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1.
Primates ; 60(5): 401-419, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468228

RESUMO

Macaques are one of the most successful nonhuman primates, and morphological distinctions from their close relatives, African papionins, are easily detected by the naked eye. Nevertheless, evolutionary allometry often accounts for a large amount of the total variation and potentially hides and precludes the detection of morphological distinctions that exist between macaques and African papionins, thus distorting their phyletic comparison. Geometric morpgometric analyses were performed using landmark coordinates in cranial samples from macaques (N = 135) and African papionins (N = 152) to examine the variation in their facial shape. A common allometric trend was confirmed to represent a moderately long face in macaques as being small-to-moderate-bodied papionins. Macaques possessed many features that were distinct from those of African papionins, while they simultaneously showed a large intrageneric variation in every feature, which precluded the separation of some groups of macaques from African papionins. This study confirmed that a moderately smooth sagittal profile is present in non-Sulawesi macaques. It also confirmed that a well-developed anteorbital drop is distinct in Mandrillus and Theropithecus, but it showed that Papio resembles macaques regarding this feature. This finding showed that apparently equivalent features which can be detected by the naked eye were probably formed by different combinations of the principal patterns. It should be noted that the differences detected here between macaques and African papionins are revealed after appropriate adjustments are made to eliminate the allometric effects over the shape features. While landmark data sets still need to be customized for specific studies, the information provided by this article is expected to help such customization and to improve future phyletic evaluation of the fossil papionins.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , África , Animais , Feminino , Macaca/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Papio/anatomia & histologia
2.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(1): 32-39, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673939

RESUMO

The buffalo green monkey (BGM) cell line is required for the detection of enteric viruses in biosolids through a total culturable viral assay (TCVA) by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In the present study, BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cell lines were evaluated for TCVA and for their use in determining the incidence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses in raw sludge and Class B biosolids. Six raw sludge and 17 Class B biosolid samples were collected from 13 wastewater treatment plants from seven U.S. states. Samples were processed via organic flocculation and concentrate volumes equivalent to 4 g total solids were assayed on BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Cell monolayers were observed for cytopathic effect (CPE) after two 14-days passages. Cell lysates were tested for the presence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses by PCR or RT-PCR. The PLC/PRF/5 cells detected more culturable viruses than the BGM cells by CPE (73.9% vs. 56.5%, respectively). 52% of the samples were positive for CPE using both cell lines. No viruses were detected in either cell line by PCR in flasks in which CPE was not observed. No adenoviruses were detected in 13 CPE-positive samples from BGM lysates. In contrast, of the 17 samples exhibiting CPE on PLC/PRF/5 cells, 14 were positive for adenoviruses (82.4%). In conclusion, PLC/PRF/5 cells were superior for the detection of adenoviruses in both raw sludge and Class B biosolids. Thus, the use of BGM cells alone for TCVA may underestimate the viral concentration in sludge/biosolid samples.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos/virologia , Virologia/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular/citologia , Linhagem Celular/virologia , Cercopithecinae , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
3.
J Hum Evol ; 123: 35-51, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057325

RESUMO

African papionins are a highly successful subtribe of Old World monkeys with an extensive fossil record. On the basis of both molecular and morphological data, crown African papionins are divided into two clades: Cercocebus/Mandrillus and Papio/Lophocebus/Rungwecebus/Theropithecus (P/L/R/T), though phylogenetic relationships in the latter clade, among both fossil and extant taxa, remain difficult to resolve. While previous phylogenetic studies have focused on either molecular or morphological data, here African papionin molecular and morphological data were combined using both supermatrix and molecular backbone approaches. Theropithecus is supported as the sister taxon to Papio/Lophocebus/Rungwecebus, and while supermatrix analyses using Bayesian methods are largely unresolved, analyses using parsimony are broadly similar to earlier studies. Thus, the position of Rungwecebus relative to Papio and Lophocebus remains equivocal, possibly due to complex patterns of reticulation. Parapapio is likely a paraphyletic grouping of primitive African papionins or possibly a collection of stem P/L/R/T taxa, and a similar phylogenetic position is also hypothesized for Pliopapio. ?Papio izodi is either a stem or crown P/L/R/T taxon, but does not group with other Papio taxa. Dinopithecus and Gorgopithecus are also stem or crown P/L/R/T taxa, but their phylogenetic positions remain unstable. Finally, T. baringensis is likely the most basal Theropithecus taxon, with T. gelada and T. oswaldi sister taxa to the exclusion of T. brumpti. By integrating large amounts of molecular and morphological data, combined with the application of updated parsimony and Bayesian methods, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of African papionin phylogenetic history to date.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/classificação , Filogenia , África , Animais , Cercopithecinae/anatomia & histologia , Cercopithecinae/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Anim Cogn ; 21(4): 603-611, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858974

RESUMO

Object permanence is the ability to represent mentally an object and follow its position even when it has disappeared from view. According to Piaget's 6-stage scale of the sensorimotor period of development, it seems that object permanence appears in Stage 4 and fully develops in Stage 6. In this study, we investigated the ability of some species of monkeys (i.e. pig-tailed macaque, lion-tailed macaque, Celebes crested macaque, barbary macaque, De Brazza's monkey, L'Hoest's monkey, Allen's swamp monkey, black crested mangabeys, collared mangabeys, Geoffroy's spider monkey) to track the displacement of an object, which consisted of a reward hidden under one of two cups. Our findings showed that the examined subjects possess Stage 6 of object permanence. We then compared our results with data on apes and dogs participating in Rooijakkers et al. (Anim Cogn 12:789-796, 2009) experiment, where the same method was applied. The monkeys examined by us performed significantly better than the dogs but worse than the apes. In our experiment, the monkeys performed above chance level in all variants, but it should be noted that we observed significant differences in the number of correct choices according to the level of a variant's complexity.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae , Movimentos Oculares , Macaca , Percepção Visual , Animais , Conscientização , Cães , Alimentos , Hominidae , Masculino
5.
Am J Primatol ; 80(7): e22882, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896810

RESUMO

Simian retrovirus (SRV) is a type-D betaretrovirus infectious to the Old World monkeys causing a variety of symptoms. SRVs are also present in the Old World monkey genomes as endogenous forms, which are referred to as Simian endogenous retroviruses (SERVs). Although many SERV sequences have been identified in Cercopithecinae genomes, with potential of encoding all functional genes, the distribution of SERVs in genomes and evolutionary relationship between exogeneous SRVs and SERVs remains unclear. In this study, we comprehensively investigated seven draft genome sequences of the Old World monkeys, and identified a novel cluster of SERVs in the two Rhinopithecus (R. roxellana and R. bieti) genomes, which belong to the Colobinae subfamily. The Rhinopithecus genomes harbored higher copy numbers of SERVs than the Cercopithecinae genomes. A reconstructed phylogenetic tree showed that the Colobinae SERVs formed a distinct cluster from SRVs and Cercopithecinae SERVs, and more closely related to exogenous SRVs than Cercopithecinae SERVs. Three radical amino acid substitutions specific to Cercopithecinae SERVs, which potentially affect the infectious ability of SERVs, were also identified in the proviral envelope protein. In addition, we found many integration events of SERVs were genus- or species-specific, suggesting the recent activity of SERVs in the Old World monkey genomes. The results suggest that SERVs in Cercopithecinae and Colobinae monkeys were endogenized after the divergence of subfamilies and do not transmit across subfamilies. Our findings also support the hypothesis that Colobinae SERVs are direct ancestors of SRV-6, which has a different origin from the other exogenous SRVs. These findings shed novel insight into the evolutionary history of SERVs, and may help to understand the process of endogenization of SRVs.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/genética , Colobinae/genética , Retrovirus Endógenos/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cercopithecinae/virologia , Colobinae/virologia , Retrovirus Endógenos/classificação , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Genoma , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Retrovirus dos Símios
6.
J Hum Evol ; 121: 178-192, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779686

RESUMO

A new fossil cranium of a large papionin monkey from the Lower Pleistocene site of Dafnero-3 in Western Macedonia, Greece, is described by means of outer and inner morphological and metric traits using high-resolution micro-computed tomography. Comparisons with modern cercopithecids and contemporaneous Eurasian fossil taxa suggest that the new cranium could equally be ascribed to either the Eurasian Paradolichopithecus or to the East Asian Procynocephalus. The combination of the available direct and indirect fossil evidence, including the new cranium from Dafnero, revives an earlier hypothesis that considers these two sparsely documented genera as synonyms. The timing and possible causes of the rise and demise of Paradolichopithecus - Procynocephalus are discussed.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cercopithecinae/classificação , Feminino , Grécia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
7.
Am J Primatol ; 80(5): e22760, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664154

RESUMO

Studies of the effects of habitat fragmentation and degradation on primate positional behavior, strata use, and substrate utilization offer valuable insights into the behavioral and ecological flexibility of primates whose habitats have undergone extensive anthropogenic disturbance. In this study, we evaluated how positional behavior, strata use, and substrate utilization differed between Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis)-bamboo-eating cercopithecids endemic to the southern Ethiopian Highlands-occupying continuous versus fragmented forests. Bale monkeys in forest fragments (where bamboo had been degraded or eradicated) spent significantly more time on the ground and in understory strata whereas those in continuous forest spent significantly more time in the middle and upper strata. Bale monkeys in forest fragments also spent significantly more time walking and galloping and significantly less time climbing than those in continuous forest. Our results suggest that, unlike the primarily arboreal Bale monkeys in continuous forest, Bale monkeys in forest fragments should be characterized as semi-terrestrial. In response to habitat disturbance in fragments, we observed a greater emphasis on terrestrial foraging and travel among Bale monkeys in these human altered habitats, which may put them at greater risk of predation and conflict with nearby human populations. Bale monkeys in fragments exhibit flexibility in their positional behavioral repertoire and their degree of terrestriality is more similar to their sister taxa in Chlorocebus than to Bale monkeys in continuous forest. These findings suggest that habitat alteration may compel Bale monkeys to exhibit semi-terrestrial behaviors crucial for their persistence in human-modified habitats. Our results contribute to a growing body of literature on primate behavioral responses to anthropogenic modification of their habitats and provide information that can contribute to the design of appropriate conservation management plans.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Cercopithecinae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Etiópia , Florestas , Humanos , Locomoção , Poaceae
8.
BMC Ecol ; 18(1): 4, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of habitat modification on the feeding strategies of threatened species is essential to designing effective conservation management plans. Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) are endemic to the rapidly shrinking montane forests of the southern Ethiopian Highlands. Most populations inhabit continuous bamboo forest subsisting largely on the young leaves and shoots of a single species of bamboo. Because of habitat disturbance in recent decades, however, there are now also several dozen small populations inhabiting isolated forest fragments where bamboo has been degraded. During 12-months, we assessed Bale monkey responses to habitat degradation by comparing habitat composition, phenological patterns, and feeding ecology in a largely undisturbed continuous forest (Continuous groups A and B) and in two fragments (Patchy and Hilltop groups). RESULTS: We found that habitat quality and food availability were much lower in fragments than in continuous forest. In response to the relative scarcity of bamboo in fragments, Bale monkeys spent significantly less time feeding on the young leaves and shoots of bamboo and significantly more time feeding on non-bamboo young leaves, fruits, seeds, stems, petioles, and insects in fragments than in continuous forest. Groups in fragments also broadened their diets to incorporate many more plant species (Patchy: ≥ 47 and Hilltop: ≥ 35 species)-including several forbs, graminoids and cultivated crops-than groups in continuous forest (Continuous A: 12 and Continuous B: 8 species). Nevertheless, bamboo was still the top food species for Patchy group (30% of diet) as well as for both continuous forest groups (mean = 81%). However, in Hilltop group, for which bamboo was especially scarce, Bothriochloa radicans (Poaceae), a grass, was the top dietary species (15% of diet) and bamboo ranked 10th (2%). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that Bale monkeys are more dietarily flexible than previously thought and able to cope with some degradation of their primary bamboo forest habitat. However, crop raiding and other terrestrial foraging habits more common among fragment groups may place them at greater risk of hunting by humans. Thus, longitudinal monitoring is necessary to evaluate the long-term viability of Bale monkey populations in fragmented habitats.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Dieta , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Etiópia , Florestas
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 20, 2018 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311667

RESUMO

Human activities can cause habitat degradation that may alter the types and quality of available food resources and thus influence the microbiomes of wild animal populations. Furthermore, seasonal shifts in food availability may cause adaptive responses in the gut microbiome to meet the need for different metabolic capabilities. Here, we demonstrate local-scale population structure in the gastrointestinal microbiotas of Chlorocebus monkeys, in southern Ethiopia, in response to varying degrees of human encroachment. We further provide evidence of adaptation to ecological conditions associated with the dry and wet seasons, and show seasonal effects to be more pronounced in areas with limited human activity. Finally, we report species-level microbiota differences between the endemic Ethiopian Bale monkey, an ecological specialist, and generalist Chlorocebus species from the same geographical region.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Biodiversidade , Cercopithecinae , Cloroplastos/genética , Geografia , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Estações do Ano
10.
Biol Lett ; 14(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343565

RESUMO

Intergeneric hybridization and introgression was reported from one of two populations of the recently discovered kipunji (Rungwecebus kipunji), a critically endangered African monkey species of southern Tanzania. Kipunjis of the introgressed population (from Mount Rungwe) carry a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype closely related to those of parapatric yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), whereas the second kipunji population, in the Udzungwa Mountains, carries the original kipunji mtDNA haplotypes, which diverged from the baboon lineage about 3 million years ago. Interestingly, in our study of yellow baboons in Tanzania, we found that baboons from the southeastern boundary of the Udzungwa Mountains carry mtDNA haplotypes closely related to the original kipunji haplotype, whereas baboons from the northern boundary, as expected, carry mtDNA haplotypes of the northern yellow baboon clade. These findings provide evidence for a case of inverted intergeneric admixture in primates: (i) a baboon mtDNA haplotype introgressed the Mount Rungwe kipunji population by mitochondrial capture and (ii) an Udzungwa Mountains kipunji mtDNA haplotype introgressed a small subpopulation of yellow baboons by either mitochondrial capture or nuclear swamping. The baboon-kipunji example therefore constitutes an interesting system for further studies of the effects of genetic admixture on fitness and speciation.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/genética , Haplótipos , Papio cynocephalus/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Hibridização Genética , Tanzânia
11.
Evol Anthropol ; 26(6): 336-349, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29265656

RESUMO

The Cercopithecini, or African guenon monkeys, are one of the most diverse clades of living primates and comprise the most species-rich clade of Catarrhini. Species identity is announced by flamboyant coloration of the facial and genital regions and, more cryptically, by vigorous chromosomal rearrangements among taxa. Beneath the skin, however, these animals are skeletally conservative and show low levels of genetic sequence divergence consonant with recent divergence between congeneric species. The guenons clearly demonstrate that morphological, cytogenetic, and reproductive differentiation proceed at different rates during speciation. We review diverse kinds of data in an effort to understand this conundrum.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cercopithecinae , África , Animais , Antropologia Física , Comportamento Animal , Cercopithecinae/anatomia & histologia , Cercopithecinae/classificação , Cercopithecinae/genética , Cercopithecinae/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Especiação Genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Crânio
12.
Mol Ecol ; 26(20): 5603-5613, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28817217

RESUMO

Leucocytes are typically considered as a whole in studies examining telomere dynamics in mammals. Such an approach may be precarious, as leucocytes represent the only nucleated blood cells in mammals, their composition varies temporally, and telomere length differs between leucocyte types. To highlight this limitation, we examined here whether seasonal variation in leucocyte composition was related to variation in telomere length in free-ranging mandrills (Mandrilllus sphinx). We found that the leucocyte profile of mandrills varied seasonally, with lower lymphocyte proportion being observed during the long dry season presumably because of the combined effects of high nematode infection and stress at that time of the year. Interestingly, this low lymphocyte proportion during the long dry season was associated with shorter telomeres. Accordingly, based on longitudinal data, we found that seasonal changes in lymphocyte proportion were reflected by corresponding seasonal variation in telomere length. Overall, these results suggest that variation in lymphocyte proportion in blood can significantly affect telomere measurements in mammals. However, lymphocyte proportion did not entirely explain variation in telomere length. For instance, a lower lymphocyte proportion with age could not fully explain shorter telomeres in older individuals. Overall, our results show that telomere length and leucocyte profile are strongly although imperfectly intertwined, which may obscure the relationship between telomere dynamics and ageing processes in mammals.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Cercopithecinae/genética , Leucócitos/citologia , Estações do Ano , Telômero/ultraestrutura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
13.
Peptides ; 94: 33-42, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28641988

RESUMO

The goals of this study were to describe the morphology, neurotransmitter content and synaptic connections of neurons in primate retinas that contain the neuropeptide secretoneurin. Amacrine cells were labeled with antibodies to secretoneurin in macaque and baboon retinas. Their processes formed three distinct plexuses in the inner plexiform layer: one in the outermost stratum, one in the center and one in the innermost stratum. In light microscopic double immunolabeling experiments, GABA was colocalized with secretoneurin in these cells, but glycine transporter 1 and Substance P were not. ON bipolar cell axon terminals labeled with antibody to the cholecystokinin precursor, G6-gly, have ON responses to stimulation of short wavelength sensitive (S) cones. Axons of these bipolar cells made contacts with amacrine cell dendrites containing secretoneurin. Secretoneurin-IR amacrine cells also made contacts with retinal ganglion cell dendrites labeled with antibody to the photopigment melanopsin, which have OFF responses to stimulation of S cones. Using electron microscopic immunolabeling, 436 synapses from macaque retina were analyzed. Axons from bipolar cells were identified by their characteristic synaptic ribbons; their synaptic densities were asymmetric like those of excitatory synapses in the brain. Amacrine cells made and received conventional synapses with symmetric synaptic densities, like those of inhibitory synapses in the brain. Ganglion cell dendrites were identified by their absence of presynaptic specializations; they received inputs from both amacrine cells and bipolar cells. The majority of inputs to the secretoneurin-IR amacrine cells were from other amacrine cells, but they also received 21% of their input from bipolar cells. They directed most of their output, 54%, to amacrine cells, but there were many synapses onto bipolar cell axons and ganglion cell dendrites, as well. The synaptic connections were very similar in the three plexuses with one notable exception; output synapses to bipolar cells were significantly less common in the innermost one, where the S-ON bipolar cells terminate. Taken together, these findings suggest that the secretoneurin-IR amacrine cells in primates receive excitatory input from S-ON bipolar cells and, in turn, inhibit intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.


Assuntos
Células Amácrinas/metabolismo , Cercopithecinae/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/análise , Secretogranina II/análise , Células Amácrinas/citologia , Células Amácrinas/fisiologia , Animais , Cercopithecinae/anatomia & histologia , Cercopithecinae/psicologia , Macaca fascicularis/anatomia & histologia , Macaca fascicularis/metabolismo , Macaca mulatta/anatomia & histologia , Macaca mulatta/metabolismo , Papio anubis/anatomia & histologia , Papio anubis/metabolismo , Retina/citologia , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/fisiologia , Células Bipolares da Retina/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia
14.
Arch Virol ; 162(2): 543-548, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27804019

RESUMO

To investigate the diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) among nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Zambia, next-generation sequencing was performed to determine the complete genome sequence of a novel SIV recovered by co-culturing African green monkey (AGM) peripheral blood lymphocytes with human CD4+ T-cell lines. We report the first described SIV (SIVagmMAL-ZMB) from a malbrouck (Chlorocebus cynosuros). SIVagmMAL-ZMB was detected by real-time PCR analysis of splenic RNA in 3.2% (3/94) of AGMs and was undetectable in baboons (0/105). SIVagmMAL-ZMB possessed <80% nucleotide sequence identity to known SIV isolates and was located basally to vervet monkey SIV strains in all phylogenies.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/epidemiologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/classificação , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Papio , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/isolamento & purificação , Baço/virologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
15.
J Hum Evol ; 95: 104-20, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27260177

RESUMO

Despite the abundance of cercopithecoids in the fossil record, especially in South Africa, and the recent development of morphometric approaches, uncertainties regarding the taxonomic identification of isolated cranio-dental specimens remain. Because cercopithecoids, nearly always found in stratigraphic association with hominin remains in Plio-Pleistocene deposits, are considered as sensitive ecological and chronological biomarkers, a significant effort should be made to clarify their palaeobiodiversity by assessing additional reliable morphological diagnostic criteria. Here we test the relevance of both molar crown internal structure and bony labyrinth morphology for discrimination of fossil cercopithecoid species. We use microtomographic-based 3D virtual imaging and quantitative analyses to investigate tooth endostructural organization and inner ear shape in 29 craniodental specimens from the South African sites of Kromdraai, Makapansgat, Sterkfontein and Swartkrans and provide the first detailed description of the internal structural condition characterizing this Plio-Pleistocene primate assemblage. Our preliminary results show that enamel-dentine junction morphology could be informative for discriminating highly autapomorphic taxa such as Theropithecus, while semicircular canal shape is tentatively proposed as an efficient criterion for diagnosing Dinopithecus ingens. Further research in virtual paleoprimatology may contribute to the identification of unassigned isolated fossil remains and shed new light on the internal craniodental morphology of extinct primate taxa.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Canais Semicirculares/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Paleodontologia , África do Sul
16.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 161(3): 426-435, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27348341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Independent lines of evidence suggest that osteonal bone remodeling is a function of both mechanical (i.e., changes in stress) and non-mechanical (i.e., metabolic needs related to calcium liberation) factors. The degree to which secondary bone reflects mechanical factors, however, is incompletely understood despite the common assumption that the stress environment mediates remodeling activity. Here, we investigate whether there are remodeling differences between regions of primate mandibular bone known to have distinct stress environments. METHODS: Osteon density, osteon fragment density, and relative osteonal area are measured as indicators of remodeling activity from postcanine and symphyseal thin sections of four sympatric monkey species (N = 20 total) from Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire: Piliocolobus badius, Colobus polykomos, Cercocebus atys, Cercopithecus diana. Subfamily and regional effects were assessed by two-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Symphyseal bone has lower osteonal density, fragment density and relative osteonal area than postcanine bone in all species, indicating relatively low remodeling activity in symphyseal bone, despite the likelihood of relatively high stresses in its lingual cortex. Subfamily differences in postcanine remodeling are significant in that colobines exhibit greater remodeling than cercopithecines. DISCUSSION: The data suggest that high strains are not requisite for bone remodeling. How the lingual symphysis negotiates a high strain environment without the reparative benefit of remodeling is yet to be elucidated, but the data prompt reevaluation of the relationship of targeted remodeling to stress histories. Differences in osteonal bone density between taxa might reflect feeding or dietary influences on remodeling activity, but sample composition prevents parsing behavioral from other taxon-specific effects.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Cercopithecinae/fisiologia , Colobus/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Mandíbula/fisiologia , Animais , Costa do Marfim , Osteon/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico
17.
J Hum Evol ; 90: 88-104, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26767962

