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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20383, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650130

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 continues to infect an ever-expanding number of people, resulting in an increase in the number of deaths globally. With the emergence of new variants, there is a corresponding decrease in the currently available vaccine efficacy, highlighting the need for greater insights into the viral epitope profile for both vaccine design and assessment. In this study, three immunodominant linear B cell epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) were identified by immunoinformatics prediction, and confirmed by ELISA with sera from Macaca fascicularis vaccinated with a SARS-CoV-2 RBD subunit vaccine. Further immunoinformatics analyses of these three epitopes gave rise to a method of linear B cell epitope prediction and selection. B cell epitopes in the spike (S), membrane (M), and envelope (E) proteins were subsequently predicted and confirmed using convalescent sera from COVID-19 infected patients. Immunodominant epitopes were identified in three regions of the S2 domain, one region at the S1/S2 cleavage site and one region at the C-terminus of the M protein. Epitope mapping revealed that most of the amino acid changes found in variants of concern are located within B cell epitopes in the NTD, RBD, and S1/S2 cleavage site. This work provides insights into B cell epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 as well as immunoinformatics methods for B cell epitope prediction, which will improve and enhance SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development against emergent variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas do Envelope de Coronavírus/química , Proteínas do Envelope de Coronavírus/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Epitopos Imunodominantes/química , Macaca , Modelos Moleculares , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/química
2.
Primates ; 62(6): 981-993, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601696

RESUMO

Primates are popular species in wildlife tourism contexts and provide economic benefits to habitat countries where primate-based tourism activities are a part of the country's tourism economy. Primate tourism runs a broad gamut from safari-like expeditions within remote primate habitats to designated monkey parks and incidental primate tourism. In most forms of primate tourism, primate ecology and behaviour are directly influenced by humans, making these interfaces particularly relevant for examination using the lens of ethnoprimatology. While several studies have assessed the impact of tourism on primates, little is known about people's motivations for observing monkeys for recreational purposes. Here we present two case studies-the Jigokudani Monkey Park, Japan, and the Telaga Warna Nature Recreational Park, Indonesia-where we provide quantitative assessments of people's motivations for visiting managed (monkey parks) and unmanaged (incidental) monkey tourism sites. We further show that management regimes, socio-demographic attributes, previous experience of interactions with macaques, and feeding them play a role in people's desire to visit macaque tourism sites. In Japan, those who had interacted with macaques before were more likely to visit the park to observe macaques clearly and at close quarters. In contrast, respondents in Indonesia were more interested in the recreational opportunities offered by the nature reserve rather than in macaques. However, here too, people who had interacted with macaques earlier were more likely to visit incidental macaque tourist sites for the sole purpose of viewing or interacting with macaques. Almost 50% of the Japanese respondents visited the monkey park due to personal inclinations, while less than 14% of people in Indonesia visited the park of their own volition. Also, over 57% of the Japanese respondents said that visiting monkey parks helped them gain a better understanding of macaque behaviour, whereas only about 26% respondents said likewise in Indonesia. Unlike the Japanese respondents, most of the Indonesian respondents engaged in feeding macaques. These findings suggest that management regimes as well as socio-demographic attributes may influence people's motivations to visit macaque tourism sites.


Assuntos
Macaca , Turismo , Animais , Indonésia , Japão , Primatas
3.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(4): 3176, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717465

RESUMO

The relationship between sound duration and detection threshold has long been thought to reflect temporal integration. Reports of species differences in this relationship are equivocal: some meta-analyses report no species differences, whereas others report substantial differences, particularly between humans and their close phylogenetic relatives, macaques. This renders translational work in macaques problematic. To reevaluate this difference, tone detection performance was measured in macaques using a go/no-go reaction time (RT) task at various tone durations and in the presence of broadband noise (BBN). Detection thresholds, RTs, and the dynamic range (DR) of the psychometric function decreased as the tone duration increased. The threshold by duration trends suggest macaques integrate at a similar rate to humans. The RT trends also resemble human data and are the first reported in animals. Whereas the BBN did not affect how the threshold or RT changed with the duration, it substantially reduced the DR at short durations. A probabilistic Poisson model replicated the effects of duration on threshold and DR and required integration from multiple simulated auditory nerve fibers to explain the performance at shorter durations. These data suggest that, contrary to previous studies, macaques are uniquely well-suited to model human temporal integration and form the baseline for future neurophysiological studies.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Macaca , Animais , Limiar Auditivo , Humanos , Filogenia , Som
4.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(13): 12, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661609

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a preclinical compound, ITRI-E-(S)4046, a dual synergistic inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase 4 (MYLK4) and Rho-related protein kinase (ROCK), for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods: ITRI-E-(S)4046 is an amino-pyrazole derivative with physical and chemical properties suitable for ophthalmic formulation. In vitro kinase inhibition was evaluated using the Kinase-Glo Luminescent Kinase Assays. A comprehensive kinase selectivity analysis of ITRI-E-(S)4046 was performed using the KINOMEscan assay from DiscoverRx. The IOP reduction and tolerability of ITRI-E-(S)4046 were assessed in ocular normotensive rabbits, ocular normotensive non-human primates, and ocular hypertensive rabbits. In vivo studies were conducted to assess drug concentrations in ocular tissue. The adverse ocular effects of rabbit eyes were evaluated following the OECD405 guidelines. Results: ITRI-E-(S)4046 showed highly selective kinase inhibitory activity against ROCK1/2, MYLK4, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 19 (MAP3K19), with high specificity against protein kinase A, G, and C families. In ocular normotensive rabbits and non-human primates, the mean IOP reductions of 0.1% ITRI-E-(S)4046 eye drops were 29.8% and 28.5%, respectively. In hypertonic saline-induced and magnetic beads-induced ocular hypertensive rabbits, the mean IOP reductions of ITRI-E-(S)4046 0.1% eye drops were 46.9% and 22.0%, respectively. ITRI-E-(S)4046 was well tolerated with only temporary and minor signs of hyperemia. Conclusions: ITRI-E-(S)4046 is a novel type of highly specific ROCK1/2 and MYLK4 inhibitor that can reduce IOP in normotensive and hypertensive animal models. It has the potential to become an effective and well-tolerated treatment for glaucoma.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/antagonistas & inibidores , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/antagonistas & inibidores , Hipertensão Ocular/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , beta-Alanina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Macaca , Masculino , Hipertensão Ocular/fisiopatologia , Coelhos , Tonometria Ocular , beta-Alanina/farmacologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5215, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471122

RESUMO

Achieving sufficient worldwide vaccination coverage against SARS-CoV-2 will require additional approaches to currently approved viral vector and mRNA vaccines. Subunit vaccines may have distinct advantages when immunizing vulnerable individuals, children and pregnant women. Here, we present a new generation of subunit vaccines targeting viral antigens to CD40-expressing antigen-presenting cells. We demonstrate that targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to CD40 (αCD40.RBD) induces significant levels of specific T and B cells, with long-term memory phenotypes, in a humanized mouse model. Additionally, we demonstrate that a single dose of the αCD40.RBD vaccine, injected without adjuvant, is sufficient to boost a rapid increase in neutralizing antibodies in convalescent non-human primates (NHPs) exposed six months previously to SARS-CoV-2. Vaccine-elicited antibodies cross-neutralize different SARS-CoV-2 variants, including D614G, B1.1.7 and to a lesser extent B1.351. Such vaccination significantly improves protection against a new high-dose virulent challenge versus that in non-vaccinated convalescent animals.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD40/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Convalescença , Humanos , Macaca , Camundongos , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos , Reinfecção/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551978

RESUMO

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a major cause of respiratory disease worldwide, particularly among children and the elderly. Although there is no licensed HMPV vaccine, promising candidates have been identified for related pneumoviruses based on the structure-based stabilization of the fusion (F) glycoprotein trimer, with prefusion-stabilized F glycoprotein trimers eliciting significantly higher neutralizing responses than their postfusion F counterparts. However, immunization with HMPV F trimers in either prefusion or postfusion conformations has been reported to elicit equivalent neutralization responses. Here we investigate the impact of stabilizing disulfides, especially interprotomer disulfides (IP-DSs) linking protomers of the F trimer, on the elicitation of HMPV-neutralizing responses. We designed F trimer disulfides, screened for their expression, and used electron microscopy (EM) to confirm their formation, including that of an unexpected postfusion variant. In mice, IP-DS-stabilized prefusion and postfusion HMPV F elicited significantly higher neutralizing responses than non-IP-DS-stabilized HMPV Fs. In macaques, the impact of IP-DS stabilization was more measured, although IP-DS-stabilized variants of either prefusion or postfusion HMPV F induced neutralizing responses many times the average titers observed in a healthy human cohort. Serological and absorption-based analyses of macaque responses revealed elicited HMPV-neutralizing responses to be absorbed differently by IP-DS-containing and by non-IP-DS-containing postfusion Fs, suggesting IP-DS stabilization to alter not only the immunogenicity of select epitopes but their antigenicity as well. We speculate the observed increase in immunogenicity by IP-DS trimers to be related to reduced interprotomer flexibility within the HMPV F trimer.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Dissulfetos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Metapneumovirus/imunologia , Mutação , Animais , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Imunização , Macaca , Metapneumovirus/genética , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
7.
Primates ; 62(6): 971-980, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546459

RESUMO

Among the Macaca species, adult male Japanese macaques are the least likely to perform male care (i.e., affiliative interactions between adult males and immatures, including holding, carrying, and grooming); however, they perform male care for infants, albeit infrequently. We examined 17 cases of male care observed for the first time when the immature was younger than 1 year of age. Eleven of the 31 adult males who remained as central males during the 30-year observation period performed male care. Their age and dominance rank did not influence the occurrence of male care. Most cases were first recorded between the last part of the mating season and the first part of the birth season (January-March), whereas male care was rarely observed during the mating season (October-December). In 12 of the 17 cases, male care ceased within 6 months after the first observation, whereas in the remaining cases, it continued for at least 1 year. In 15 of the 17 cases, males tended to perform male care for matrilineally unrelated female infants of low-ranking mothers. In some cases, the male and infant mother showed grooming interactions for 6 months both before and after the start of male care, whereas such grooming interactions were never recorded either before or after the start of male care in other cases. We also examined some hypotheses on male-immature associations and the probable benefits that males and infants might acquire through male care.


Assuntos
Macaca fuscata , Macaca , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Comportamento Social
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576255

RESUMO

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease of uncertain aetiology that belongs to the family of α-synucleinopathies. It clinically presents with parkinsonism, cerebellar, autonomic, and motor impairment in variable combinations. Pathological hallmarks are fibrillary α-synuclein (αSyn)-rich glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) mainly involving oligodendroglia and to a lesser extent neurons, inducing a multisystem neurodegeneration, glial activation, and widespread demyelinization. The neuronal αSyn pathology of MSA has molecular properties different from Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD), both of which could serve as a pool of αSyn (prion) seeds that could initiate and drive the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies. The molecular cascade leading to the "prion-like" transfer of "strains" of aggregated αSyn contributing to the progression of the disease is poorly understood, while some presented evidence that MSA is a prion disease. However, this hypothesis is difficult to reconcile with postmortem analysis of human brains and the fact that MSA-like pathology was induced by intracerebral inoculation of human MSA brain homogenates only in homozygous mutant 53T mice, without production of disease-specific GCIs, or with replication of MSA prions in primary astrocyte cultures from transgenic mice expressing human αSyn. Whereas recent intrastriatal injection of Lewy body-derived or synthetic human αSyn fibrils induced PD-like pathology including neuronal αSyn aggregates in macaques, no such transmission of αSyn pathology in non-human primates by MSA brain lysate has been reported until now. Given the similarities between αSyn and prions, there is a considerable debate whether they should be referred to as "prions", "prion-like", "prionoids", or something else. Here, the findings supporting the proposed nature of αSyn as a prion and its self-propagation through seeding as well as the transmissibility of neurodegenerative disorders are discussed. The proof of disease causation rests on the concordance of scientific evidence, none of which has provided convincing evidence for the classification of MSA as a prion disease or its human transmission until now.


Assuntos
Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/patologia , Príons/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão/metabolismo , Corpos de Lewy , Macaca , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Teóricos , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/patologia , Dobramento de Proteína , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
9.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(11): 1702-1707, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544936

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic inflammatory and zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) members, affecting several domestic animals, wildlife species and humans. The preliminary investigation was aimed to detect antibody against MTBC among indigenous wildlife which are free-ranged wild boar, free-ranged wild macaques and captive Asian elephants in selected areas of Selangor and elephant conservation centre in Pahang, respectively. The results indicate that MTBC serodetection rate in wild boar was 16.7% (7.3-33.5 at 95% confidence interval (CI)) using an in-house ELISA bPPD IgG and 10% (3.5-25.6 at 95% CI) by DPP®VetTB assay, while the wild macaques and Asian elephant were seronegative. The univariate analysis indicates no statistically significant difference in risk factors for sex and age of wild boar but there was a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between bovine TB in dairy cattle and wild boar seropositivity in the Sepang district.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Elefantes , Mycobacterium bovis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Doenças dos Suínos , Tuberculose , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Bovinos , Macaca , Malásia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/veterinária
10.
J Med Primatol ; 50(6): 332-334, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585387

RESUMO

Mammary neoplasia is rare in nonhuman primates other than macaques; records in New World primates are exceedingly rare. We report the pathologic and immunohistochemical features of an invasive carcinoma no special type with neuroendocrine differentiation in a captive, black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi).


Assuntos
Ateles geoffroyi , Atelinae , Carcinoma , Animais , Macaca
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5704, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588440

RESUMO

In perceptual decisions, subjects infer hidden states of the environment based on noisy sensory information. Here we show that both choice and its associated confidence are explained by a Bayesian framework based on partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs). We test our model on monkeys performing a direction-discrimination task with post-decision wagering, demonstrating that the model explains objective accuracy and predicts subjective confidence. Further, we show that the model replicates well-known discrepancies of confidence and accuracy, including the hard-easy effect, opposing effects of stimulus variability on confidence and accuracy, dependence of confidence ratings on simultaneous or sequential reports of choice and confidence, apparent difference between choice and confidence sensitivity, and seemingly disproportionate influence of choice-congruent evidence on confidence. These effects may not be signatures of sub-optimal inference or discrepant computational processes for choice and confidence. Rather, they arise in Bayesian inference with incomplete knowledge of the environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Macaca , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Animais , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia
12.
Neuron ; 109(20): 3239-3251.e7, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478631

RESUMO

Human accelerated regions (HARs) are the fastest-evolving regions of the human genome, and many are hypothesized to function as regulatory elements that drive human-specific gene regulatory programs. We interrogate the in vitro enhancer activity and in vivo epigenetic landscape of more than 3,100 HARs during human neurodevelopment, demonstrating that many HARs appear to act as neurodevelopmental enhancers and that sequence divergence at HARs has largely augmented their neuronal enhancer activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate PPP1R17 to be a putative HAR-regulated gene that has undergone remarkable rewiring of its cell type and developmental expression patterns between non-primates and primates and between non-human primates and humans. Finally, we show that PPP1R17 slows neural progenitor cell cycle progression, paralleling the cell cycle length increase seen predominantly in primate and especially human neurodevelopment. Our findings establish HARs as key components in rewiring human-specific neurodevelopmental gene regulatory programs and provide an integrated resource to study enhancer activity of specific HARs.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Epigenômica , Evolução Molecular , Furões , Humanos , Macaca , Camundongos , Pan troglodytes
13.
Elife ; 102021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473054

RESUMO

Abundant evidence supports the presence of at least three distinct types of thalamocortical (TC) neurons in the primate dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the thalamus, the brain region that conveys visual information from the retina to the primary visual cortex (V1). Different types of TC neurons in mice, humans, and macaques have distinct morphologies, distinct connectivity patterns, and convey different aspects of visual information to the cortex. To investigate the molecular underpinnings of these cell types, and how these relate to differences in dLGN between human, macaque, and mice, we profiled gene expression in single nuclei and cells using RNA-sequencing. These efforts identified four distinct types of TC neurons in the primate dLGN: magnocellular (M) neurons, parvocellular (P) neurons, and two types of koniocellular (K) neurons. Despite extensively documented morphological and physiological differences between M and P neurons, we identified few genes with significant differential expression between transcriptomic cell types corresponding to these two neuronal populations. Likewise, the dominant feature of TC neurons of the adult mouse dLGN is high transcriptomic similarity, with an axis of heterogeneity that aligns with core vs. shell portions of mouse dLGN. Together, these data show that transcriptomic differences between principal cell types in the mature mammalian dLGN are subtle relative to the observed differences in morphology and cortical projection targets. Finally, alignment of transcriptome profiles across species highlights expanded diversity of GABAergic neurons in primate versus mouse dLGN and homologous types of TC neurons in primates that are distinct from TC neurons in mouse.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , Corpos Geniculados/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Córtex Visual/metabolismo , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Macaca , Camundongos , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Tálamo/metabolismo , Vias Visuais/metabolismo
14.
Behav Processes ; 191: 104473, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363911

RESUMO

The degree of behavioural synchrony of animals within a group can be considered a reflection of how individuals adjust their behaviours to manage the costs/benefits accompanying group-living. In this study, we focused on activity synchrony and travel direction synchrony as behavioural synchrony. We aimed to quantify the degree of behavioural synchrony and identify which factors can affect the synchrony in wild females of Japanese macaques. Japanese macaques live in female philopatric multi-female and multi-male groups and have a linear dominance hierarchy. The groups are characterized by changing spatio-temporal cohesiveness among group members. Two observers conducted simultaneous focal animal sampling on adult females using global positioning system devices to record locations. The overall degree of activity synchrony was positive compared with random, and the degree was highest when macaques were located within visual range of each other. Both activity synchrony and travel direction synchrony were influenced by spatial cohesion, i.e. interindividual distance, which shows that the probabilities of synchrony were higher with individuals located closer. Activity synchrony was also influenced by activity type, showing that the probabilities of synchrony were higher when individuals engaged in foraging. These results suggest that synchronized foraging may be caused by enhanced feeding with other group members when they are closer to each other. Our approach to quantitatively measure spatial dispersal while observing group members simultaneously revealed the roles of spatial cohesion and activity types for determining the degree of behavioural synchrony.


Assuntos
Macaca fuscata , Macaca , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Predomínio Social
15.
Nat Methods ; 18(8): 975-981, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354294

RESUMO

Markerless three-dimensional (3D) pose estimation has become an indispensable tool for kinematic studies of laboratory animals. Most current methods recover 3D poses by multi-view triangulation of deep network-based two-dimensional (2D) pose estimates. However, triangulation requires multiple synchronized cameras and elaborate calibration protocols that hinder its widespread adoption in laboratory studies. Here we describe LiftPose3D, a deep network-based method that overcomes these barriers by reconstructing 3D poses from a single 2D camera view. We illustrate LiftPose3D's versatility by applying it to multiple experimental systems using flies, mice, rats and macaques, and in circumstances where 3D triangulation is impractical or impossible. Our framework achieves accurate lifting for stereotypical and nonstereotypical behaviors from different camera angles. Thus, LiftPose3D permits high-quality 3D pose estimation in the absence of complex camera arrays and tedious calibration procedures and despite occluded body parts in freely behaving animals.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Animais de Laboratório/fisiologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Postura/fisiologia , Animais , Calibragem , Drosophila melanogaster , Feminino , Macaca , Camundongos , Ratos
16.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(9): 1280-1291, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341586

RESUMO

Predictive motion encoding is an important aspect of visually guided behavior that allows animals to estimate the trajectory of moving objects. Motion prediction is understood primarily in the context of translational motion, but the environment contains other types of behaviorally salient motion correlation such as those produced by approaching or receding objects. However, the neural mechanisms that detect and predictively encode these correlations remain unclear. We report here that four of the parallel output pathways in the primate retina encode predictive motion information, and this encoding occurs for several classes of spatiotemporal correlation that are found in natural vision. Such predictive coding can be explained by known nonlinear circuit mechanisms that produce a nearly optimal encoding, with transmitted information approaching the theoretical limit imposed by the stimulus itself. Thus, these neural circuit mechanisms efficiently separate predictive information from nonpredictive information during the encoding process.


Assuntos
Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Animais , Macaca , Estimulação Luminosa
17.
Primates ; 62(6): 955-970, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403015

RESUMO

Human impact influences morphological variation in animals, as documented in many captive and domestic animal populations. However, there are different levels of human impact, and their influence on the pattern and rate of morphological variation remains unclear. This study contributes to the ongoing debate via the examination of cranial and mandibular shape and size variation and pace of change in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). This species is ideal for tackling such questions because different wild, wild-provisioned, and captive populations have been monitored and collected over seven decades. Linear measurements were taken on 70 skulls from five populations, grouped into three 'human impact groups' (wild, wild-provisioned, and captive). This made it possible to investigate the pattern and pace of skull form changes among the human impact groups as well as over time within the populations. It was found that the overall skull shape tends to differ among the human impact groups, with captive macaques having relatively longer rostra than wild ones. Whether these differences are a result of geographic variation or variable human impact, related to nutritional supply and mechanical properties of the diet, is unclear. However, this pattern of directed changes did not seem to hold when the single captive populations were examined in detail. Although environmental conditions have probably been similar for the two examined captive populations (same captive locality), skull shape changes over the first generations in captivity were mostly different. This varying pattern, together with a consistent decrease in body size in the captive populations over generations, points to genetic drift playing a role in shaping skull shape and body size in captivity. In the captive groups investigated here, the rates of change were found to be high compared to literature records from settings featuring different degrees of human impact in different species, although they still lie in the range of field studies in a natural context. This adds to the view that human impact might not necessarily lead to particularly fast rates of change.


Assuntos
Macaca fuscata , Macaca , Animais , Dieta , Humanos , Crânio
18.
Am J Primatol ; 83(9): e23317, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358368

RESUMO

Apart from frugivory, we have limited knowledge of the ecological consequences of primate herbivory. We aimed to ascertain the effects of spring folivory and winter bark/bud herbivory by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) on tree species and succession patterns of cool-temperate forests with heavy snow. To evaluate the impact of herbivory on individual trees, we assessed the growth and mortality of trees consumed by simulating herbivory on nine tree species over 4 years. Additionally, we assessed the cumulative impacts of bark/bud herbivory observed at the tree community level by monitoring the patterns of natural herbivory for almost a decade and evaluating the structure of tree assemblages in places with different cumulative impacts of herbivory. The results of simulated herbivory showed that the mortality caused by both spring and winter herbivory was limited (<20%) for almost all tree species monitored; however, the simulated folivory led to delayed tree growth and/or weakening of tree architecture. In contrast, the simulated bark/bud herbivory sometimes resulted in overcompensation of the tree consumed. The multiyear monitoring of natural herbivory demonstrated that, while bark/bud herbivory did not reduced the diversity and biomass of tree assemblages, the cumulative impacts of natural herbivory could have affected the tree succession pattern, resulting in increasing the availability of bark/buds preferably fed by macaques. The key cause for this feedback effect of herbivory on available foods of macaques might be heavy snow conditions, which could physically and physiologically restrain the excessive bark/buds herbivory by macaques.


Assuntos
Macaca fuscata , Árvores , Animais , Herbivoria , Japão , Macaca , Neve
19.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(8): e1009280, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407069

RESUMO

Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist commonly used to maintain general anesthesia. At anesthetic doses, ketamine causes high power gamma (25-50 Hz) oscillations alternating with slow-delta (0.1-4 Hz) oscillations. These dynamics are readily observed in local field potentials (LFPs) of non-human primates (NHPs) and electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings from human subjects. However, a detailed statistical analysis of these dynamics has not been reported. We characterize ketamine's neural dynamics using a hidden Markov model (HMM). The HMM observations are sequences of spectral power in seven canonical frequency bands between 0 to 50 Hz, where power is averaged within each band and scaled between 0 and 1. We model the observations as realizations of multivariate beta probability distributions that depend on a discrete-valued latent state process whose state transitions obey Markov dynamics. Using an expectation-maximization algorithm, we fit this beta-HMM to LFP recordings from 2 NHPs, and separately, to EEG recordings from 9 human subjects who received anesthetic doses of ketamine. Our beta-HMM framework provides a useful tool for experimental data analysis. Together, the estimated beta-HMM parameters and optimal state trajectory revealed an alternating pattern of states characterized primarily by gamma and slow-delta activities. The mean duration of the gamma activity was 2.2s([1.7,2.8]s) and 1.2s([0.9,1.5]s) for the two NHPs, and 2.5s([1.7,3.6]s) for the human subjects. The mean duration of the slow-delta activity was 1.6s([1.2,2.0]s) and 1.0s([0.8,1.2]s) for the two NHPs, and 1.8s([1.3,2.4]s) for the human subjects. Our characterizations of the alternating gamma slow-delta activities revealed five sub-states that show regular sequential transitions. These quantitative insights can inform the development of rhythm-generating neuronal circuit models that give mechanistic insights into this phenomenon and how ketamine produces altered states of arousal.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Ketamina/farmacologia , Macaca/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ritmo Gama/fisiologia , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Probabilidade
20.
J Med Primatol ; 50(5): 259-269, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of pain in macaques is challenging. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate current knowledge and attitudes of primate veterinarians concerning acute pain in macaques; (2) to synthesise current knowledge and opinion to facilitate pain assessment. A primary question of interest was whether more confident individuals differ in their knowledge and attitudes from less-confident individuals. METHODS: An online survey was conducted amongst primate veterinarians serving both laboratories and zoos/sanctuaries. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information, attitudes towards pain, pain rating and analgesics, pain recognition and confidence in recognising pain and sources of information used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There was generally good use of analgesia by respondents. More confident individuals reported that they recognise pain both behaviourally and in facial expressions, rated all pain signs more highly and used more analgesics. Specialist support networks aimed at increasing veterinarian confidence in macaque pain assessment could be beneficial.


Assuntos
Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Atitude , Humanos , Macaca , Dor , Primatas
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