Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 65.515
Filtrar
1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e016019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520089

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 379 horses to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in Jordan using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Five variables, namely locality (n=10), climatic zone (n=4), age group (n=3), gender, and breed were tested as risk factors for Neospora-immunoglobulin (Ig)G seropositivity at four cutoff titers (1:50, 1:200, 1:400, and 1:800) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 122 (32%; 95% CI: 28, 37) sera samples had anti-Neospora-IgG at a cutoff titer of 1:50. Increased Neospora-IgG seropositivity was found in horses in three localities (Madaba, Zarka, and Petra) and was associated with the following variables: cool temperate climate; age >14 years; and female gender. Seropositivity was found among horses from Madaba at all cutoff titers, Zarka at titers >1:200, and Petra at titers <1:200. Cool temperate climate was associated with titers <1:400. Horses aged >14 years were found to be associated with seropositivity at titers ≥1:200. Female gender was associated with high seropositivity at >1:800.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais
2.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(7): 551-556, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the analgesic and tissue effects of liposomal bupivacaine administered SC as an abaxial sesamoid nerve block in horses with experimentally induced lameness. ANIMALS: 6 healthy mature light-breed horses. PROCEDURES: In a randomized crossover study, a circumferential hoof clamp was applied to a forelimb to induce reversible lameness. An abaxial sesamoid nerve block of the lame forelimb was performed by SC perineural injection of 10 mg of liposomal bupivacaine or bupivacaine HCl/site. Quantitative gait data were objectively obtained with a body-mounted inertial sensor system before (baseline) and at 30-minute intervals after treatment. Time to return to 85% of baseline lameness was determined. After a minimum 4-day washout period, procedures were repeated with the alternate limb and treatment. Lastly, the palmar digital nerves and perineural tissues were collected and examined histologically. RESULTS: SC perineural injection of liposomal bupivacaine ameliorated forelimb lameness in 5 of 6 horses. The median duration of analgesia was not significantly different between liposomal bupivacaine (4.5 hours) and bupivacaine HCl (3.0 hours). Histologically, mild inflammation was noted in 3 of 10 sites injected with liposomal bupivacaine and in none of the sites injected with bupivacaine HCl. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: SC perineural injection of 10 mg of liposomal bupivacaine/site ameliorated experimentally induced forelimb lameness in some horses. At milligram-equivalent doses, liposomal bupivacaine had a similar duration of analgesia to that of bupivacaine HCl. Further investigation is required before recommending clinical use of liposomal bupivacaine for nerve blocks in horses.


Assuntos
Bupivacaína , Doenças dos Cavalos , Analgésicos , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Membro Anterior , Marcha , Cavalos , Coxeadura Animal
3.
Arch Virol ; 165(7): 1715-1717, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417973

RESUMO

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important pathogen of medical and veterinary importance in the Americas. In this report, we present the complete genome sequences of five VEEV isolates obtained from pools of Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos (4) or Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi (1) from Iquitos, Peru. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that all five isolates grouped within the VEEV complex sister to VEEV IIIC and are members of subtype IIID. This is the first report of full-length genomic sequences of VEEV IIID.