RESUMO

Associated cercopithecoid postcrania are rare in the Plio-Pleistocene fossil record, particularly in the case of South African karst cave sites. However, as clear postcranial differences between major papionin clades have been documented, it should be possible to assign isolated papionin postcrania to the Cercocebus/Mandrillus and Papio/Lophocebus/Theropithecus groups wherever sufficient anatomy is preserved. Here, we demonstrate that two partial humeri preserved at Taung, UCMP 56693 and UCMP 125898, are most likely attributable to the Cercocebus/Mandrillus and Papio/Lophocebus/Theropithecus clades, respectively. Univariate analyses (ANOVAs and t-tests) and multivariate analyses (discriminant function analyses) of humeral features, combined with a phylogenetic analysis of 24 humeral characters, all support our assessment. Given that the overwhelming number of craniodental specimens at Taung are attributable to two papionin taxa, Procercocebus antiquus (a member of the Cercocebus/Mandrillus clade) and Papio izodi (a purported fossil species of the modern genus Papio), we assign UCMP 56693 to Pr. antiquus and UCMP 125868 to P. izodi with a high degree of confidence. Implications for cercopithecoid evolution and biogeography are discussed, with a particular emphasis on these two fossil taxa.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/anatomia & histologia , Cercopithecinae/classificação , Úmero/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , África do Sul
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25185937

RESUMO

In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of malbrouck monkey, Chlorocebus cynosuros, with the total length of 16,334 bp, is reported for the first time. Similar to other monkeys, it contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). The base composition was A (32.1%), G (12.4%), C (30.1%), and T (25.4%), so the percentage of A and T (57.5%) was higher than that of G and C. Most of the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and 8 tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence provided here would be useful for further phylogenetic analysis and population genetic studies in C. cynosuros.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/química , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Composição de Bases , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 46(4): 913-7, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26667550

RESUMO

A 13-yr-old female nulliparous Allen's swamp monkey (Allenopitchecus nigroviridis) presented with intermittent excessive vaginal bleeding, cyclical lethargy, and a history of irregular menstrual cycles. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a subjectively thickened, irregular endometrium, multiple leiomyomata (uterine fibroids), and bilateral anechoic foci on the ovaries. Treatment was initiated with leuprolide acetate i.m. monthly for 6 mo. Recheck ultrasound at 3 mo showed a decrease in leiomyoma diameter and no evidence of active follicles on the ovaries. Eleven months following completion of treatment, clinical signs recurred and the animal was treated with a deslorelin implant. Since implant placement, no vaginal bleeding has been noted.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae , Endometriose/veterinária , Leiomioma/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Implantes de Medicamento , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Leiomioma/tratamento farmacológico , Leiomioma/patologia , Leuprolida/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/administração & dosagem , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/análogos & derivados , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/farmacologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 5: 16021, 2015 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26531727

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus, a primate lentivirus (PLV), causes AIDS in humans, whereas most PLVs are less or not pathogenic in monkeys. These notions suggest that the co-evolutionary process of PLVs and their hosts associates with viral pathogenicity, and therefore, that elucidating the history of virus-host co-evolution is one of the most intriguing topics in the field of virology. To address this, recent studies have focused on the interplay between intrinsic anti-viral proteins, such as tetherin, and viral antagonists. Through an experimental-phylogenetic approach, here we investigate the co-evolutionary interplay between tribe Cercopithecini tetherin and viral antagonists, Nef and Vpu. We reveal that tribe Cercopithecini tetherins are positively selected, possibly triggered by ancient Nef-like factor(s). We reconstruct the ancestral sequence of tribe Cercopithecini tetherin and demonstrate that all Nef proteins are capable of antagonizing ancestral Cercopithecini tetherin. Further, we consider the significance of evolutionary arms race between tribe Cercopithecini and their PLVs.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Cercopithecinae/virologia , Proteínas do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/patogenicidade , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Linhagem Celular , Células HEK293 , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Seleção Genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética
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