Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.105
Filtrar
1.
Immunogenetics ; 72(1-2): 25-36, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624862

RESUMO

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is central to the innate and adaptive immune responses of jawed vertebrates. Characteristic of the MHC are high gene density, gene copy number variation, and allelic polymorphism. Because apes and monkeys are the closest living relatives of humans, the MHCs of these non-human primates (NHP) are studied in depth in the context of evolution, biomedicine, and conservation biology. The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD)-MHC NHP Database (IPD-MHC NHP), which curates MHC data of great and small apes, as well as Old and New World monkeys, has been upgraded. The curators of the database are responsible for providing official designations for newly discovered alleles. This nomenclature report updates the 2012 report, and summarizes important nomenclature issues and relevant novel features of the IPD-MHC NHP Database.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Primatas/genética , Primatas/imunologia , Alelos , Animais , Cercopithecidae/genética , Hominidae/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/fisiologia , Filogenia , Platirrinos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Terminologia como Assunto
2.
ISME J ; 14(2): 609-622, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719654

RESUMO

Documenting the natural diversity of eukaryotic organisms in the nonhuman primate (NHP) gut is important for understanding the evolution of the mammalian gut microbiome, its role in digestion, health and disease, and the consequences of anthropogenic change on primate biology and conservation. Despite the ecological significance of gut-associated eukaryotes, little is known about the factors that influence their assembly and diversity in mammals. In this study, we used an 18S rRNA gene fragment metabarcoding approach to assess the eukaryotic assemblage of 62 individuals representing 16 NHP species. We find that cercopithecoids, and especially the cercopithecines, have substantially higher alpha diversity than other NHP groups. Gut-associated protists and nematodes are widespread among NHPs, consistent with their ancient association with NHP hosts. However, we do not find a consistent signal of phylosymbiosis or host-species specificity. Rather, gut eukaryotes are only weakly structured by primate phylogeny with minimal signal from diet, in contrast to previous reports of NHP gut bacteria. The results of this study indicate that gut-associated eukaryotes offer different information than gut-associated bacteria and add to our understanding of the structure of the gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metagenômica , Primatas/microbiologia , Primatas/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Blastocisto/classificação , Cercopithecidae/microbiologia , Cercopithecidae/parasitologia , Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/genética , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Endolimax/classificação , Endolimax/genética , Endolimax/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/genética , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Hominidae/microbiologia , Hominidae/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Lemur/microbiologia , Lemur/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Platirrinos/microbiologia , Platirrinos/parasitologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4778, 2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699998

RESUMO

The divergence of crown catarrhines-i.e., the split of cercopithecoids (Old World monkeys) from hominoids (apes and humans)-is a poorly understood phase in our shared evolutionary history with other primates. The two groups differ in the anatomy of the hip joint, a pattern that has been linked to their locomotor strategies: relatively restricted motion in cercopithecoids vs. more eclectic movements in hominoids. Here we take advantage of the first well-preserved proximal femur of the early Oligocene stem catarrhine Aegyptopithecus to investigate the evolution of this anatomical region using 3D morphometric and phylogenetically-informed evolutionary analyses. Our analyses reveal that cercopithecoids and hominoids have undergone divergent evolutionary transformations of the proximal femur from a similar ancestral morphology that is not seen in any living anthropoid, but is preserved in Aegyptopithecus, stem platyrrhines, and stem cercopithecoids. These results highlight the relevance of fossil evidence for illuminating key adaptive shifts in primate evolution.


Assuntos
Membro Posterior , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cercopithecidae , Fósseis , Hominidae , Humanos , Filogenia
4.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 196, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BLOC1S2 gene encodes the multifunctional protein BLOS2, a shared subunit of two lysosomal trafficking complexes: i) biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 and i) BLOC-1-related complex. In our previous study, we identified an intriguing unreported transcript of the BLOC1S2 gene that has a novel exon derived from two transposable elements (TEs), MIR and AluSp. To investigate the evolutionary footprint and molecular mechanism of action of this transcript, we performed PCR and RT-PCR experiments and sequencing analyses using genomic DNA and RNA samples from humans and various non-human primates. RESULTS: The results showed that the MIR element had integrated into the genome of our common ancestor, specifically in the BLOC1S2 gene region, before the radiation of all primate lineages and that the AluSp element had integrated into the genome of our common ancestor, fortunately in the middle of the MIR sequences, after the divergence of Old World monkeys and New World monkeys. The combined MIR and AluSp sequences provide a 3' splice site (AG) and 5' splice site (GT), respectively, and generate the Old World monkey-specific transcripts. Moreover, branch point sequences for the intron removal process are provided by the MIR and AluSp combination. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that sequential integration into the same location and sequence divergence events of two different TEs generated lineage-specific transcripts through sequence collaboration during primate evolution.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Evolução Molecular , Primatas/genética , Elementos Alu , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cercopithecidae/classificação , Cercopithecidae/genética , Éxons , Humanos , Íntrons , MicroRNAs/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos , Platirrinos/classificação , Platirrinos/genética , Primatas/classificação , Proteínas/genética , Transcriptoma
5.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(11): 3309-3325, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651947