Assuntos
Culex/virologia , Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana/isolamento & purificação , Encefalomielite Equina Venezuelana/virologia , Genoma Viral , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana/classificação , Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana/genética , Encefalomielite Equina Venezuelana/transmissão , Genômica , Cavalos , Peru , Filogenia
4.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(6): 479-487, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the extent of inflammation and catabolic collagen response in the middle carpal joints (MCJs) of healthy horses following intra-articular injection of 2% lidocaine, 2% mepivacaine, lactated Ringer solution (LRS), or 0.1% methyl parahydroxybenzoate. ANIMALS: 17 adult horses. PROCEDURES: In the first of 2 experiments, the left middle carpal joint (MCJ) of each of 12 horses was injected with 10 mL of 2% lidocaine (n = 3), 2% mepivacaine (3), or LRS (control; 6). After a 4-week washout period, the right MCJ of the horses that received lidocaine or mepivacaine was injected with 10 mL of LRS, and the right MCJ of horses that received LRS was injected with 10 mL of 2% lidocaine (n = 3) or 2% mepivacaine (3). In experiment 2, the left MCJ of each of 5 horses was injected with 10 mL of 0.1% methyl parahydroxybenzoate. After a 48-hour washout period, the right MCJ of each horse was injected with 10 mL of LRS. Synovial fluid (SF) samples were aseptically collected before and at predetermined times after each injection. Synovial fluid WBC count, neutrophil percentage, and total protein, neutrophil myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase, and Coll2-1 concentrations were compared among treatments. RESULTS: Both lidocaine and mepivacaine induced SF changes indicative of inflammation and a catabolic collagen response, but the magnitude of those changes was more pronounced for lidocaine. Methyl parahydroxybenzoate did not cause any SF changes indicative of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that mepivacaine was safer than lidocaine for intra-articular injection in horses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Mepivacaína/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores , Cavalos , Injeções Intra-Articulares/veterinária , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Líquido Sinovial
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 281: 109094, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344146

RESUMO

Fasciola hepatica is a common parasite of livestock in Ireland, causing significant economic losses and affecting animal welfare. A previous abattoir study of 200 horses led to an estimated 9.5 % prevalence of infection in horses slaughtered in Ireland. However, the epidemiology and pathogenic significance of this infection in this species is not well-described. The objectives of this study were to determine the susceptibility of horses to oral challenge infection with F. hepatica metacercariae, and to document the course of the infection along with serological and biochemical response. We attempted an experimental infection of horses (n = 10; 9 geldings and 1 mare) with F. hepatica. Four were given 1000 metacercariae, four 500 metacercariae and two were sham-infected. Blood and faecal samples were taken at intervals up to 18 weeks post-infection (wpi). ELISA assays were used to assess sero-conversion in the experimental horses and also in a panel of sera from horses of known fluke status. No flukes were recovered from any of the livers, and neither were any lesions that could be attributed to F. hepatica infection observed. Coproantigen ELISA was negative throughout for all horses. Three antibody detection ELISAs, useful in diagnosing fasciolosis in other species, had limitations as diagnostic aids as determined using a panel of sera from horses of known F. hepatica infection status. This study is limited by the relatively small number of animals included, and the relatively short duration of the study period. Failure to establish infection after oral challenge raises fundamental questions on the pathophysiology and epidemiology of equine fasciolosis.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Fasciola hepatica/fisiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Cavalos
6.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(4): 344-354, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use a biopolymer delivery system to investigate the ability of interleukin (IL)-4 to recruit neutrophils into subcutaneous tissues of equids. ANIMALS: 16 horses and 2 ponies. PROCEDURES: Animals were assigned to 3 experiments (6/experiment). Effects of recombinant equine (Req) IL-4 (100, 250, or 500 ng/site) versus a positive control (ReqIL-8; 100 ng, 250 ng, or 1 µg/site) and a negative control (Dulbecco PBSS or culture medium) on neutrophil chemotaxis were assessed after SC injection into the neck with an injectable biopolymer used as the vehicle. Tissue samples including the biopolymer plug were collected by biopsy at various time points from 3 hours to 7 days after injection. Neutrophil infiltration was evaluated by histologic scoring (experiments 1, 2, and 3) or flow cytometry (experiment 3). RESULTS: Histologic neutrophil infiltration scores did not differ significantly among treatments at most evaluated time points. On flow cytometric analysis, log-transformed neutrophil counts in biopsy specimens were significantly greater for the ReqIL-8 treatment (1 µg/site) than the negative control treatment at 3 but not 6 hours after injection; results did not differ between ReqIL-4 and control treatments at either time point. Negative control treatments induced an inflammatory response in most equids in all experiments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Flow cytometry was a more reliable method to estimate neutrophil migration than histologic score analysis. The ReqIL-4 treatment did not induce a detectable neutrophil response, compared with the negative control treatment in this study. Evidence of inflammation in negative control samples suggested the biopolymer is not a suitable vehicle for use in equids.


