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1.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1629-1632, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503821

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. It is contagious in humans and is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the current analysis, we searched for SARS-CoV-2 sequences within the human genome. To compare the SARS-CoV-2 genome to the human genome, we used the blast-like alignment tool (BLAT) of the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser. BLAT can align a user sequence of 25 bases or more to the genome. BLAT search results revealed a 117-base pair SARS-CoV-2 sequence in the human genome with 94.6% identity. The sequence was in chromosome 1p within an intronic region of the netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene. The sequence matched a sequence in the SARS-CoV-2 orf1b (open reading frames) gene. The SARS-CoV-2 human sequence lies within non-structural proteins 14 and 15 (NSP14 and NSP15), and is quite close to the viral spike sequence, separated only by NSP16, a 904-base pair sequence. The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the binding of the virus spike protein to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and internalization of the complex by the host cell. It is probably no accident that a sequence from the SARS-CoV-2 orf1b gene is found in the human NTNG1 gene, implicated in schizophrenia, and that haloperidol, used to treat schizophrenia, may also be a treatment for COVID-19. We suggest, therefore, that it is important to investigate other haloperidol analogs. Among them are benperidol, bromperidol, bromperidol decanoate, droperidol, seperidol hydrochloride, and trifluperidol. These analogs might be valuable in the treatment of COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Genes Virais , Netrina-1/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Complementar/genética , Endorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/genética , Haloperidol/análogos & derivados , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Pan troglodytes/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Viral/genética , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Especificidade da Espécie , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
2.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(2): 70-73, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593379

RESUMO

Leo Fabian played a role in many anesthesia firsts: the first halothane anesthetics in the United States, the first American electrical anesthetic, the first lung allotransplant, and the first heart xenotransplant. As was common for men of his generation, Fabian's first taste of medicine came during World War II, as a pharmacist's mate aboard the U.S.S. Bountiful. Afterward, he pursued his medical education before joining Dr. C. Ronald Stephen and the anesthesiology department at Duke. There he helped to create one of the first inhalers for halothane, the Fabian Newton Stephen (F-N-S) Fluothane Vaporizer. Fabian left Duke for the University of Mississippi Medical Center, where he consistently worked with the chair of surgery, Dr. James Hardy. Together they performed the first American electrical anesthetic, the first lung allotransplant, and the first heart xenotransplant. By the end of his time at Mississippi, Fabian and Hardy had several philosophical disagreements, and Fabian ultimately left for Washington University in St. Louis, where he rejoined Dr. Stephen. He served as Stephen's right-hand man and would oversee the department when Stephen was away. Fabian spent the final years of his career as chair of the department before his own health forced him to step down.


Assuntos
Anestesia/história , Anestesiologia/história , Anestesia/métodos , Anestesiologia/instrumentação , Animais , Eletricidade/história , Transplante de Coração/história , História do Século XX , Experimentação Humana/história , Humanos , Transplante de Pulmão/história , Pan troglodytes , Transplante Heterólogo/ética , Transplante Heterólogo/história , Estados Unidos
3.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(6): 488-498, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine potential relationships between ECG characteristics and echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). ANIMALS: 341 chimpanzees (175 males and 166 females) from 5 sanctuaries and 2 zoological collections. PROCEDURES: Chimpanzees were anesthetized for routine health examinations between May 2011 and July 2017 as part of the International Primate Heart Project and, during the same anesthetic events, underwent 12-lead ECG and transthoracic echocardiographic assessments. Relationships between results for ECG and those for echocardiographic measures of atrial areas, left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd), and mean left ventricular wall thicknesses (MLVWT) were assessed with correlational analysis, then multiple linear regression analyses were used to create hierarchical models to predict cardiac structure from ECG findings. RESULTS: Findings indicated correlations (r = -0.231 to 0.310) between results for ECG variables and echocardiographic measures. The duration and amplitude of P waves in lead II had the strongest correlations with atrial areas. The Sokolow-Lyon criteria, QRS-complex duration, and R-wave amplitude in leads V6 and II had the strongest correlations with MLVWT, whereas the Sokolow-Lyon criteria, QRS-complex duration, and S-wave amplitude in leads V2 and V1 had the strongest correlations with LVIDd. However, the ECG predictive models that were generated only accounted for 17%, 7%, 11%, and 8% of the variance in the right atrial end-systolic area, left atrial end-systolic area, MLVWT, and LVIDd, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that relationships existed between ECG findings and cardiac morphology in the chimpanzees of the present study; however, further research is required to examine whether the predictive models generated can be modified to improve their clinical utility.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Átrios do Coração , Ventrículos do Coração , Masculino
4.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e74, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349847

RESUMO

Tomasello claims that we lack convincing evidence that nonhuman animals manifest a sense of moral obligation (i.e., the concept of fairness) in their group activities. The philosophical analysis of distinctive evidence from ethology, namely group hunting practices among chimpanzees, can help the author appreciate the distinctive character of this behaviour as a display of fairness put into practice.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Pan troglodytes , Animais
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(22): 27914-27925, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405934

RESUMO

While road network expansion is crucial for economic development, it can cause a notable disturbance of fauna, especially in protected area in terms of habitat fragmentation, risk of collision, and also indirect threat such as pollution. In this study, we monitored the 4.6-km long tarmac road crossing the Kibale National Park in Uganda, home to a rich variety of wild species including the endangered chimpanzees. We evaluated the effects of collisions and pollution, as well as the impact of the renovation process in terms of disturbance and the mitigation measures deployed. This survey reports the death of 24 wild animals killed by cars, including two chimpanzees. The atmospheric concentrations of O3, NO2, SO2, and BTEX did not exceed recommended limits. More than 5000 plastic bottles were collected along the road within 4 months, and for the first time, the presence of BPA and BPS was detected in the hairs of wild chimpanzees. The road bisecting the Kibale National Park poses a high danger in terms of traffic and an underestimated risk related to plastic pollution. Measures (signpost, speed bumps) should be urgently deployed to decrease the risk posed by the renovated road for emblematic species such as chimpanzees, which are crucial for tourism and economy in Uganda.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Parques Recreativos , Animais , Ecossistema , Pan troglodytes , Uganda
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(15): 8424-8430, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229565

RESUMO

Cortisol, a key product of the stress response, has critical influences on degenerative aging in humans. In turn, cortisol production is affected by senescence of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to progressive dysregulation and increased cortisol exposure. These processes have been studied extensively in industrialized settings, but few comparative data are available from humans and closely related species living in natural environments, where stressors are very different. Here, we examine age-related changes in urinary cortisol in a 20-y longitudinal study of wild chimpanzees (n = 59 adults) in the Kanyawara community of Kibale National Park, Uganda. We tested for three key features of HPA aging identified in many human studies: increased average levels, a blunted diurnal rhythm, and enhanced response to stressors. Using linear mixed models, we found that aging was associated with a blunting of the diurnal rhythm and a significant linear increase in cortisol, even after controlling for changes in dominance rank. These effects did not differ by sex. Aging did not increase sensitivity to energetic stress or social status. Female chimpanzees experienced their highest levels of cortisol during cycling (versus lactation), and this effect increased with age. Male chimpanzees experienced their highest levels when exposed to sexually attractive females, but this effect was diminished by age. Our results indicate that chimpanzees share some key features of HPA aging with humans. These findings suggest that impairments of HPA regulation are intrinsic to the aging process in hominids and are side effects neither of extended human life span nor of atypical environments.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/urina , Glucocorticoides/urina , Hidrocortisona/urina , Pan troglodytes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/biossíntese , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/biossíntese , Longevidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/metabolismo , Pan troglodytes/urina
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1925): 20192858, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315585

RESUMO

Across the animal kingdom, males tend to exhibit more behavioural and morphological variability than females, consistent with the 'greater male variability hypothesis'. This may reflect multiple mechanisms operating at different levels, including selective mechanisms that produce and maintain variation, extended male development, and X chromosome effects. Interestingly, human neuroanatomy shows greater male variability, but this pattern has not been demonstrated in any other species. To address this issue, we investigated sex-specific neuroanatomical variability in chimpanzees by examining relative and absolute surface areas of 23 cortical sulci across 226 individuals (135F/91M), using permutation tests of the male-to-female variance ratio of residuals from MCMC generalized linear mixed models controlling for relatedness. We used these models to estimate sulcal size heritability, simulations to assess the significance of heritability, and Pearson correlations to examine inter-sulcal correlations. Our results show that: (i) male brain structure is relatively more variable; (ii) sulcal surface areas are heritable and therefore potentially subject to selection; (iii) males exhibit lower heritability values, possibly reflecting longer development; and (iv) males exhibit stronger inter-sulcal correlations, providing indirect support for sex chromosome effects. These results provide evidence that greater male neuroanatomical variability extends beyond humans, and suggest both evolutionary and developmental explanations for this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Masculino
8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230236, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214344

RESUMO

Pathways leading to formation of non-coding RNA and protein genes are varied and complex. We report finding a conserved repeat sequence present in human and chimpanzee genomes that appears to have originated from a common primate ancestor. This sequence is repeatedly copied in human chromosome 22 (chr22) low copy repeats (LCR22) or segmental duplications and forms twenty-one different genes, which include the human long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) family FAM230, a newly discovered lincRNA gene family termed conserved long intergenic non-coding RNAs (clincRNA), pseudogene families, as well as the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) protein gene family and the RNA pseudogenes that originate from GGT sequences. Of particular interest are the GGT5 and USP18 protein genes that appear to have formed from an homologous repeat sequence that also forms the clincRNA gene family. The data point to ancestral DNA sequences, conserved through evolution and duplicated in humans by chromosomal repeat sequences that may serve as functional genomic elements in the development of diverse genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas/genética , Pseudogenes/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Sequência Conservada/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Pan troglodytes/genética , gama-Glutamiltransferase/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1189, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132541

RESUMO

Changes in potential regulatory elements are thought to be key drivers of phenotypic divergence. However, identifying changes to regulatory elements that underlie human-specific traits has proven very challenging. Here, we use 63 reconstructed and experimentally measured DNA methylation maps of ancient and present-day humans, as well as of six chimpanzees, to detect differentially methylated regions that likely emerged in modern humans after the split from Neanderthals and Denisovans. We show that genes associated with face and vocal tract anatomy went through particularly extensive methylation changes. Specifically, we identify widespread hypermethylation in a network of face- and voice-associated genes (SOX9, ACAN, COL2A1, NFIX and XYLT1). We propose that these repression patterns appeared after the split from Neanderthals and Denisovans, and that they might have played a key role in shaping the modern human face and vocal tract.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , DNA Antigo , Face/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Fonação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Condrócitos , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Especiação Genética , Humanos , Laringe/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Homem de Neandertal/genética , Pan troglodytes/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Língua/anatomia & histologia , Prega Vocal/anatomia & histologia , Vocalização Animal
11.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(4): 498-511, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203420

RESUMO

Rho GTPases are central regulators of the cytoskeleton and, in humans, are controlled by 145 multidomain guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (RhoGAPs). How Rho signalling patterns are established in dynamic cell spaces to control cellular morphogenesis is unclear. Through a family-wide characterization of substrate specificities, interactomes and localization, we reveal at the systems level how RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs contextualize and spatiotemporally control Rho signalling. These proteins are widely autoinhibited to allow local regulation, form complexes to jointly coordinate their networks and provide positional information for signalling. RhoGAPs are more promiscuous than RhoGEFs to confine Rho activity gradients. Our resource enabled us to uncover a multi-RhoGEF complex downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors controlling CDC42-RHOA crosstalk. Moreover, we show that integrin adhesions spatially segregate GEFs and GAPs to shape RAC1 activity zones in response to mechanical cues. This mechanism controls the protrusion and contraction dynamics fundamental to cell motility. Our systems analysis of Rho regulators is key to revealing emergent organization principles of Rho signalling.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Integrinas/genética , Mecanotransdução Celular/genética , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/genética , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Animais , Células COS , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Biologia Computacional , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/ultraestrutura , Cães , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/classificação , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Integrinas/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Pan troglodytes , Domínios Proteicos , Ratos , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/classificação , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/metabolismo , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
12.
Anim Cogn ; 23(3): 545-557, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060749

RESUMO

Spatial memory allows animals to retain information regarding the location, distribution, and quality of feeding sites to optimize foraging decisions. Western gorillas inhabit a complex environment with spatiotemporal fluctuations of resource availability, prefer fruits when available, and travel long distances to reach them. Here, we examined movement patterns-such as linearity, distance, and speed of traveling-to assess whether gorillas optimize travel when reaching out-of-sight valued resources. Our results show that gorillas travel patterns are affected by the activity they perform next, the type of food they feed on, and their preference level to specific fruits, suggesting they are able to optimize foraging based on spatial knowledge of their resources. Additionally, gorillas left in the direction of the next resource as soon as they started traveling and decelerated before approaching food resources, as evidence that they have a representation of their exact locations. Moreover, home range familiarity did not influence gorillas' movement patterns, as travel linearity in the core and periphery did not differ, suggesting that they may not depend wholly on a network of paths to navigate their habitat. These results show some overlap with chimpanzees' spatial abilities. Differences between the two ape species exist, however, potentially reflecting more their differences in diet (degree of frugivory) rather than their cognitive abilities. Further studies should focus on determining whether gorillas are able to use shortcuts and/or approach the same goal from multiple directions to better identify the spatial abilities used by this species.


Assuntos
Gorilla gorilla , Hominidae , Animais , Cognição , Dieta , Pan troglodytes
14.
Nature ; 579(7797): 97-100, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103182

RESUMO

The stiff human foot enables an efficient push-off when walking or running, and was critical for the evolution of bipedalism1-6. The uniquely arched morphology of the human midfoot is thought to stiffen it5-9, whereas other primates have flat feet that bend severely in the midfoot7,10,11. However, the relationship between midfoot geometry and stiffness remains debated in foot biomechanics12,13, podiatry14,15 and palaeontology4-6. These debates centre on the medial longitudinal arch5,6 and have not considered whether stiffness is affected by the second, transverse tarsal arch of the human foot16. Here we show that the transverse tarsal arch, acting through the inter-metatarsal tissues, is responsible for more than 40% of the longitudinal stiffness of the foot. The underlying principle resembles a floppy currency note that stiffens considerably when it curls transversally. We derive a dimensionless curvature parameter that governs the stiffness contribution of the transverse tarsal arch, demonstrate its predictive power using mechanical models of the foot and find its skeletal correlate in hominin feet. In the foot, the material properties of the inter-metatarsal tissues and the mobility of the metatarsals may additionally influence the longitudinal stiffness of the foot and thus the curvature-stiffness relationship of the transverse tarsal arch. By analysing fossils, we track the evolution of the curvature parameter among extinct hominins and show that a human-like transverse arch was a key step in the evolution of human bipedalism that predates the genus Homo by at least 1.5 million years. This renewed understanding of the foot may improve the clinical treatment of flatfoot disorders, the design of robotic feet and the study of foot function in locomotion.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Pé/anatomia & histologia , Pé/fisiologia , Testes de Dureza , Animais , Cadáver , Extinção Biológica , Feminino , Pé/fisiopatologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Maleabilidade , Pé Cavo/fisiopatologia
15.
Am J Primatol ; 82(1): e23084, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894611

RESUMO

In cooperative hunting, a carcass cannot be divided equally, and hunts may be unsuccessful. We studied how chimpanzees respond to these two variables, working for unequal rewards and no rewards, which have been rarely included in experimental cooperative tasks. We presented chimpanzees with a task requiring three chimpanzees to work together and varied the reward structure in two separate experiments. In Experiment 1, two individuals received more rewards than the third, making the outcome unequal. We wanted to know if cooperation would continue or break down, and what mechanisms might maintain performance. Experiment 2 used equal rewards, but this time one or more locations were left unbaited on a proportion of trials. Thus, there was a chance of individuals working to receive nothing. In Experiment 1, the chimpanzees worked at a high rate, tolerating the unequal outcomes, with rank appearing to determine who got access to the higher-value locations. However, equal outcomes (used as a control) enhanced cooperative performance, most likely through motivational processes rather than the absence of inequity aversion. In Experiment 2, performance dropped off dramatically when the chimpanzees were not rewarded on every trial. Their strategy was irrational as donating effort would have led to more rewards in the long run for each individual. Our results lead to a hierarchy of performances by condition with equity > inequity > donating effort. Chimpanzees therefore tolerate mild inequity, but cannot tolerate receiving nothing when others are rewarded.


Assuntos
Pan troglodytes/psicologia , Recompensa , Comportamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Masculino
16.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 1005-1007, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926537

RESUMO

At times severe, and occasionally fatal, aggression plays an intrinsic role in chimpanzee behavior and social dynamics, particularly among male chimpanzees in both managed and free-ranging troops. At the Los Angeles Zoo, one adult male's natural aggressive behavior developed into unmanageable violence during a period of social and emotional instability consequent to the lack of an established alpha male in the colony. The severity and duration of resulting attacks on a subdominant member of the community, despite environmental and behavioral modification, indicated the need for psychopharmaceutical intervention. Prior treatment of this animal with haloperidol and gabapentin had produced undesirable side effects. Administration of citalopram hydrobromide, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, successfully reduced both the intensity and duration of this male chimpanzee's attacks upon a conspecific animal with minimal observable side effects or adverse behavioral changes.


Assuntos
Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Citalopram/farmacologia , Pan troglodytes , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Animais , Masculino
17.
Am J Primatol ; 82(1): e23091, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903634

RESUMO

Social relationships play an important role in animal behavior. Bonds with kin provide indirect fitness benefits, and those with nonkin may furnish direct benefits. Adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) exhibit social bonds with maternal brothers as well as unrelated adult males, facilitating cooperative behavior, but it is unclear when these bonds develop. Prior studies suggest that social bonds emerge during adolescence. Alternatively, bonds may develop during adulthood when male chimpanzees can gain fitness benefits through alliances used to compete for dominance status. To investigate these possibilities and to determine who formed bonds, we studied the social relationships of adolescent and young adult male chimpanzees (N = 18) at Ngogo in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Adolescent male chimpanzees displayed social bonds with other males, and they did so as often as did young adult males. Adolescent and young adult males frequently joined subgroups with old males. They spent time in proximity to and grooming with old males, although they also did so with their age peers. Controlling for age and age difference, males formed strong association and proximity relationships with their maternal brothers and grooming relationships with their fathers. Grooming bonds between chimpanzee fathers and their adolescent and young adult sons have not been documented before and are unexpected because female chimpanzees mate with multiple males. How fathers recognize their sons and vice versa remains unclear but may be due to familiarity created by relationships earlier in development.


Assuntos
Pai , Pan troglodytes/psicologia , Irmãos , Comportamento Social , Fatores Etários , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Uganda
18.
Nature ; 577(7792): 665-670, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969706

RESUMO

Our knowledge of ancient human population structure in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly prior to the advent of food production, remains limited. Here we report genome-wide DNA data from four children-two of whom were buried approximately 8,000 years ago and two 3,000 years ago-from Shum Laka (Cameroon), one of the earliest known archaeological sites within the probable homeland of the Bantu language group1-11. One individual carried the deeply divergent Y chromosome haplogroup A00, which today is found almost exclusively in the same region12,13. However, the genome-wide ancestry profiles of all four individuals are most similar to those of present-day hunter-gatherers from western Central Africa, which implies that populations in western Cameroon today-as well as speakers of Bantu languages from across the continent-are not descended substantially from the population represented by these four people. We infer an Africa-wide phylogeny that features widespread admixture and three prominent radiations, including one that gave rise to at least four major lineages deep in the history of modern humans.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/história , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Migração Humana/história , Filogenia , Alelos , Animais , Arqueologia , Sepultamento , Camarões , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , DNA Antigo/análise , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano/genética , Haplótipos/genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Idioma/história , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/genética , Análise de Componente Principal
19.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226947, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940322

RESUMO

The long-term effects of early life adversities on social capacities have been documented in humans and wild-caught former laboratory chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). However, former pet and entertainment chimpanzees have received little attention to date. This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of early life experience on 18 former pet and entertainment chimpanzees, based on social grooming data collected at a primate rescue centre over a 12-year period. Moreover, we also focused on the possible short-term effects that alterations to group composition might have on grooming patterns. For this purpose, we compared stable and unstable periods (i.e. where alterations to group composition occurred). We used two individual social network measures to analyse the grooming activity and the distribution of grooming among group mates for each individual. We could show that wild-caught chimpanzees were significantly more selective regarding their grooming partners and spent less time grooming when compared to their captive born companions. We also found that individuals who were predominantly housed without conspecifics during infancy spent less time grooming compared to those who were predominantly housed with conspecifics during infancy. Furthermore, we found that alterations to the group composition had short-term effects on the distribution of social grooming from a more equal distribution during periods with a stable group composition towards a more unequal and selective distribution during unstable periods. Thus, we conclude that the social grooming networks of former pet and entertainment chimpanzees are shaped not only by long-term effects such as early life experience, but also by short-term effects such as alterations to group composition. Remarkably, we found not only captive born chimpanzees but also wild-caught individuals to adjust their grooming to socially challenging situations by modifying their grooming distribution in a similar way.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/psicologia , Animais de Estimação
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 301, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949148

RESUMO

Speciation is associated with substantial rewiring of the regulatory circuitry underlying the expression of genes. Determining which changes are relevant and underlie the emergence of the human brain or its unique susceptibility to neural disease has been challenging. Here we annotate changes to gene regulatory elements (GREs) at cell type resolution in the brains of multiple primate species spanning most of primate evolution. We identify a unique set of regulatory elements that emerged in hominins prior to the separation of humans and chimpanzees. We demonstrate that these hominin gains perferentially affect oligodendrocyte function postnatally and are preferentially affected in the brains of autism patients. This preference is also observed for human-specific GREs suggesting this system is under continued selective pressure. Our data provide a roadmap of regulatory rewiring across primate evolution providing insight into the genomic changes that underlie the emergence of the brain and its susceptibility to neural disease.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hominidae/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/fisiologia , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Callithrix , Cromatina , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Cromossomos/química , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Hominidae/genética , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Pan troglodytes
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