RESUMO

Mobile elements (MEs), making ∼50% of primate genomes, are known to be responsible for generating inter- and intra-species genomic variations and play important roles in genome evolution and gene function. Using a bioinformatics comparative genomics approach, we performed analyses of species-specific MEs (SS-MEs) in eight primate genomes from the families of Hominidae and Cercopithecidae, focusing on retrotransposons. We identified a total of 230,855 SS-MEs, with which we performed normalization based on evolutionary distances, and we also analyzed the most recent SS-MEs in these genomes. Comparative analysis of SS-MEs reveals striking differences in ME transposition among these primate genomes. Interesting highlights of our results include: 1) the baboon genome has the highest number of SS-MEs with a strong bias for SINEs, while the crab-eating macaque genome has a sustained extremely low transposition for all ME classes, suggesting the existence of a genome-wide mechanism suppressing ME transposition; 2) while SS-SINEs represent the dominant class in general, the orangutan genome stands out by having SS-LINEs as the dominant class; 3) the human genome stands out among the eight genomes by having the largest number of recent highly active ME subfamilies, suggesting a greater impact of ME transposition on its recent evolution; and 4) at least 33% of the SS-MEs locate to genic regions, including protein coding regions, presenting significant potentials for impacting gene function. Our study, as the first of its kind, demonstrates that mobile elements evolve quite differently among these primates, suggesting differential ME transposition as an important mechanism in primate evolution.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/genética , Genoma , Hominidae/genética , Retroelementos , Animais , Cercopithecidae/classificação , Tamanho do Genoma , Genômica , Hominidae/classificação , Humanos , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 201, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comparative data from non-human primates provide insight into the processes that shaped the evolution of the human gut microbiome and highlight microbiome traits that differentiate humans from other primates. Here, in an effort to improve our understanding of the human microbiome, we compare gut microbiome composition and functional potential in 14 populations of humans from ten nations and 18 species of wild, non-human primates. RESULTS: Contrary to expectations from host phylogenetics, we find that human gut microbiome composition and functional potential are more similar to those of cercopithecines, a subfamily of Old World monkey, particularly baboons, than to those of African apes. Additionally, our data reveal more inter-individual variation in gut microbiome functional potential within the human species than across other primate species, suggesting that the human gut microbiome may exhibit more plasticity in response to environmental variation compared to that of other primates. CONCLUSIONS: Given similarities of ancestral human habitats and dietary strategies to those of baboons, these findings suggest that convergent ecologies shaped the gut microbiomes of both humans and cercopithecines, perhaps through environmental exposure to microbes, diet, and/or associated physiological adaptations. Increased inter-individual variation in the human microbiome may be associated with human dietary diversity or the ability of humans to inhabit novel environments. Overall, these findings show that diet, ecology, and physiological adaptations are more important than host-microbe co-diversification in shaping the human microbiome, providing a key foundation for comparative analyses of the role of the microbiome in human biology and health.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Cercopithecidae/classificação , Cercopithecidae/genética , Cercopithecidae/microbiologia , Dieta , Ecossistema , Hominidae/classificação , Hominidae/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
Am J Primatol ; 81(7): e23025, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241198

RESUMO

In extant primates, the posterior parietal cortex is involved in visuospatial integration, attention, and eye-hand coordination, which are crucial functions for foraging and feeding behaviors. Paleoneurology studies brain evolution through the analysis of endocasts, that is molds of the inner surface of the braincase. These may preserve imprints of cortical structures, such as sulci, which might be of interest for locating the boundaries of major cortical regions. Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae) represent an interesting zoological group for evolutionary studies, because of their diverse ecologies and locomotor behaviors. In this study, we quantify parietal lobe variation within the cercopithecid family, in a sample of 30 endocasts including 11 genera and 17 species, by combining landmark-based and landmark-free geometric morphometric analyses. More specifically, we quantitatively assess variation of the parietal proportions based on landmarks placed on reliable anatomical references and of parietal lobe surface morphology through deformation-based methods. The main feature associated with the cercopithecid endocranial variation regards the inverse proportions of parietal and occipital lobes, with colobines, Theropithecus, and Papio displaying relatively larger parietal lobes and smaller occipital lobes compared with cercopithecins. The parietal surface is anteroposteriorly longer and mediolaterally flatter in colobines, while longitudinally shorter but laterally bulging in baboons. Large parietal lobes in colobines and baboons are likely to be independent evolutionary traits, and not necessarily associated with analogous functions or morphogenetic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Parietal/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Cercopithecidae/classificação , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
8.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242204