Assuntos
Interleucina-4 , Neutrófilos , Animais , Biopolímeros , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , Cavalos , Inflamação/veterinária , Interleucina-8
7.
Anim Cogn ; 23(4): 781-793, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335767

RESUMO

Different forms of direct paternal investment have been described in mammals. One such species where paternal care was noticed, but remains poorly understood, is the horse (Equus caballus), where the male keeps a long-term relationship with several females and offspring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the interactions between the harem stallion and his foals. Two herds of Exmoor ponies living under semi-feral conditions in two separate reserves within Czech Republic were studied, each during one of the two consecutive breeding seasons (in 2016 and 2017). Both herds consisted of a stallion, 14 mares and their offspring (12 and 10 foals). The behaviour of all group members was recorded focusing on the stallion-foal interactions. The results show that the stallion receives more friendly interactions, snapping and playful behaviour from foals compared with adult mares. Furthermore, the stallion is more tolerant than mares, and actively plays with his offspring. There is no statistical difference in the sex of the foals in the stallion-foal interactions; however, male foals are more active than female foals in interacting with their father. The probability of a certain behaviour occurring between adult and foals changed over time. The stallion's presence might, therefore, be crucial for the physical and psychological development of the foals, especially the colts. These results may bring new insight into the common management of domestic horses, where stallions are usually kept separately and are not allowed to form natural groups.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Animais , Feminino , Cavalos , Masculino , Estações do Ano
8.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(5): 400-405, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and duration of effect for liposomal bupivacaine following perineural administration to the medial and lateral palmar digital nerves of horses. ANIMALS: 9 nonlame mares. PROCEDURES: For each horse, 2 mL of liposomal bupivacaine (13.3 mg/mL; total dose, 53.2 mg or approx 0.11 mg/kg) or sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was injected adjacent to the medial and lateral palmar digital nerves at the level of the distal aspect of the proximal sesamoid bones of a randomly selected forelimb. Twenty-one days later, the opposite treatment was administered in the contralateral forelimb. A digital algometer was used to measure the mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) immediately before and at predetermined times for 48 hours after injection of each treatment. The mean MNT was compared between the 2 treatments at each measurement time. RESULTS: The mean MNT for the liposomal bupivacaine-treated limbs was significantly greater (ie, the limb was less sensitive) than that for the saline-treated limbs between 30 minutes and 4 hours after treatment injection. Following liposomal bupivacaine administration, 1 horse developed mild swelling at the injection sites that resolved without treatment within 24 hours. No other adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that liposomal bupivacaine is another option for perineural anesthesia in horses. Further research is necessary to determine the optimal dose and better elucidate the duration of effect for the drug when used for palmar digital nerve blocks in horses.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Nervoso/veterinária , Anestésicos Locais , Animais , Bupivacaína , Feminino , Membro Anterior , Cavalos , Injeções/veterinária
9.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(5): 394-399, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the speed of onset and analgesic effect of mepivacaine deposited within or immediately outside the neurovascular bundle at the base of the proximal sesamoid bones in horses. ANIMALS: 6 horses with naturally occurring forefoot-related lameness. PROCEDURES: In a crossover study design, horses were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 treatments first, with the second treatment administered 3 to 7 days later. Trotting gait was analyzed with an inertial sensor-based motion analysis system immediately before treatment to determine degree of lameness. Afterward, ultrasound guidance was used to inject 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride around the palmar digital nerves of the affected forelimb at the level of the base of the proximal sesamoid bones either within the subcircumneural space or outside the circumneural sheath. After injection, gait was reevaluated at 5-minute intervals for 45 minutes. RESULTS: Mepivacaine deposition outside the circumneural sheath did not resolve lameness in any horse; for 3 horses, the mean time to 70% reduction of initial vertical head movement was 13.3 minutes, and the remaining 3 horses had no such reduction at any point. Mepivacaine deposition within the subcircumneural space resulted in a mean time to 70% reduction of initial vertical head movement of 6.7 minutes and mean time to resolution of lameness of 21.7 minutes. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that when peripheral nerves of horses lie within a sheath, local anesthetic solution should be deposited within the sheath for an effective nerve block. If local anesthetic solution is deposited outside the sheath, the nerve block may yield erroneous results.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Ossos Sesamoides , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Membro Anterior , Marcha/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavalos , Coxeadura Animal , Mepivacaína/farmacologia
10.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(5): 406-415, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify radiographic locations of soft tissue attachments in the tarsal region of horses and describe any variability in the gross anatomy of those attachments. SAMPLE: 15 cadaveric limbs from 8 adult horses. PROCEDURES: 8 limbs were used for dissection and radiography of soft tissue structures, with metallic markers used to identify radiographic locations of soft tissue attachments. The remaining 7 limbs were used to evaluate anatomic variations in the insertion of the tendon of the fibularis tertius muscle. A consensus list of preferred radiographic views for evaluating each soft tissue attachment was created. RESULTS: The dorsoplantar, dorsoproximolateral-plantarodistomedial oblique (35° proximal and 45° lateral), dorsoproximomedial-plantarodistolateral oblique (10° proximal and 15° medial), and plantaroproximal-plantarodistal oblique (70° proximal; flexed) views were preferred for evaluating the collateral ligaments. The standard oblique views and plantaroproximal-plantarodistal oblique (70° proximal; flexed) view were preferred for evaluating the tendinous attachments of the gastrocnemius and superficial digital flexor muscles. All 4 standard views were necessary for evaluating the tendinous attachments of the cranial tibial and fibularis tertius muscles, the dorsal tarsal ligament, and the origin of the suspensory ligament. Three configurations of the insertion of the fibularis tertius tendon were identified grossly. In limbs with osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints, the dorsal tarsal ligament firmly adhered to the centrodistal tarsal joint. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that attachments of soft tissue structures in the tarsal region of horses were in distinct radiographically identifiable locations and that visualization of individual soft tissue attachments could be optimized with certain radiographic views, including some nonstandard views.


Assuntos
Ligamentos Articulares , Articulações Tarsianas , Animais , Cavalos , Radiografia , Tendões , Tíbia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0224720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348301

RESUMO

Small intestinal strangulation associated with ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is common in horses. In laboratory animals IRI can be ameliorated by ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) and pharmacological preconditioning (PPC) with dexmedetomidine. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PPC with dexmedetomidine or IPC in an equine model of small intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion (IR). In a randomized controlled experimental trial, 15 horses were assigned to three groups: control (C), IPC, and PPC with dexmedetomidine (DEX). All horses were placed under general anaesthesia and 90% jejunal ischaemia was induced for 90 minutes, followed 30 minutes of reperfusion. In group IPC, three short bouts of ischaemia and reperfusion were implemented, and group DEX received a continuous rate infusion of dexmedetomidine prior to the main ischaemia. Jejunal biopsies were collected before ischaemia (P), and at the end of ischaemia (I) and reperfusion (R). Mucosal injury was assessed by the Chiu-Score, inflammatory cells were stained by cytosolic calprotectin. The degree of apoptosis and cell necrosis was assessed by cleaved-caspase-3 and TUNEL. Parametric data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements followed by Dunnetts t-test. Non parametric data were compared between groups at the different time points by a Kruskal-Wallis-Test and a Wilcoxon-2-Sample-test. The mucosal injury score increased during I in all groups. After reperfusion, IRI further progressed in group C, but not in IPC and DEX. In all groups the number of cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL positive cells increased from P to I. The number of TUNEL positive cells were lower in group DEX compared to group C after I and R. Infiltration with calprotectin positive cells was less pronounced in group DEX compared to group C, whereas in group IPC more calprotectin positive cells were seen. In conclusion, IPC and DEX exert protective effects in experimental small intestinal ischaemia in horses.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Isquemia/terapia , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Jejuno/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Animais , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Cavalos , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Lab Chip ; 20(9): 1621-1627, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334422

RESUMO

Rapid, sensitive and specific detection and reporting of infectious pathogens is important for patient management and epidemic surveillance. We demonstrated a point-of-care system integrated with a smartphone for detecting live virus from nasal swab media, using a panel of equine respiratory infectious diseases as a model system for corresponding human diseases such as COVID-19. Specific nucleic acid sequences of five pathogens were amplified by loop-mediated isothermal amplification on a microfluidic chip and detected at the end of reactions by the smartphone. Pathogen-spiked horse nasal swab samples were correctly diagnosed using our system, with a limit of detection comparable to that of the traditional lab-based test, polymerase chain reaction, with results achieved in ∼30 minutes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Transtornos Respiratórios/veterinária , Smartphone , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Equídeo 4/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/isolamento & purificação , Aplicativos Móveis , Nariz/microbiologia , Nariz/virologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Transtornos Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Transtornos Respiratórios/microbiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/virologia , Streptococcus equi/isolamento & purificação
16.
Oecologia ; 193(1): 77-87, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318852

RESUMO

Fitness consequences of early-life conditions remain unclear and poorly studied in mammals. Based on long-term observations of yellow ground squirrels (Spermophilus fulvus), we identified early determinants of female fitness by analyzing the effects of early-life individual and environmental characteristics (weaning weight, weight gain rate, date of natal emergence, natal litter size, location of the natal burrow, local density of juveniles, population density and precipitation in the post-weaning period) on lifetime reproductive success (LRS). We found high variation and right-skewed distribution in all five LRS components (survival to adulthood, adult lifespan, and lifetime numbers of weaned litters, weanlings, and yearling offspring). Numbers of litters, weanlings, and adult offspring were correlated with each other and increased with lifespan, confirming that longevity is a better predictor of LRS than fecundity. Survival to adulthood was the most sensitive fitness component to early conditions and was higher in females (a) with greater weaning weight, (b) born further from human settlement and (c) born at lower population density. Population density at birth was the best early predictor of all LRS components and negatively influenced adult lifespan and numbers of weanlings and yearling offspring. Early growth rate positively affected the probability of reproducing after the first hibernation and the number of offspring weaned. Such syndrome of high-quality (heavy and fast-growing) young born in a favourable environment ("a silver spoon effect") with downstream damping fitness consequences has been observed so far in only a few mammalian species.


Assuntos
Sciuridae , Prata , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Cavalos , Longevidade , Gravidez , Reprodução
17.
Arch Virol ; 165(6): 1333-1342, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266552

RESUMO

Equine infectious anemia (EIA), a disease caused by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), is considered an obstacle to the development of the horse industry. There is no treatment or vaccine available for EIA, and its pathogenesis, as well as the immune response against the virus, is not fully understood. Therefore, an immunohistochemistry assay was developed for the detection of viral antigens in tissues of equids naturally infected with EIAV. Sections of organs of six equids from Apodi-RN, Brazil, that tested positive for EIA by serological tests (ELISA and AGID) were fixed in 10% formalin solution and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemistry was performed using a polyclonal anti-EIAV antibody. EIAV antigens were observed in red spleen pulp cells and hepatic sinusoids, as well as bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells of the lungs and proximal and distal tubules of the kidneys. The presence of EIAV in the spleen and liver was expected due to viral tropism by macrophages, which are abundantly present in these organs. However, EIAV was also found in lung and kidney epithelial cells, indicating that the virus infects cell types other than macrophages. In conclusion, the immunohistochemical assay standardized in this study was able to detect EIAV antigens in spleen, liver, kidney and lung cells from naturally infected EIAV equids. Immunostaining observed in the spleen confirms viral tropism by mononuclear phagocytes; however, the presence of EIAV in lung and kidney epithelial cells indicates that virus may be eliminated in urine and/or oronasal secretions, suggesting new routes for viral excretion.


