination. This study aimed to analyze the concentrations of trace elements of the short-beak common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fraser's dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei) from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Regardless of the tissue and the species, the average concentration of silver was the lowest. The highest concentration in the kidney was cadmium, while in the liver it varied between selenium and total mercury according to the species. The bioconcentration process was present in relation with the age and standard length in common dolphins. Additionally, Se-HgT molar ratios differed among species. This study provides new information on the current state of pollution by trace elements in common and Fraser's dolphins in the Southwest Atlantic, and it serves as a complement to the work in tropical waters.


Assuntos
Cetáceos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cadeia Alimentar , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Golfinhos , Ecossistema , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
12.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124844, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550584

RESUMO

Cetaceans and humans shared the same route of exposure to many anthropogenic contaminants via fish consumption. To assess the health risks associated with heavy metal levels in fishes from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the seasonal dynamics, 13 fish species (n = 675) consumed by the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and humans were analyzed for concentrations of nine heavy metals. Heavy metal levels vary significantly by species and by season in the PRE fishes. The two eel goby species were the most contaminated fish species, which had the highest levels of Cu, Pb, Hg, Mn and Se. Levels of non-essential metals (As and Pb) in many different fish species were all found significantly higher in dry season than in wet season, which may reflect the dilution effect on contaminant levels in the PRE waters in rainy season. For essential metals, Cu, Cr and Se in many fish species were significantly higher in dry season compared to wet season, while Se and Mn in the other fish species showed an opposite pattern, since essential metal accumulation could be influenced by several physiological processes in life. Risk assessment for dolphins showed that inorganic-As levels in all fishes exceeded the safe limits, whereas a more conservative approach indicated that the levels of all metals in all fish samples had toxic effects on dolphins, except for Hg. Human health risk analysis showed that inorganic-As levels in tonguesole (all year) and sillago (dry season) and Cr levels in pomfret (dry season) exceeded the acceptable values.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , China , Golfinhos , Estuários , Peixes , Humanos , Rios
13.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226206, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841529

RESUMO

Since the work of Tower in the 1950s, we have come to expect lower neuron density in the cerebral cortex of larger brains. We studied dolphin brains varying from 783 to 6215g. As expected, average neuron density in four areas of cortex decreased from the smallest to the largest brain. Despite having a lower neuron density than smaller dolphins, the killer whale has more gray matter and more cortical neurons than any mammal, including humans. To begin a study of non-dolphin toothed whales, we measured a 596g brain of a pygmy sperm whale and a 2004g brain of a Cuvier's beaked whale. We compared neuron density of Nissl stained cortex of these two brains with those of the dolphins. Non-dolphin brains had lower neuron densities compared to all of the dolphins, even the 6215g brain. The beaked whale and pygmy sperm whale we studied dive deeper and for much longer periods than the dolphins. For example, the beaked whale may dive for more than an hour, and the pygmy sperm whale more than a half hour. In contrast, the dolphins we studied limit dives to five or 10 minutes. Brain metabolism may be one feature limiting dolphin dives. The brain consumes an oversized share of oxygen available to the body. The most oxygen is used by the cortex and cerebellar gray matter. The dolphins have larger brains, larger cerebellums, and greater numbers of cortex neurons than would be expected given their body size. Smaller brains, smaller cerebellums and fewer cortical neurons potentially allow the beaked whale and pygmy sperm whale to dive longer and deeper than the dolphins. Although more gray matter, more neurons, and a larger cerebellum may limit dolphins to shorter, shallower dives, these features must give them some advantage. For example, they may be able to catch more elusive individual high-calorie prey in the upper ocean.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Mergulho/fisiologia , Golfinhos/fisiologia , Neurônios/patologia , Baleias/fisiologia , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Mapeamento Encefálico/veterinária , Contagem de Células , Cerebelo/patologia , Golfinhos/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/veterinária , Fatores de Tempo , Orca/anatomia & histologia , Orca/fisiologia , Baleias/anatomia & histologia
14.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226955, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877178

RESUMO

Hematological values are of primary importance when investigating the health and physiological status of populations as they reflect the biological equilibrium of aquatic ecosystems. The objectives of this study are to produce baseline values for hematological parameters of the Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis), as well as to investigate significant variations according to sex, age, reproductive status and stress level. One-hundred-and-ten dolphins from Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (3°3'S, 64°51'W), Central Amazon, Brazil, were live captured and sampled in November 2004 and 2005. Further, the means, standard deviations, minimum and maximum values and reference values (90% CI) were calculated. Correlations were performed to assess the relationships among blood values and cardiac rate (CR), respiratory frequency (RF), handling time and level of stress. No significant differences were found between sexes. Also, no differences occurred among pregnant and non-pregnant females, pregnant females and adult males or non-pregnant females and adult males. Calves had a higher white blood cell (WBC) count, and the neutrophil and lymphocyte absolute counts were significantly higher in calves than adults. The level of stress determined by empirical observation positively correlated with the WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte absolute counts and CR and RF. It was found that less stressed animals tend to present lower platelet counts and lower CR. The handling time of the dolphins was positively correlated with hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBC) and Hb level. The hematological and physiological parameters varied according to time of handling and proved to be a good bioindicator of acute stress in Amazon River dolphins. The data provided here can complement long-term monitoring and identify the early warning indicators of health problems at the population level.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Golfinhos/sangue , Ecossistema , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Hematócrito , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Taxa Respiratória , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
Ecohealth ; 16(4): 743-758, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712931

RESUMO

In the Amazon and Orinoco basins, mercury has been released from artisanal and industrial gold mining since the Colonial time, as well as a result of deforestation and burning of primary forest, that release natural deposits of methyl mercury, affecting the local aquatic vertebrate fauna. This study reports the presence of mercury in river dolphins' genera Inia and Sotalia. Mercury concentrations were analysed in muscle tissue samples collected from 46 individuals at the Arauca and Orinoco Rivers (Colombia), the Amazon River (Colombia), a tributary of the Itenez River (Bolivia) and from the Tapajos River (Brazil). Ranges of total mercury (Hg) concentration in muscle tissue of the four different taxa sampled were: I. geoffrensis humboldtiana 0.003-3.99 mg kg-1 ww (n = 21, Me = 0.4), I. g. geoffrensis 0.1-2.6 mg kg-1 ww (n = 15, Me = 0.55), I. boliviensis 0.03-0.4 mg kg-1 ww (n = 8, Me = 0.1) and S. fluviatilis 0.1-0.87 mg kg-1 ww (n = 2, Me = 0.5). The highest Hg concentration in our study was obtained at the Orinoco basin, recorded from a juvenile male of I. g. humboldtiana (3.99 mg kg-1 ww). At the Amazon basin, higher concentrations of mercury were recorded in the Tapajos River (Brazil) from an adult male of I. g. geoffrensis (2.6 mg kg-1 ww) and the Amazon River from an adult female of S. fluviatilis (0.87 mg kg-1 ww). Our data support the presence of total Hg in river dolphins distributed across the evaluated basins, evidencing the role of these cetaceans as sentinel species and bioindicators of the presence of this heavy metal in natural aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Mineração , Músculos/química , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Brasil , Colômbia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biomarcadores Ambientais
16.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(2): 183-192, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621651

RESUMO

Commerson's dolphins Cephalorhynchus c. commersonii are the small cetacean most frequently found stranded along the coast of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, but little is known about their pathologies. We examined the postcranial axial skeleton of 425 Commerson's dolphins collected in the period 1974-2011 for the presence of pathologies. Miscellaneous lesions were detected in 107 (25.2%) of the specimens. Among them, idiopathic hyperostosis was the most frequent pathology (73.8%), followed by spondyloarthropathy (40.2%). Traumata (25.2%), spondylitis (10.3%) and osteoarthritis (11.2%) occurred less frequently. The type of lesion was statistically associated with the region of the vertebral column. Idiopathic hyperostosis occurred significantly more frequently in the lumbar vertebrae than in other parts of the vertebral column, while spondyloarthropathy was more frequent in the thoracic and caudal vertebrae. Both conditions were predominantly seen in mature dolphins. Osteoarthritis affected the transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae of 6 males, 3 females and 3 individuals of undetermined sex, all mature. Healed and unhealed fractures were observed in the ribs of 27 specimens and in the transverse processes of 3 others. Spondylitis of various degrees of severity affected the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and caudal regions of 11 individuals. Together these data indicate that bone lesions and traumata commonly occur in Commerson's dolphins, likely causing pain and morbidity in severe cases.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Animais , Argentina , Feminino , Masculino
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 325-333, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590794

RESUMO

Silver (Ag) is a non-essential metal known to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. We determined Ag concentrations in five false killer whales stranded in South America. Silver concentrations (in dry weight basis) range as 6.62-10.78 µg g-1 in liver, 0.008-7.41 µg g-1 in spleen, 0.004-5.71 µg g-1 in testis, 0.757-1.69 µg g-1 in kidney, 0.011-0.078 µg g-1 in lung and < 0.01-0.038 µg g-1 in muscle, whereas in the single samples of uterus and ovary were 0.051 and 0.023 µg g-1; respectively. Overall, Ag concentration in liver and kidney exceeded the cetacean toxic thresholds, proposed as "unhealthy concentrations" and "critically dangerous" in liver and kidney. These results warrant further eco-toxicological studies, to examine biological effects of elevated silver levels for individuals and to assess the species' conservation status with respect to marine pollution.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Prata/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Masculino , Ovário/química , Prata/análise , América do Sul , Testículo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110557, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542598

RESUMO

Marine fauna in the California Current System is susceptible to entanglement in anthropogenic debris. We examined beach survey data from six California counties to describe trends of entangled marine birds and mammals (1997-2017). Surveyors reported 357 cases of entanglements among 65,604 carcasses. Monterey County had the greatest average entanglement rate (0.007) of surveyed counties, however, was not statistically different from Santa Cruz (p > 0.05). Twenty-six seabird species (97%) and three marine mammal species (3%), and three non-marine birds were affected. Numerically, Common Murre (23%), Brandt's Cormorant (13%), Western Gull (9.6%), Sooty Shearwater (8%) and Brown Pelican (7%) were the most affected due to abundance, but their entanglement rates were not statistically different (p > 0.05). The most vulnerable species were those frequently documented as entanglement despite low deposition numbers (Merganser spp. 25%). Entangling material consisted primarily of monofilament line (some hooks/lures), but other entanglement items were reported.


Assuntos
Aves , Mamíferos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , California , Caniformia , Charadriiformes , Ciência do Cidadão , Golfinhos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Phoca , Leões-Marinhos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resíduos/análise
19.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(4): 521-527, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473774

RESUMO

We determinated Hg and Se concentrations in liver, kidney, brain, lung and muscle of five bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), four common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and four Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) stranded along the Murcia coast, Southeast Spain, in order to evaluate the risk of Hg toxicity. Hg concentrations showed similar concentrations to other individuals in the Mediterranean Sea with the same length in the same period. We observed a positive correlation of Hg and Se in liver (r = 0.948, p < 0.001) and kidney (r = 0.939; p = 0.001) and ratio the Se/Hg molar was higher than 1 in most cases. Our results suggest that the protective effects of Se against Hg toxicity occur in cetaceans. However, we detected levels of Hg described as responsible liver damage and neurotoxicological effects so other tools, as biochemical markers, should be included. Besides, more studies are needed to evaluate the risk of Hg exposure in dolphins from Murcia coastline.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Mercúrio/análise , Selênio/análise , Animais , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/metabolismo , Golfinhos Comuns/metabolismo , Mar Mediterrâneo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Espanha
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 263-273, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426156

RESUMO

Metals are subject to internal subcellular compartmentalization, altering their bioavailability. Thus, subcellular metal assessments are crucial in biomonitoring efforts. Metal distribution in three subcellular fractions (insoluble - ISF, thermolabile - TLF and thermostable - TSF) were determined by ICP-MS in Steno bredanensis specimens from Southeastern Brazil. Associations between metals, metallothionein (MT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also investigated. Differential metal-detoxification mechanisms were observed. MT detoxification was mostly noted for As, Cd, and Pb, while Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Se and Ti displayed lower MT-associations. Fe, Zn and Se, on the other hand, were poorly associated to MT, and mostly present in the ISF, indicating low bioavailability. This is the first report on subcellular Sn and Ti distribution in cetaceans and the first in this species in Brazil. Potential protective roles of essential metals against toxic elements are postulated. This study indicates that important biochemical detoxification information is obtained through subcellular fraction analyses in marine mammals.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica , Metais Pesados/análise , Estanho/metabolismo , Titânio/metabolismo
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