RESUMO

Insectivory, or the consumption of insects and other arthropods, is a significant yet cryptic component of omnivorous primate diets. Here, we used high-throughput DNA sequencing to identify arthropods from fecal DNA and assess variation in insectivory by closely-related sympatric primates. We identified arthropod prey taxa and tested the hypothesis that variation in insectivory facilitates niche differentiation and coexistence among closely-related species with high dietary overlap. We collected 233 fecal samples from redtail (Cercopithecus ascanius; n = 118) and blue monkeys (C. mitis; n = 115) and used a CO1 metabarcoding approach to identify arthropod DNA in each fecal sample. Arthropod DNA was detected in 99% of samples (N = 223 samples), and a total of 68 families (15 orders) were identified. Redtails consumed arthropods from 54 families, of which 12 (21.8%) were absent from blue monkey samples. Blue monkeys consumed arthropods from 56 families, of which 14 (24.6%) were absent from redtail samples. For both species, >97% of taxa present belonged to four orders (Araneae, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera). Redtail samples contained more Lepidoptera taxa (p<0.05), while blue monkey samples contained more Araneae (p<0.05). Blue monkeys consumed a greater diversity of arthropod taxa than redtail monkeys (p<0.05); however, the average number of arthropod families present per fecal sample was greater in the redtail monkey samples (p<0.05). These results indicate that while overlap exists in the arthropod portion of their diets, 20-25% of taxa consumed are unique to each group. Our findings suggest that variation in arthropod intake may help decrease dietary niche overlap and hence facilitate coexistence of closely-related primate species.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/fisiologia , Dieta , Metagenômica , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Artrópodes/genética , Cercopithecidae/classificação , DNA/análise , Fezes , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
J Med Primatol ; 48(6): 364-366, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179536

RESUMO

We screened hepatitis E from 15 species of non-human primates. Anti-HEV IgG was detected in 11.1% (1/9) Mandrillus sphinx, 14.3% (2/14) Gorilla gorilla, 5.9% (4/67) pan troglodytes and 8.7% (2/23) Mandrillus leucophaeus, whereas anti-HEV IgM was detected in 1.5% (1/18) papio Anubis, 28.6% (2/7) Cercocebus agilis and 1.5% (1/67) pan troglodyte.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/virologia , Cercopithecidae , Gorilla gorilla , Hepatite E/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Camarões , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E
10.
Hum Immunol ; 80(7): 437-448, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954494

RESUMO

Next Generation Sequencing allows for testing and typing of entire genes of the HLA region. A better and comprehensive sequence assessment can be achieved by the inclusion of full gene sequences of all the common alleles at a given locus. The common alleles of DRB5 are under-characterized with the full exon-intron sequence of two alleles available. In the present study the DRB5 genes from 18 subjects alleles were cloned and sequenced; haplotype analysis showed that 17 of them had a single copy of DRB5 and one consanguineous subject was homozygous at all HLA loci. Methodological approaches including robust and efficient long-range PCR amplification, molecular cloning, nucleotide sequencing and de novo sequence assembly were combined to characterize DRB5 alleles. DRB5 sequences covering from 5'UTR to the end of intron 5 were obtained for DRB5*01:01, 01:02 and 02:02; partial coverage including a segment spanning exon 2 to exon 6 was obtained for DRB5*01:03, 01:08N and 02:03. Phylogenetic analysis of the generated sequences showed that the DRB5 alleles group together and have distinctive differences with other DRB loci. Novel intron variants of DRB5*01:01:01, 01:02 and 02:02 were identified. The newly characterized DRB5 intron variants of each DRB5 allele were found in subjects harboring distinct associations with alleles of DRB1, B and/or ethnicity. The new information provided by this study provides reference sequences for HLA typing methodologies. Extending sequence coverage may lead to identify the disease susceptibility factors of DRB5 containing haplotypes while the unexpected intron variations may shed light on understanding of the evolution of the DRB region.


Assuntos
Alelos , Sequência de Bases/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB5/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cercopithecidae/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Éxons/genética , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Pan troglodytes/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(13): 6051-6056, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858323

RESUMO

Old World monkeys (Cercopithecoidea) are a highly successful primate radiation, with more than 130 living species and the broadest geographic range of any extant group except humans. Although cercopithecoids are highly variable in habitat use, social behavior, and diet, a signature dental feature unites all of its extant members: bilophodonty (bi: two, loph: crest, dont: tooth), or the presence of two cross-lophs on the molars. This feature offers an adaptable Bauplan that, with small changes to its individual components, permits its members to process vastly different kinds of food. Old World monkeys diverged from apes perhaps 30 million years ago (Ma) according to molecular estimates, and the molar lophs are sometimes incompletely developed in fossil species, suggesting a mosaic origin for this key adaptation. However, critical aspects of the group's earliest evolution remain unknown because the cercopithecoid fossil record before ∼18 Ma consists of only two isolated teeth, one from Uganda and one from Tanzania. Here we describe a primitive Old World monkey from Nakwai, Kenya, dated at ∼22 Ma, that offers direct evidence for the initial key steps in the evolution of the cercopithecoid dentition. The simple dentition and absence of bilophodonty in the Nakwai monkey indicate that the initial radiation of Old World monkeys was first characterized by a reorganization of basic molar morphology, and a reliance on cusps rather than lophs suggests frugivorous diets and perhaps hard object feeding. Bilophodonty evolved later, likely in response to the inclusion of leaves in the diet.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Dieta , Frutas , História Antiga , Quênia , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta
12.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 90(3): 190-198, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889599

RESUMO

We report the first in-depth evidence of targeted mushroom foraging in an Asian colobine. Using direct observations (2010-2018) and camera traps (2008-2018) in the Sebangau Forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we show how adult female red langurs (Presbytis rubicunda) are regularly descending to the ground to consume mushrooms. We recorded 82 counts (0.36% of all focal observations, n = 25,502) of the focal adult langur on the ground from direct observations of habituated groups, and 80 independent images/videos of red langurs on the ground were obtained from the camera traps representing 1.12% of total images (n = 7,145). Mushroom consumption took place in 4 families, representing 0.04% of total focal behaviour observations and 24.3% of total time feeding on the ground. From the camera trap photos, red langurs are spending 20% of time on the ground feeding. We speculate that mushrooms could be a supplementary food for adult female langurs as there is an increase in consumption in April and November.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Colobinae/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Bornéu , Cercopithecidae/fisiologia , Feminino , Indonésia , Masculino
13.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(3): 613-628, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657921

RESUMO

Human skin is morphologically and physiologically different from the skin of other primates. However, the genetic causes underlying human-specific skin characteristics remain unclear. Here, we quantitatively demonstrate that the epidermis and dermis of human skin are significantly thicker than those of three Old World monkey species. In addition, we indicate that the topography of the epidermal basement membrane zone shows a rete ridge in humans but is flat in the Old World monkey species examined. Subsequently, we comprehensively compared gene expression levels between human and nonhuman great ape skin using next-generation cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). We identified four structural protein genes associated with the epidermal basement membrane zone or elastic fibers in the dermis (COL18A1, LAMB2, CD151, and BGN) that were expressed significantly greater in humans than in nonhuman great apes, suggesting that these differences may be related to the rete ridge and rich elastic fibers present in human skin. The rete ridge may enhance the strength of adhesion between the epidermis and dermis in skin. This ridge, along with a thick epidermis and rich elastic fibers might contribute to the physical strength of human skin with a low amount of hair. To estimate transcriptional regulatory regions for COL18A1, LAMB2, CD151, and BGN, we examined conserved noncoding regions with histone modifications that can activate transcription in skin cells. Human-specific substitutions in these regions, especially those located in binding sites of transcription factors which function in skin, may alter the gene expression patterns and give rise to the human-specific adaptive skin characteristics.