Assuntos
Anemia Infecciosa Equina/virologia , Vírus da Anemia Infecciosa Equina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos Virais/análise , Brasil , DNA Viral/genética , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Anemia Infecciosa Equina/imunologia , Anemia Infecciosa Equina/patologia , Cavalos/virologia , Vírus da Anemia Infecciosa Equina/classificação , Rim/patologia , Rim/virologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Testes Sorológicos , Baço/patologia , Baço/virologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT), a treatment for certain gastrointestinal conditions associated with dysbiosis in people, is also empirically employed in horses with colitis. This study used microbiota high-throughput sequencing to compare the fecal microbial profile of healthy horses to that of geriatric microbial transplant recipients experiencing diarrhea and tested whether FMT restores microbiota diversity. METHODS: To evaluate the effect of environment and donor characteristics on the intestinal microbiota, fecal samples were collected per rectum from 15 healthy young-adult (2-12 years) and 15 geriatric (≥20 years) horses. Additionally, FMT was performed for 3 consecutive days in 5 geriatric horses with diarrhea using feces from the same healthy donor. Fecal samples were collected from both donor and recipient prior to each FMT and from recipients 24 hours following the last FMT. The profile of the fecal bacterial microbiota was compared using 16S amplicon sequencing. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to diet and farm location, age did not significantly affect the healthy equine fecal microbiota, indicating that both healthy geriatric and young-adult horses may serve as FMT donors. The fecal microbiota of horses with diarrhea was significantly more variable in terms of ß-diversity than that of healthy horses. An inverse correlation between diarrhea score and relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia was identified in surviving FMT recipients. At study completion, the fecal microbiota of horses which responded to FMT had a higher α-diversity than prior to treatment and was phylogenetically more similar to that of the donor.


Assuntos
Diarreia/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Colite/terapia , Colite/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Disbiose/terapia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Cavalos/microbiologia , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Doadores de Tecidos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230015, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191712

RESUMO

Obesity is a major health concern in many domesticated equids animals since it is related to metabolic abnormalities such as insulin dysregulation, hyperlipidaemia or laminitis. Ponies especially are known as "easy keepers" and are often affected by obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Research in the last decade indicated that the intestinal microbiota may play an important role in the development of obesity, at least in humans. Therefore, the objective of our study was to characterize changes in the faecal microbiota during a two-year weight gain programme which compared ponies and warmblood horses. For this purpose, 10 Shetland ponies and ten warmblood horses were fed a ration which provided 200% of their maintenance energy requirement over two years. Feed intake, body weight, body condition and cresty neck score were recorded weekly. At three standardized time points faecal samples were collected to characterize the faecal microbiota and its fermentation products such as short chain fatty acids and lactate. Next generation sequencing was used for the analysis of the faecal microbiota. During body weight gain the richness of the faecal microbiota decreased in ponies. Besides changes in the phylum Firmicutes in ponies that were already described in human studies, we found a decrease of the phylum Fibrobacteres in horses and an increase of the phylum Actinobacteria. We were also able to show that the phylum Fibrobacteres is more common in the microbiota of horses than in the microbiota of ponies. Therefore, the fibrolytic phylum Fibrobacteres seems to be an interesting phylum in the equine microbiota that should receive more attention in future studies.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Cavalos , Microbiota , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo
20.
Anim Cogn ; 23(4): 643-653, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162112

RESUMO

Animals can indirectly gather meaningful information about other individuals by eavesdropping on their third-party interactions. In particular, eavesdropping can be used to indirectly attribute a negative or positive valence to an individual and to adjust one's future behavior towards that individual. Few studies have focused on this ability in nonhuman animals, especially in nonprimate species. Here, we investigated this ability for the first time in domestic horses (Equus caballus) by projecting videos of positive and negative interactions between an unknown human experimenter (a "positive" experimenter or a "negative" experimenter) and an actor horse. The horses reacted emotionally while watching the videos, expressing behavioral (facial expressions and contact-seeking behavior) and physiological (heart rate) cues of positive emotions while watching the positive video and of negative emotions while watching the negative video. This result shows that the horses perceived the content of the videos and suggests an emotional contagion between the actor horse and the subjects. After the videos were projected, the horses took a choice test, facing the positive and negative experimenters in real life. The horses successfully used the interactions seen in the videos to discriminate between the experimenters. They touched the negative experimenter significantly more, which seems counterintuitive but can be interpreted as an appeasement attempt, based on the existing literature. This result suggests that horses can indirectly attribute a valence to a human experimenter by eavesdropping on a previous third-party interaction with a conspecific.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Cavalos , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA