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1.
Malar J ; 18(1): 276, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426810

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasites from the genus Plasmodium, the aetiological agent of malaria in humans, can also infect non-human primates (NHP), increasing the potential risk of zoonotic transmission with its associated global public health concerns. In Colombia, there are no recent studies on Plasmodium spp. infecting free-ranging NHP. Thus, this study aimed to determine the diversity of Plasmodium species circulating in fragmented forests in central Colombia, both in Anopheles mosquitoes and in the four sympatric NHP in the region (Ateles hybridus, Cebus versicolor, Alouatta seniculus and Aotus griseimembra), in order to evaluate the risk of infection to humans associated with the presence of sylvatic hosts and vectors infected with Plasmodium spp. METHODS: Overall, there were collected 166 fecal samples and 25 blood samples from NHP, and 442 individuals of Anopheles spp. DNA extraction, nested PCR using mitochondrial (cox3 gene) and ribosomal (18S rDNA) primers, electrophoresis and sequencing were conducted in order to identify Plasmodium spp. from the samples. RESULTS: Plasmodium falciparum was detected in two fecal samples of Alouatta seniculus, while Plasmodium vivax/simium infected Ateles hybridus, Cebus versicolor and Alouatta seniculus. Co-infections with P. vivax/simium and Plasmodium malariae/brasilianum were found in three individuals. The highest prevalence from blood samples was found for Plasmodium malariae/brasilianum in two Alouatta seniculus while Plasmodium vivax/simium was most prevalent in fecal samples, infecting four individuals of Alouatta seniculus. Seven Anopheles species were identified in the study site: Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula, Anopheles (An.) malefactor, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi, Anopheles (Nys.) triannulatus, Anopheles (An.) neomaculipalpus, Anopheles (Nys.) braziliensis and Anopheles (Nys.) nuneztovari. Infection with P. vivax/simium was found in An. nuneztovari, An. neomaculipalpus, and An. triannulatus. Furthermore, An. oswaldoi and An. triannulatus were found infected with P. malariae/brasilianum. The effect of fragmentation and distance to the nearest town measured in five forests with different degrees of fragmentation was not statistically significant on the prevalence of Plasmodium in NHP, but forest fragmentation did have an effect on the Minimum Infection Rate (MIR) in Anopheles mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Plasmodium spp. in NHP and Anopheles spp. in fragmented forests in Colombia has important epidemiological implications in the human-NHP interface and the associated risk of malaria transmission.

##### Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Platirrinos , Animais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Florestas , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Prevalência
2.
Genes Cells ; 24(7): 473-484, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099158

##### RESUMO

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine and the treatment of various diseases. Before proceeding to clinical trials, it is important to test the efficacy and safety of iPS cell-based treatments using experimental animals. The common marmoset is a new world monkey widely used in biomedical studies. However, efficient methods that could generate iPS cells from a variety of cells have not been established. Here, we report that marmoset cells are efficiently reprogrammed into iPS cells by combining RNA transfection and chemical compounds. Using this novel combination, we generate transgene integration-free marmoset iPS cells from a variety of cells that are difficult to reprogram using conventional RNA transfection method. Furthermore, we show this is similarly effective for human and cynomolgus monkey iPS cell generation. Thus, the addition of chemical compounds during RNA transfection greatly facilitates reprogramming and efficient generation of completely integration-free safe iPS cells in primates, particularly from difficult-to-reprogram cells.

##### Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular , Fibroblastos/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , RNA/administração & dosagem , Transfecção/métodos , Idoso , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Platirrinos
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(6): 2306-2311, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674668

##### RESUMO

The macaque dorsal occipital cortex is generally thought to contain an elongated third visual area, V3d, extending along most of the rostral border of area V2. In contrast, our submillimeter retinotopic fMRI maps (0.6-mm isotropic voxels, achieved by implanted phased-array receive coils) consistently show three sectors anterior to V2d. The dorsal (mirror image) sector complies with the traditional V3d definition, and the middle (nonmirror image) sector with V3A. The ventral (mirror image) sector bends away from V2d, as does the ventrolateral posterior area (VLP) in marmosets and the dorsolateral posterior area (DLP) in owl monkeys, and represents the entire contralateral hemifield as V3A does. Its population-receptive field size, however, suggests that this ventral sector is another area at the same hierarchical level as V4d. Hence, contrary to prevailing views, the retinotopic organization of cortex rostral to V2d differs substantially from widely accepted models. Instead, it is evolutionarily largely conserved in Old and New World monkeys given its surprisingly similar overall visuotopic organization.

##### Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Macaca , Platirrinos , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2862, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568659

##### RESUMO

Viral infections trigger robust secretion of interferons and other antiviral cytokines by infected and bystander cells, which in turn can tune the immune response and may lead to viral clearance or immune suppression. However, aberrant or unrestricted cytokine responses can damage host tissues, leading to organ dysfunction, and even death. To understand the cytokine milieu and immune responses in infected host tissues, non-human primate (NHP) models have emerged as important tools. NHP have been used for decades to study human infections and have played significant roles in the development of vaccines, drug therapies and other immune treatment modalities, aided by an ability to control disease parameters, and unrestricted tissue access. In addition to the genetic and physiological similarities with humans, NHP have conserved immunologic properties with over 90% amino acid similarity for most cytokines. For example, human-like symptomology and acute respiratory syndrome is found in cynomolgus macaques infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, antibody enhanced dengue disease is common in neotropical primates, and in NHP models of viral hepatitis cytokine-induced inflammation induces severe liver damage, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma recapitulates human disease. To regulate inflammation, anti-cytokine therapy studies in NHP are underway and will provide important insights for future human interventions. This review will provide a comprehensive outline of the cytokine-mediated exacerbation of disease and tissue damage in NHP models of viral infections and therapeutic strategies that can aid in prevention/treatment of the disease syndromes.

##### Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hominidae/imunologia , Platirrinos/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Viroses/patologia , Viroses/terapia , Viroses/virologia
5.
J Virol ; 92(18)2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976674

##### RESUMO

Over the past few decades, a large number of studies have identified herpesvirus sequences from many mammalian species around the world. Among the different nonhuman primate species tested so far for cytomegaloviruses (CMVs), only a few were from the New World. Seeking to identify CMV homologues in New World monkeys (NWMs), we carried out molecular screening of 244 blood DNA samples from 20 NWM species from Central and South America. Our aim was to reach a better understanding of their evolutionary processes within the Platyrrhini parvorder. Using PCR amplification with degenerate consensus primers targeting highly conserved amino acid motifs encoded by the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene, we characterized novel viral sequences from 12 species belonging to seven genera representative of the three NWM families. BLAST searches, pairwise nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons, and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that they all belonged to the Cytomegalovirus genus. Previously determined host taxa allowed us to demonstrate a good correlation between the distinct monophyletic clades of viruses and those of the infected primates at the genus level. In addition, the evolutionary branching points that separate NWM CMVs were congruent with the divergence dates of their hosts at the genus level. These results significantly expand our knowledge of the host range of this viral genus and strongly support the occurrence of cospeciation between these viruses and their hosts. In this respect, we propose that NWM CMV DNA polymerase gene sequences may serve as reliable molecular markers with which to infer Platyrrhini phylogenetics.IMPORTANCE Investigating evolutionary processes between viruses and nonhuman primates has led to the discovery of a large number of herpesviruses. No study published so far on primate cytomegaloviruses has extensively studied New World monkeys (NWMs) at the subspecies, species, genus, and family levels. The present study sought to identify cytomegalovirus homologues in NWMs and to decipher their evolutionary relationships. This led us to characterize novel viruses from 12 of the 20 primate species tested, which are representative of the three NWM families. The identification of distinct viruses in these primates not only significantly expands our knowledge of the host range of this viral genus but also sheds light on its evolutionary history. Phylogenetic analyses and molecular dating of the sequences obtained support a virus-host coevolution.

##### Assuntos
Citomegalovirus/classificação , Citomegalovirus/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Filogenia , Platirrinos/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , América Central/epidemiologia , Citomegalovirus/enzimologia , DNA Viral/sangue , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Evolução Molecular , Doenças dos Macacos/sangue , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , América do Sul/epidemiologia
6.
Syst Biol ; 67(4): 662-680, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385556

##### RESUMO

To study the evolution of several quantitative traits, the classical phylogenetic comparative framework consists of a multivariate random process running along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process is sometimes preferred to the simple Brownian motion (BM) as it models stabilizing selection toward an optimum. The optimum for each trait is likely to be changing over the long periods of time spanned by large modern phylogenies. Our goal is to automatically detect the position of these shifts on a phylogenetic tree, while accounting for correlations between traits, which might exist because of structural or evolutionary constraints. We show that, in the presence of shifts, phylogenetic Principal Component Analysis fails to decorrelate traits efficiently, so that any method aiming at finding shifts needs to deal with correlation simultaneously. We introduce here a simplification of the full multivariate OU model, named scalar OU, which allows for noncausal correlations and is still computationally tractable. We extend the equivalence between the OU and a BM on a rescaled tree to our multivariate framework. We describe an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm that allows for a maximum likelihood estimation of the shift positions, associated with a new model selection criterion, accounting for the identifiability issues for the shift localization on the tree. The method, freely available as an R-package (PhylogeneticEM) is fast, and can deal with missing values. We demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy compared to another state-of-the-art method ($\ell$1ou) on a wide range of simulated scenarios and use this new framework to reanalyze recently gathered data sets on New World Monkeys and Anolis lizards.

##### Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Lagartos , Fenótipo , Platirrinos , Algoritmos , Animais , Filogenia
7.
BMC Evol Biol ; 18(1): 6, 2018 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351742

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genomes of all vertebrates harbor remnants of ancient retroviral infections, having affected the germ line cells during the last 100 million years. These sequences, named Endogenous Retroviruses (ERVs), have been transmitted to the offspring in a Mendelian way, being relatively stable components of the host genome even long after their exogenous counterparts went extinct. Among human ERVs (HERVs), the HERV-W group is of particular interest for our physiology and pathology. A HERV-W provirus in locus 7q21.2 has been coopted during evolution to exert an essential role in placenta, and the group expression has been tentatively linked to Multiple Sclerosis and other diseases. Following up on a detailed analysis of 213 HERV-W insertions in the human genome, we now investigated the ERV-W group genomic spread within primate lineages. RESULTS: We analyzed HERV-W orthologous loci in the genome sequences of 12 non-human primate species belonging to Simiiformes (parvorders Catarrhini and Platyrrhini), Tarsiiformes and to the most primitive Prosimians. Analysis of HERV-W orthologous loci in non-human Catarrhini primates revealed species-specific insertions in the genomes of Chimpanzee (3), Gorilla (4), Orangutan (6), Gibbon (2) and especially Rhesus Macaque (66). Such sequences were acquired in a retroviral fashion and, in the majority of cases, by L1-mediated formation of processed pseudogenes. There were also a number of LTR-LTR homologous recombination events that occurred subsequent to separation of Catarrhini sub-lineages. Moreover, we retrieved 130 sequences in Marmoset and Squirrel Monkeys (family Cebidae, Platyrrhini parvorder), identified as ERV1-1_CJa based on RepBase annotations, which appear closely related to the ERV-W group. Such sequences were also identified in Atelidae and Pitheciidae, representative of the other Platyrrhini families. In contrast, no ERV-W-related sequences were found in genome sequence assemblies of Tarsiiformes and Prosimians. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our analysis now provides a detailed picture of the ERV-W sequences colonization of the primate lineages genomes, revealing the exact dynamics of ERV-W locus formations as well as novel insights into the evolution and origin of the group.

##### Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Catarrinos/virologia , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Platirrinos/virologia , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Molecular , Genoma , Humanos , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
J Hum Evol ; 113: 24-37, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29054168

##### RESUMO

New World monkeys (order Primates) are an example of a major mammalian evolutionary radiation in the Americas, with a contentious fossil record. There is evidence of an early platyrrhine occupation of this continent by the Eocene-Oligocene transition, evolving in isolation from the Old World primates from then on, and developing extensive morphological and size variation. Previous studies postulated that the platyrrhine clade arose as a local version of the Simpsonian ecospace model, with an early phase involving a rapid increase in morphological and ecological diversity driven by selection and ecological opportunity, followed by a diversification rate that slowed due to niche-filling. Under this model, variation in extant platyrrhines, in particular anatomical complexes, may resemble patterns seen among middle-late Miocene (10-14 Ma) platyrrhines as a result of evolutionary stasis. Here we examine the mandible in this regard, which may be informative about the dietary and phylogenetic history of the New World monkeys. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that the Simpsonian ecospace model applies to the platyrrhine mandible through a geometric morphometric analysis of digital images of the jaws of extant and extinct species, and we compare these results to those obtained using a phylogenetic comparative approach based on extant species. The results show a marked phylogenetic structure in the mandibular morphology of platyrrhines. Principal component analyses highlight the morphological diversity among modern forms, and reveal a similar range of variation for the clade when fossil specimens are included. Disparity-Through-Time analysis shows that most of the shape variation between platyrrhines originated early in their evolution (between 20 and 15 Ma). Our results converge with previous studies of body mass, cranial shape, the brain and the basicranium to show that platyrrhine evolution might have been shaped by an early increase in morphological variation followed by a decelerated rate of diversification and evolutionary stasis.

##### Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Platirrinos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal
9.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 117: 2-9, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28916155

##### RESUMO

Anthropoid primates arose during the Eocene approximately 55 million years ago (mya), and extant anthropoids share a most recent common ancestor â¼40mya. Paleontology has been very successful at describing the morphological phenotypes of extinct anthropoids. Less well understood is the molecular biology of these extinct species as well as the phenotypic consequences of evolutionary variation in their genomes. Here we resurrect the most recent common ancestral anthropoid estrogen receptor ß gene (ESR2) and demonstrate that the function of this ancestral estrogen receptor has been maintained during human descent but was altered during early New World monkey (NWM) evolution by becoming a more potent transcriptional activator. We tested hypotheses of adaptive evolution in the protein coding sequences of ESR2, and determined that ESR2 evolved via episodic positive selection on the NWM stem lineage. We separately co-transfected ESR2 constructs for human, NWM, and the anthropoid ancestor along with reporter gene vectors and performed hormone binding dose response experiments that measure transactivation activity. We found the transactivation potentials of the ancestral and human sequences to be significantly lower (p<0.0001 in each comparison) than that of the NWM when treated with estradiol, the most prevalent estrogen. We conclude the difference in fold activation is due to positive selection in the NWM ERß ligand binding domain. Our study validates inferential methods for detecting adaptive evolution that predict functional consequences of nucleotide substitutions and points a way toward examining the functional consequences of positive Darwinian selection.

##### Assuntos
Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Platirrinos/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Humanos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Transcrição Genética
10.
J Hum Evol ; 111: 179-201, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28874270

##### RESUMO

Platyrrhines are a diverse group of primates that presently occupy a broad range of tropical-equatorial environments in the Americas. However, most of the fossil platyrrhine species of the early Miocene have been found at middle and high latitudes. Although the fossil record of New World monkeys has improved considerably over the past several years, it is still difficult to trace the origin of major modern clades. One of the most commonly preserved anatomical structures of early platyrrhines is the talus. This work provides an analysis of the phenetic affinities of extant platyrrhine tali and their Miocene counterparts through geometric morphometrics and a series of phylogenetic comparative analyses. Geometric morphometrics was used to quantify talar shape affinities, while locomotor mode percentages (LMPs) were used to test if talar shape is associated with locomotion. Comparative analyses were used to test if there was convergence in talar morphology, as well as different models that could explain the evolution of talar shape and size in platyrrhines. Body mass predictions for the fossil sample were also computed using the available articular surfaces. The results showed that most analyzed fossils exhibit a generalized morphology that is similar to some 'generalist' modern species. It was found that talar shape covaries with LMPs, thus allowing the inference of locomotion from talar morphology. The results further suggest that talar shape diversification can be explained by invoking a model of shifts in adaptive peak to three optima representing a phylogenetic hypothesis in which each platyrrhine family occupied a separate adaptive peak. The analyses indicate that platyrrhine talar centroid size diversification was characterized by an early differentiation related to a multidimensional niche model. Finally, the ancestral platyrrhine condition was reconstructed as a medium-sized, generalized, arboreal, quadruped.

##### Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Platirrinos/anatomia & histologia , Tálus/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Filogenia , Platirrinos/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 164(4): 861-867, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895134

##### RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work is to present a new primate locality with evidence that increases the knowledge on the radiation of the extinct platyrrhine primates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the new specimen and compared it to specimens identified as Mazzonicebus almendrae. RESULTS: The new first and second molars were comparable to Mazzonicebus almendrae in all morphological details, allowing us to allocate the new specimen to M. almendrae and add comments on morphological variation in this species regarding the orientation of the labial cristae and development of the anterolingual cingulum. This new maxilla also present the first known M3 for the species. DISCUSSION: The new specimen increases our knowledge of the extinct platyrrhines from Patagonia. Their age and geographical distribution ranges from early to middle Miocene in an area between 40° to 47° of southern latitude.

##### Assuntos
Fósseis , Platirrinos/anatomia & histologia , Platirrinos/fisiologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , Argentina , Evolução Biológica , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia
12.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 88(3): 274-292, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854427

##### RESUMO

Separate extension of fingers in the hand of primates is performed by 3 muscles: m. extensor pollicis longus, m. extensor digiti secundi, and m. extensor digitorum lateralis. Here it is proposed to consider them as parts of the extensor digitorum profundus muscular complex. The diversity in structure of these muscles in primates is examined based both on original anatomical study of New World monkeys and analysis of extensive published data on primates from different taxonomic groups. It is shown that in these muscles there are 2 main types of structure variations - the division of the muscle belly into several heads which give rise to separate tendons, and the split of the single terminal tendon into several branches. The first type of modification ensures the possibility of a separate management of the fingers, and the second, on the contrary, ensures the coupled control of extension of fingers. A scheme of evolutionary transformations of muscles belonging to the complex of the deep extensors of fingers is proposed.

##### Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Platirrinos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Extremidade Superior/anatomia & histologia
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(34): 9044-9049, 2017 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28784762

##### RESUMO

The neurohormone oxytocin is a key player in the modulation of reproductive and social behavioral traits, such as parental care. Recently, a correlation between different forms of oxytocin and behavioral phenotypes has been described in the New World Monkeys (NWMs). Here, we demonstrate that, compared with the Leu8OXT found in most placental mammals, the Cebidae Pro8OXT and Saguinus Val3Pro8OXT taxon-specific variants act as equi-efficacious agonists for the Gq-dependent pathway but are weaker agonists for the ß-arrestin engagement and subsequent endocytosis toward the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). Upon interaction with the AVPR1a, Pro8OXT and the common Leu8OXT yielded similar signaling profiles, being equally efficacious on Gq and ß-arrestin, while Val3Pro8OXT showed reduced relative efficacy toward ß-arrestin. Intranasal treatment with either of the variants increased maternal behavior and also promoted unusual paternal care in rats, as measured by pup-retrieval tests. We therefore suggest that Val3Pro8OXT and Pro8OXT are functional variants, which might have been evolutionarily co-opted as an essential part of the adaptive genetic repertoire that allowed the emergence of taxon-specific complex social behaviors, such as intense parental care in the Cebidae and the genus Saguinus.

##### Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Materno/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Comportamento Paterno/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/genética , Platirrinos , Ratos , Receptores de Ocitocina/agonistas , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Receptores de Ocitocina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
14.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 300(12): 2115-2137, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28667704

##### RESUMO

Integration of the sphenoid and ethmoid bones during early postnatal development is poorly described in the literature. A uniquely prolonged patency of sphenoethmoidal synchondrosis or prespheno-septal synchondrosis (PSept) has been attributed to humans. However, the sphenoethmoidal junction has not been studied using a comparative primate sample. Here, we examined development of the sphenoethmoidal interface using ontogenetic samples of Old and New World monkeys, strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises), and a comparative sample of other mammals. Specimens ranging from late fetal to 1 month postnatal age were studied using histology, immunohistochemistry, and micro-computed tomography methods. Our results demonstrate that humans are not unique in anterior cranial base growth at PSept, as it is patent in all newborn primates. We found two distinctions within our sample. First, nearly all primates exhibit an earlier breakdown of the nasal capsule cartilage that abuts the orbitosphenoid when compared to nonprimates. This may facilitate earlier postnatal integration of the basicranium and midface and may enhance morphological plasticity in the region. Second, the PSept exhibits a basic dichotomy between strepsirrhines and monkeys. In strepsirrhines, the PSept has proliferating chondrocytes that are primarily oriented in a longitudinal plane, as in other mammals. In contrast, monkeys have a convex anterior end of the presphenoid with a radial boundary of cartilaginous growth at PSept. Our findings suggest that the PSept acts as a "pacemaker" of longitudinal facial growth in mammals with relatively long snouts, but may also contribute to facial height and produce a relatively taller midface in anthropoid primates. Anat Rec, 300:2115-2137, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

##### Assuntos
Osso Etmoide/embriologia , Osso Etmoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Esfenoide/embriologia , Osso Esfenoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cercopithecidae , Osso Etmoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Humanos , Platirrinos , Primatas , Especificidade da Espécie , Osso Esfenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
15.
J Med Entomol ; 54(4): 895-900, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399212

##### RESUMO

Ticks transmit a variety of pathogenic organisms to vertebrates, especially mammals. The fossil record of such associations is extremely rare. An engorged nymphal tick of the genus Ambylomma in Dominican amber was surrounded by erythrocytes from its mammalian host. Some of the exposed erythrocytes contained developmental stages of a hemoprotozoan resembling members of the Order Piroplasmida. The fossil piroplasm is described, its stages compared with those of extant piroplasms, and reasons provided why the mammalian host could have been a primate. The parasites were also found in the gut epithelial cells and body cavity of the fossil tick. Aside from providing the first fossil mammalian red blood cells and the first fossil intraerythrocytic hemoparasites, the present discovery shows that tick-piroplasm associations were already well established in the Tertiary. This discovery provides a timescale that can be used in future studies on the evolution of the Piroplasmida.

##### Assuntos
Fósseis , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Piroplasmida/classificação , Platirrinos/parasitologia , Âmbar , Animais , República Dominicana , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/fisiologia , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação
16.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 74(16): 3023-3037, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28389720

##### RESUMO

Positive (adaptive) selection has recently been implied in human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a highly abundant antioxidant protein with energy signaling and antiaging functions, one of very few examples of direct selection on a human protein product (exon); the molecular drivers of this selection are unknown. We mapped 30 extant SOD1 sequences to the recently established mammalian species tree and inferred ancestors, key substitutions, and signatures of selection during the protein's evolution. We detected elevated substitution rates leading to great apes (Hominidae) at ~1 per 2 million years, significantly higher than in other primates and rodents, although these paradoxically generally evolve much faster. The high evolutionary rate was partly due to relaxation of some selection pressures and partly to distinct positive selection of SOD1 in great apes. We then show that higher stability and net charge and changes at the dimer interface were selectively introduced upon separation from old world monkeys and lesser apes (gibbons). Consequently, human, chimpanzee and gorilla SOD1s have a net charge of -6 at physiological pH, whereas the closely related gibbons and macaques have -3. These features consistently point towards selection against the malicious aggregation effects of elevated SOD1 levels in long-living great apes. The findings mirror the impact of human SOD1 mutations that reduce net charge and/or stability and cause ALS, a motor neuron disease characterized by oxidative stress and SOD1 aggregates and triggered by aging. Our study thus marks an example of direct selection for a particular chemical phenotype (high net charge and stability) in a single human protein with possible implications for the evolution of aging.

##### Assuntos
Hominidae/genética , Agregados Proteicos , Superóxido Dismutase-1/química , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Envelhecimento , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cercopithecidae/genética , Estabilidade Enzimática , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Hylobatidae/genética , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Estresse Oxidativo , Filogenia , Platirrinos/genética , Ratos , Alinhamento de Sequência , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Termodinâmica
17.
J Hum Evol ; 105: 127-131, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28274613
18.
Am J Primatol ; 79(7)2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346698

##### RESUMO

Dispersal, one of the major factors affecting the gene flow between populations, shapes the spatial distribution of genetic diversity within species. Alouatta macconnelli and Saguinus midas are two Neotropical monkey species that sympatrically inhabit the Guiana shield in northern Amazonia and are likely to differ in their dispersal behavior and vagility. We took advantage of their sympatry to investigate, over a fine geographical scale (â¼50 km long), the relationship between spatial genetic structure, on the one hand, and geographical features and the species' dispersal behavior on the other. A total of 84 A. macconnelli individuals from 25 social units and 76 S. midas individuals from 19 social units were genotyped for nine microsatellite markers. Both species displayed high genetic diversity and allelic richness. However, patterns of genetic structure differed between the two species. In A. macconnelli, no genetic substructuring was observed, while in S. midas we detected significant structuring, but this structuring was not correlated with geographical features, such as the location of individuals relative to the river and/or the distance between them. Instead, the geographical distribution of genetic variation observed for each species is predominantly explained by each species' dispersal pattern. We identified bisexual dispersal for both species, but with significant differences, either in the distance or in the rate of dispersal, between species and sexes. Genetic relatedness within social units was higher in S. midas than in A. macconnelli: gene flow between social units seems limited in S. midas, especially for females, while high dispersal characterizes A. macconnelli, where females seem to disperse at lower rate but at a longer distance than males.

##### Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Platirrinos , Rios , Animais , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites
19.
Ann Sci ; 74(1): 25-63, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27762158

##### RESUMO

The current work presents the results of a review of most of the European diaries and travel chronicles containing reports of New World non-human primates dating from the discovery of America in 1492 until the end of the sixteenth century. We report the integral texts translated into English of these literary sources, giving a critical interpretation from a historical and scientific point of view. We note the ways these primates were perceived and described, with attention to the most important characteristics that were highlighted by the first explorers. Ethnotaxonomy and vernacular names used to designate non-human primates are also provided. This new body of knowledge, based largely on empirical reports full of details and first-hand observations, emerged as the first nucleus in the natural history of Neotropical Primates.

##### Assuntos
Expedições/história , História Natural/história , Platirrinos , Publicações/história , Animais , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI
20.
Behav Genet ; 47(1): 77-87, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562397

##### RESUMO

Paternal care is a complex social behavior common in primate species with socially monogamous mating systems and twin births. Evolutionary causes and consequences of such behavior are not well understood, nor are their neuroendocrine and genetic bases. However, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) and its receptor (OXTR) are associated with parental care in mammalian lineages. Here we investigated the interspecific variation in the number of progesterone response elements (PREs) in the OXTR promoter region of 32 primate species, correlating genetic data with behavior, social systems, and ecological/life-history parameters, while controlling for phylogeny. We verified that PREs are only present in New World monkeys and that PRE number is significantly correlated with the presence of paternal care in this branch. We suggest that PRE number could be an essential part of the genetic repertoire that allowed the emergence of taxon-specific complex social behaviors, such as paternal care in marmosets and tamarins.

##### Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Progesterona/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Elementos de Resposta/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Platirrinos , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reprodução , Alinhamento de Sequência