Assuntos
Hominidae/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Biglicano/metabolismo , Cercopithecidae/anatomia & histologia , Colágeno Tipo VIII/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/genética , Humanos , Laminina/metabolismo , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tetraspanina 24/metabolismo
14.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(3): 487-499, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481341

RESUMO

The origin and population history of the endangered golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) remain largely unavailable and/or controversial. We here integrate analyses of multiple genomic markers, including mitochondrial (mt) genomes, Y-chromosomes, and autosomes of 54 golden monkey individuals from all three geographic populations (SG, QL, and SNJ). Our results reveal contrasting population structures. Mt analyses suggest a division of golden monkeys into five lineages: one in SNJ, two in SG, and two in QL. One of the SG lineages (a mixed SG/QL lineage) is basal to all other lineages. In contrast, autosomal analyses place SNJ as the most basal lineage and identify one QL and three SG lineages. Notably, Y-chromosome analyses bear features similar to mt analyses in placing the SG/QL-mixed lineage as the first diverging lineage and dividing SG into two lineages, while resembling autosomal analyses in identifying one QL lineage. We further find bidirectional gene flow among all three populations at autosomal loci, while asymmetric gene flow is suggested at mt genomes and Y-chromosomes. We propose that different population structures and gene flow scenarios are the result of sex-linked differences in the dispersal pattern of R. roxellana. Moreover, our demographic simulation analyses support an origin hypothesis suggesting that the ancestral R. roxellana population was once widespread and then divided into SNJ and non-SNJ (SG and QL) populations. This differs from previous mt-based "mono-origin (SG is the source population)" and "multiorigin (SG is a fusion of QL and SNJ)" hypotheses. We provide a detailed and refined scenario for the origin and population history of this endangered primate species, which has a broader significance for Chinese biogeography. In addition, this study highlights the importance to investigate multiple genomic markers with different modes of inheritance to trace the complete evolutionary history of a species, especially for those exhibiting differential or mixed patterns of sex dispersal.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Cercopithecidae/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Fluxo Gênico , Animais , China , Genoma Mitocondrial , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cromossomo Y
15.
Immunogenetics ; 71(1): 25-33, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159709

RESUMO

The human S100A7 resides in the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) and has been described as a key effector of innate immunity. In humans, there are five S100A7 genes located in tandem-S100A7A, S100A7P1, S100AL2, S100A7, and S100AP2. The presence of several retroelements in the S100A7A/S100A7P1 and S100A7/S100A7P2 clusters suggests that these genes were originated from a duplication around ~ 35 million years ago, during or after the divergence of Platyrrhini and Catarrhini primates. To test this hypothesis, and taking advantage of the high number of genomic sequences available in the public databases, we retrieved S100A7 gene sequences of 12 primates belonging to the Cercopithecoidea and Hominoidea (Catarrhini species). Our results support the duplication theory, with at least one gene of each cluster being identified in both Cercopithecoidea and Hominoidea species. Moreover, given the presence of an ongoing gene conversion event between S100A7 and S100A7A, a high rate of mutation in S100A7L2 and the presence of pseudogenes, we proposed a model of concerted and birth-and-death evolution to explain the evolution of S100A7 gene family. Indeed, our results suggest that S100A7L2 most likely suffered a neofunctionalization in the Catarrhini group. Being S100A7 a major protein in innate defense, we believe that our findings could open new doors in the study of this gene family in immune system.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Hominidae/genética , Proteína A7 Ligante de Cálcio S100/genética , Animais , Filogenia
16.
Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci ; 94(10): 441-453, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541969

RESUMO

Non-human primates such as rhesus macaque and cynomolgus macaque are important animals for medical research. These species are classified as Old-World monkeys (Cercopithecidae), in which the immune-related genome structure is characterized by gene duplications. In the present study, we investigated polymorphisms in two genes for ULBP5 encoding ligands for NKG2D. We found 18 and 11 ULBP5.1 alleles and 11 and 13 ULBP5.2 alleles in rhesus macaques and cynomolgus macaques, respectively. In addition, phylogenetic analyses revealed that ULBP5.2 diverged from a branch of ULBP5.1. These data suggested that human ULBP genes diverged from an ancestral gene of ULBP2-ULBP5 and that ULBP6/RAET1L, specifically identified in human, diverged from an ancestral ULBP2 by a recent gene duplication after the diversification of homininae (human and other higher great apes), which were consistent with the findings in our previous analysis of ULBP2 genes in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Humanos , Filogenia
17.
Am J Primatol ; 80(12): e22937, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499120

RESUMO

Historically, the empirical study of the role of sperm competition in the evolution of sexual traits has been problematic through an enforced reliance on indirect proxy measures. Recently, however, a procedure was developed that uses paternity data to measure sperm competition level directly in terms of males/conception (i.e., the number of males that have sperm present in a female's ampulla at conception). When tested on apes and humans (Hominoidea) this measure proved not only to correlate significantly with the traditionally used measure of relative testes size but also to offer a number of advantages. Here we provide a second test of the procedure, this time using paternity data for the Old World monkeys (Cercopithecoidea). We calculate sperm competition levels (males/conception) for 17 species of wild and free-ranging cercopithecoids and then analyze the data against measures of relative testes size. Calculated sperm competition levels correlate strongly with relative testes size both with and without phylogenetic control at both the species and generic levels. The signal-to-noise ratios inherent in both the past measure of relative testes size and the new measure of sperm competition level from paternity data are discussed. We conclude that although both measures are appropriate for the future study of the role of sperm competition in the evolution of sexual traits, when paternity data are available they provide the more direct and meaningful analytical tool. Not least, they potentially allow a first empirical analysis of the role of sperm competition in the evolution of relative testes size that could then be compared with the wealth of theoretical analyses that already exist.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/anatomia & histologia , Cercopithecidae/fisiologia , Paternidade , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Testículo/fisiologia
18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2862, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568659

RESUMO

Viral infections trigger robust secretion of interferons and other antiviral cytokines by infected and bystander cells, which in turn can tune the immune response and may lead to viral clearance or immune suppression. However, aberrant or unrestricted cytokine responses can damage host tissues, leading to organ dysfunction, and even death. To understand the cytokine milieu and immune responses in infected host tissues, non-human primate (NHP) models have emerged as important tools. NHP have been used for decades to study human infections and have played significant roles in the development of vaccines, drug therapies and other immune treatment modalities, aided by an ability to control disease parameters, and unrestricted tissue access. In addition to the genetic and physiological similarities with humans, NHP have conserved immunologic properties with over 90% amino acid similarity for most cytokines. For example, human-like symptomology and acute respiratory syndrome is found in cynomolgus macaques infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, antibody enhanced dengue disease is common in neotropical primates, and in NHP models of viral hepatitis cytokine-induced inflammation induces severe liver damage, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma recapitulates human disease. To regulate inflammation, anti-cytokine therapy studies in NHP are underway and will provide important insights for future human interventions. This review will provide a comprehensive outline of the cytokine-mediated exacerbation of disease and tissue damage in NHP models of viral infections and therapeutic strategies that can aid in prevention/treatment of the disease syndromes.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hominidae/imunologia , Platirrinos/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Viroses/patologia , Viroses/terapia , Viroses/virologia
19.
Zootaxa ; 4514(1): 65-76, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485953

RESUMO

A new pinworm species, Enterobius (Colobenterobius) emodensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the Central Himalayan langur, Semnopithecus schistaceus, in Mandal Valley, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand, India, based on mature and immature adults and fourth-stage larvae. This species closely resembles Enterobius (Colobenterobius) zakiri parasitic in Tarai langur, Semnopithecus hector, recorded from Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, India, but is readily distinguished by having a shorter esophagus and a shorter spicule. It is surmised that this pinworm has co-speciated with the host langur. The new species is also characterized in that the posterior 1/3 of the esophageal corpus is much darker. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of partial Cox1 gene of mtDNA suggested a basal position of diversification of Colobenterobius from the Enterobius lineage.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae , Enterobius , Animais , Colobinae , Índia , Nematoides , Filogenia
20.
Viruses ; 10(10)2018 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301229

RESUMO

Orthopoxviruses (OPVs) are diffused over the complete Eurasian continent, but previously described strains are mostly from northern Europe, and few infections have been reported from Italy. Here we present the extended genomic characterization of OPV Abatino, a novel OPV isolated in Italy from an infected Tonkean macaque, with zoonotic potential. Phylogenetic analysis based on 102 conserved OPV genes (core gene set) showed that OPV Abatino is most closely related to the Ectromelia virus species (ECTV), although placed on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree, bringing substantial support to the hypothesis that this strain may be part of a novel OPV clade. Extending the analysis to the entire set of genes (coding sequences, CDS) further substantiated this hypothesis. In fact the genome of OPV Abatino included more CDS than ECTV; most of the extra genes (mainly located in the terminal genome regions), showed the highest similarity with cowpox virus (CPXV); however vaccinia virus (VACV) and monkeypox virus (MPXV) were the closest OPV for certain CDS. These findings suggest that OPV Abatino could be the result of complex evolutionary events, diverging from any other previously described OPV, and may indicate that previously reported cases in Italy could represent the tip of the iceberg yet to be explored.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Orthopoxvirus/classificação , Orthopoxvirus/genética , Filogenia , Animais , DNA Viral/genética , Genes Virais/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA