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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(23)2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801212

RESUMO

Extending the lifetime and stability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) through efficient energy consumption remains challenging. Though clustering has improved energy efficiency through cluster-head selection, its application is still complicated. In existing cluster-head selection methods, the locations where cluster-heads are desirable are first searched. Next, the nodes closest to these locations are selected as the cluster-heads. This location-based approach causes problems such as increased computation, poor selection accuracy, and the selection of duplicate nodes. To solve these problems, we propose the sampling-based spider monkey optimization (SMO) method. If the sampling population consists of nodes to select cluster-heads, the cluster-heads are selected among the nodes. Thus, the problems caused by different locations of nodes and cluster-heads are resolved. Consequently, we improve lifetime and stability of WSNs through sampling-based spider monkey optimization and energy-efficient cluster head selection (SSMOECHS). This study describes how the sampling method is used in basic SMO and how to select cluster-heads using sampling-based SMO. The experimental results are compared to similar protocols, namely low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy centralized (LEACH-C), particle swarm optimization clustering protocol (PSO-C), and SMO based threshold-sensitive energy-efficient delay-aware routing protocol (SMOTECP), and the results are shown in both homogeneous and heterogeneous setups. In these setups, SSMOECHS improves network lifetime and stability periods by averages of 13.4%, 7.1%, 34.6%, and 1.8%, respectively.


Assuntos
Tecnologia sem Fio , Algoritmos , Animais , Atelinae , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
2.
J Med Primatol ; 48(4): 244-250, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) is an endangered Neotropical primate. Semen collection and description of its traits, as well as testicular morphometry, have never been reported for this species. METHODS: Testicles from five healthy adult captive southern muriqui were measured, and semen was collected by rectal probe electrostimulation (RPE). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A solid coagulum was identified in all ejaculates, and none of them liquefied, spontaneously or non-spontaneously. It was possible to collect semen using RPE, and although solids coagula did not liquefy, we managed to describe ejaculates characteristics and also confirmed that southern muriqui have relatively large testes size. Further investigations are needed to improve coagulum handling, to achieve a better spermatozoa recovery aiming its application in assisted reproductive technologies.


Assuntos
Atelinae/fisiologia , Sêmen/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Masculino , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
3.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 90(4): 240-257, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067556

RESUMO

The woolly monkey's (Lagothrix lagotricha) diet consists primarily of fruits, and for some populations fruit availability predicts its frequency in the diet. Woolly monkeys also eat new leaves, flowers, seeds and arthropods, but it is unclear whether arthropods are consumed in proportion to their environmental availability. We tested the hypothesis that arthropod consumption by woolly monkeys depends on availability. We studied a group of woolly monkeys for 10 months in 2013-2014, in Cueva de los Guácharos National Park, Colombia, in order to test the hypothesis that arthropod consumption by woolly monkeys depends on availability. We carried out surveys of plant phenology each month for 10 months to estimate fruit productivity, and every 2 months we also surveyed 3 canopy substrates (leaves, mosses and bromeliads) to quantify variation in arthropod biomass. During this time, we also quantified the diet of a woolly monkey group. The items most consumed were fruits (60%), followed by arthropods (24%), leaves (13%) and miscellaneous other items (3%). Arthropod biomass in the canopy did not vary considerably over the 10 months (0.014-0.037 g/g substrate) but was lower at the end of the second rainy season. A positive correlation was found between availability and entomophagy, but only when arthropods were relatively abundant. We did not find a relationship between arthropod and fruit feeding frequencies. Our results indicate that arthropods are prevalent in the diet of the woolly monkeys due to their abundance in Andean forest canopies.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Atelinae/fisiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Cadeia Alimentar , Frutas , Animais , Colômbia , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica
4.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 90(4): 215-239, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079105

RESUMO

We sequenced mitochondrial COI and COII genes (1,377 base pairs) of 166 woolly monkeys (Lagothrix) to determine the phylogenetic relationships of tschudii in reference to the other taxa within the genus Lagothrix, to provide the first genetic diversity level estimates for tschudii, and to reconstruct the historical demographic evolution of this taxon. The sample set included, for the first time, 10 individuals of the elusive tschudii taxon sensu Groves from southern Peru and northern Bolivia. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that these 10 exemplars formed a statistically significant and differentiated (molecularly and morphologically) monophyletic clade relative to other traditional subspecies of Lagothrix lagothricha. Therefore, tschudii should be recognized as a fifth subspecies: Lagothrix lagothricha tschudii. The temporal divergence of the ancestors of tschudii and L. l. cana was estimated to have occurred around 1.8 million years ago (MYA). Additionally, mitochondrial diversification within tschudii started no later than 0.96 MYA (Bayesian Inference) or 0.88 MYA (Median Joining -Network), respectively. In contrast to the phylogenetic trees, the FSTstatistic and the gene flow estimates showed L. l. lugens to be the least differentiated taxon of L. lagothricha from L. l. tschudii. Based on genetic distances, L. l. tschudii had the smallest average genetic distance from the other subspecies of L. lagothricha.It was also the taxon within L. lagothricha that had the smallest genetic distance from L. flavicauda. It should be related to L. l. tschudii as the first original taxon in L. lagothricha. Furthermore, the Andean mountains were extremely important in the original diversification of the Lagothrix genus and in the original diversification of L. lagothricha. Although L. l. tschudii has the smallest geographical range of all the taxa of L. lagothricha, its genetic diversity is even higher than in other taxa with wider geographical ranges, such as L. l. lagothricha and L. l. cana. L. l. tschudii showed a very slight demographic increase during the Pleistocene with a decrease of females in the last 10,000 Y, similar to that found for L. l. lugens in a previous study.


Assuntos
Atelinae/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Animais , Bolívia , Peru , Filogeografia
5.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210494, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673746

RESUMO

We examined photic and ecological factors related to initiation of feeding by four sympatric primates in the rain forest of Amazonian Ecuador. With rare exceptions, morning activities of all taxa began only after the onset of nautical twilight, which occurred 47-48 min before sunrise. The larger spider and woolly monkeys, Ateles belzebuth and Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii, left their sleeping trees before sunrise about half the time, while the smaller sakis and titi monkeys, Pithecia aequatorialis and Plecturocebus (formerly Callicebus) discolor, did not emerge until sunrise or later. None of the four taxa routinely began feeding before sunrise. Pithecia began feeding a median 2.17 h after sunrise, at least 0.8 h later than the median feeding times of the other three taxa. The early movement of Ateles and Lagothrix, and late initiation of feeding by Pithecia are consistent with temporal niche partitioning. Among most New World primate species, all males and many females, have dichromatic color vision, with only two cone photopigments, while some females are trichromats with three cone photopigments. Current evidence indicates that the dichromats have a foraging advantage in dim light, which could facilitate utilization of twilight periods and contribute to temporal niche partitioning. However, in our study, dichromatic males did not differentially exploit the dim light of twilight, and times of first feeding bouts of female Ateles and Lagothrix were similar to those of males. First feeding bouts followed a seasonal pattern, occurring latest in May-August, when ripe fruit abundance and ambient temperature were both relatively low. The most frugivorous taxon, Ateles, exhibited the greatest seasonality, initiating feeding 1.4 h later in May-August than in January-April. This pattern may imply a strategy of conserving energy when ripe fruit is scarcer, but starting earlier to compete successfully when fruit is more abundant. Lower temperatures were associated with later feeding of Ateles (by 26 min / °C) and perhaps Pithecia, but not Lagothrix or Plecturocebus. The potential for modification of temporal activity patterns and temporal niche partitioning by relatively small changes in temperature should be considered when predicting the effects of climate change.


Assuntos
Atelinae/fisiologia , Ecologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Pitheciidae/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Clima Tropical , Animais , Atelinae/classificação , Equador , Feminino , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Pitheciidae/classificação , Estações do Ano , Luz Solar , Simpatria , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Primates ; 60(3): 277-295, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220057

RESUMO

Network analysis has increasingly expanded our understanding of social structure in primates and other animal species. However, most studies use networks representing only one interaction type, when social relationships (and the emerging social structure) are the result of many types of interactions and their interplay through time. The recent development of tools facilitating the integrated analysis of multiple interaction types using multiplex networks has opened the possibility of extending the insight provided by social network analysis. We use a multiplex representation of interactions among the members of a group of wild Geoffroy's spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), to study their social structure. We constructed a six-layered multiplex network based on three indices of overt social interactions (aggression, embraces, grooming) and three distance-based indices (contact, proximity, and association). With tools provided by the MuxViz software, we assessed the relevance of including all six indices in our analysis, the role of individuals in the network (through node versatility), and the presence of modules and non-random triadic structures or motifs. The multiplex provided information which was not equivalent to any individual layer or to the simple aggregation of layers. Network patterns based on associations did not correspond with those observed for overt-interactions or for the multiplex structure. Males were the most versatile individuals, while multiplex modularity and motifs highlighted the relevance of different interaction types for the overall connectivity of the network. We conclude that the multiplex approach improves on previous methods by retaining valuable information from each interaction type and how it is patterned among individuals.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Atelinae , Asseio Animal , Comportamento Social , Rede Social , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Software
7.
Primates ; 60(1): 21-28, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474760

RESUMO

Understanding the impact of zoonotic diseases on wild primate populations is important for assessing local extinction risks and for evaluating potential mitigating factors. Comparative data on demographic changes in two isolated populations of the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) during a severe yellow fever outbreak in southeastern Brazil provide unique insights into the potential effects of this disease in this Critically Endangered species. From October 2016 to April 2017, the muriqui population at the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural-Feliciano Miguel Abdala (Caratinga) lost 31 of its 324 members, or nearly 10%, whereas the population at the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural-Mata do Sossego (Sossego) declined from 34 to 25 individuals, or 26%. Greater per-capita risks to muriquis in the Sossego population could be related to ecological and anthropogenic differences, including a wetter climate and an absence of sympatric howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba), which may have directly or indirectly buffered the Caratinga muriquis. Although we lack definitive confirmation that the muriqui population declines were caused by yellow fever, the timing and magnitude of the losses strongly implicate the disease. We highlight the risks of catastrophic population declines in small populations and emphasize the value of long-term demographic monitoring studies.


Assuntos
Atelinae , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Febre Amarela/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Demografia , Feminino , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Febre Amarela/virologia
8.
Am J Primatol ; 81(5): e22928, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375002

RESUMO

The northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) is a critically endangered species endemic to the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. Long-term observational studies of wild muriquis have provided many insights into the behavioral ecology and life history of this species. However, nearly everything that is currently known about the northern muriqui's behavioral endocrinology has come from combining our respective expertise in noninvasive field and laboratory research. Here, we reflect on the history of our collaboration, focusing on major challenges, key scientific findings, and factors that contributed to its success. Challenges included insuring the reliable collection of frequent fecal samples from a large enough number of known individuals over extended periods of time, preserving the steroids in the field and transporting them, developing and validating the fecal steroid assays, and interpreting the hormonal profiles within the behavioral and ecological contexts of the study subjects. Major findings included our thorough description of the fecal progesterone and estradiol profiles associated with muriqui ovarian cycling and gestation, the seasonal resumption of cycling, its onset during puberty of dispersing females, and the differences between fertile and infertile cycles. We also documented the relationship between fecal cortisol and testosterone in sexually active males across breeding and nonbreeding seasons, and sex differences in cortisol levels across the mating and conception seasons. We attribute the success of our collaboration to a number of factors including our mutual appreciation for one another's high standards for ethics, data quality, and data interpretation.


Assuntos
Atelinae/fisiologia , Sistema Endócrino/fisiologia , Hormônios/análise , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Atelinae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Fezes/química , Feminino , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estações do Ano
9.
Am J Primatol ; 80(12): e22933, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537387

RESUMO

Diel activity rhythms in mammals are regulated by an endogenous (circadian) timing system which is synchronized by environmental 24-hr periodicities called zeitgebers. Additional direct responses to stochastic environmental factors ensure the fine-tuning to the actual situation and may mask the circadian time course. Following an observational study on behavioral effects of visitor activities in a group of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) kept free-ranging on a small island of Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed the effect of weekly varying numbers of visiting tourist boats on the monkeys' diel activity rhythm. With small accelerometer-data logger devices we recorded the monkeys' locomotor activity continuously for several months each. Then we compared the data with those from spider monkeys living without tourist contact. Neither the duration of the monkeys' activity time (α) nor its phase relationship to the 24-hr solar day did change on different weekdays in either site. However, their activity level showed a clear 7-day rhythm. The monkeys of the tourist site showed highest activity on Saturday and Sunday, when the frequency of visiting tourist boats was highest, whereas those of the non-tourist site were least active on Sunday and Monday, when human activities were lowest there. While the monkeys of the non-tourist site usually displayed a distinct bimodal activity pattern peaking in the morning and late afternoon, the pattern in those of the tourist site mostly lacked a morning peak and varied more over time. Based on our results, we suggest that circadian entrainment is not involved in the differences between the diel activity rhythms of the spider monkeys from the two keeping sites and the differing 7-day variation in their activity level. Rather, these differences seemingly reflect direct responses to the differing human activities and thus may correspond to circadian masking effects.


Assuntos
Atelinae/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Atividade Motora , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ilhas , México
10.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 89(5): 341-346, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176669

RESUMO

We report 2 cases of predation on an adult and a subadult spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) by a puma (Puma concolor) and an unidentified terrestrial predator at the natural protected area of Otoch Ma'ax yetel Kooh, in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Although spider monkeys are believed to experience overall low predation pressure compared to other primate species, our observations show that predation occurs in the study area and therefore behavioral strategies are likely to be in place to reduce predation risk. Our observations are further evidence that terrestrial predators are a threat for both young and full-grown spider monkeys.


Assuntos
Atelinae , Cadeia Alimentar , Comportamento Predatório , Puma/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , México
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203157

RESUMO

Using operant conditioning procedures, we assessed the olfactory sensitivity of six CD-1 mice and three spider monkeys for mold-associated odorants. We found that with all eight stimuli, the mice detected concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm (parts per million), and with two of them individual animals even detected concentrations as low as 1 ppt (parts per trillion). The spider monkeys detected concentrations as low as 4 ppm with all eight stimuli, and with four of them individual animals even detected concentrations as low as 4 ppb (parts per billion). Between-species comparisons showed that with all eight odorants, the mice displayed significantly lower threshold values, that is, a higher sensitivity than the spider monkeys, but not than human subjects tested in previous studies. Analysis of odor structure-activity relationships showed that in both species, the type of oxygen-containing functional group and the presence versus absence of a double bond as well as the length of the carbon backbone of the odor stimuli had a systematic effect on detectability. We conclude that both mice and spider monkeys are clearly able to detect the presence of molds and thus to assess the palatability of potential food using the volatiles produced by molds during putrefaction.


Assuntos
Atelinae/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Fungos/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Percepção Olfatória , Limiar Sensorial , Olfato , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Atelinae/psicologia , Condicionamento Operante , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Especificidade da Espécie , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
12.
Primates ; 59(6): 531-539, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209669

RESUMO

Spider monkeys (Ateles sp.) are characterized by high fission-fusion dynamics, meaning their social grouping pattern is fluid and consists of subgroups that vary in size, composition, and spatial cohesion over time. In this study, we quantify the fission-fusion dynamics of a group of spider monkeys at Runaway Creek Nature Reserve in Belize by measuring subgroup size, spatial cohesion, and stability using data spanning 5 years. We then test whether variation in these three subgroup measures differ according to season, subgroup sex composition, and the reproductive status of female subgroup members. Our results show that subgroups were larger in size and less stable in membership during the wet season compared to the dry season. All-female subgroups were less spatially cohesive but more stable in membership than all-male subgroups. Finally, we report that subgroups with one or more non-lactating females (i.e., without nursing young) were smaller on average than subgroups containing lactating females with nursing young. These data contribute to a growing body of research documenting the ecological and social dimensions along which grouping patterns might vary.


Assuntos
Atelinae/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Belize , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia
13.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 167(2): 348-365, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several studies have investigated potential functional signals in the trabecular structure of the primate proximal humerus but with varied success. Here, we apply for the first time a "whole-epiphyses" approach to analysing trabecular bone in the humeral head with the aim of providing a more holistic interpretation of trabecular variation in relation to habitual locomotor or manipulative behaviors in several extant primates and Australopithecus africanus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We use a "whole-epiphysis" methodology in comparison to the traditional volume of interest (VOI) approach to investigate variation in trabecular structure and joint loading in the proximal humerus of extant hominoids, Ateles and A. africanus (StW 328). RESULTS: There are important differences in the quantification of trabecular parameters using a "whole-epiphysis" versus a VOI-based approach. Variation in trabecular structure across knuckle-walking African apes, suspensory taxa, and modern humans was generally consistent with predictions of load magnitude and inferred joint posture during habitual behaviors. Higher relative trabecular bone volume and more isotropic trabeculae in StW 328 suggest A. africanus may have still used its forelimbs for arboreal locomotion. DISCUSSION: A whole-epiphysis approach to analysing trabecular structure of the proximal humerus can help distinguish functional signals of joint loading across extant primates and can provide novel insight into habitual behaviors of fossil hominins.


Assuntos
Atelinae/anatomia & histologia , Osso Esponjoso/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Úmero/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , Antropometria , Atelinae/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Osso Esponjoso/fisiologia , Epífises/anatomia & histologia , Epífises/fisiologia , Fósseis , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Úmero/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia
14.
J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol ; 329(10): 557-569, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129115

RESUMO

There is evidence that some animal species have developed physiological and behavioral mechanisms to monitor potential predatory threats during rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Nevertheless, it has not been reported in arboreal primates. The present study analyzed the sleeping postures, as well as the electromyographic and electroencephalographic (EEG) activities during three conditions: REMS, non-REMS (N-REMS), and wakefulness in spider monkeys. The study included six monkeys, whose EEGs were recorded at the O1-O2, C3, C4, F3, and F4 derivations to analyze relative power (RP) and interhemispheric, intrahemispheric, frontoposterior, and central-posterior coherence of frequency bands, which has been considered an index of arousal states. The bands analyzed were theta (4.0-7.0 Hz), alpha1 (8.0-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (11.0-13.5 Hz), and beta (14.0-30.0 Hz). Spider monkeys adopt a vertical posture during sleep, and in REMS a lack of muscular atonia was observed. The RP of the alpha bands at O1-O2 was higher during REMS than that during wakefulness, N-REMS1, and N-REMS2. At the C3 derivation, the RP of alpha1 was higher during REMS than that during N-REMS2. The RP of both alpha bands at the F4 derivation was higher during REMS than that during wakefulness, whereas REMS was characterized by a higher coherence between the F3 and O1-O2 derivations of the alpha2 band. These prevalences and the higher coherence of alpha bands during REMS could represent a correlate of behavioral traits and activated cortical areas related to a possible arousal state in spider monkeys while sleeping.


Assuntos
Atelinae/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/veterinária , Sono REM/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino
15.
Primates ; 59(5): 451-467, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987701

RESUMO

Ecological niche modeling is used to estimate species distributions based on occurrence records and environmental variables, but it seldom includes explicit biotic or historical factors that are important in determining the distribution of species. Expert knowledge can provide additional valuable information regarding ecological or historical attributes of species, but the influence of integrating this information in the modeling process has been poorly explored. Here, we integrated expert knowledge in different stages of the niche modeling process to improve the representation of the actual geographic distributions of Mexican primates (Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta pigra, and A. palliata mexicana). We designed an elicitation process to acquire information from experts and such information was integrated by an iterative process that consisted of reviews of input data by experts, production of ecological niche models (ENMs), and evaluation of model outputs to provide feedback. We built ENMs using the maximum entropy algorithm along with a dataset of occurrence records gathered from a public source and records provided by the experts. Models without expert knowledge were also built for comparison, and both models, with and without expert knowledge, were evaluated using four validation metrics that provide a measure of accuracy for presence-absence predictions (specificity, sensitivity, kappa, true skill statistic). Integrating expert knowledge to build ENMs produced better results for potential distributions than models without expert knowledge, but a much greater improvement in the transition from potential to realized geographic distributions by reducing overprediction, resulting in better representations of the actual geographic distributions of species. Furthermore, with the combination of niche models and expert knowledge we were able to identify an area of sympatry between A. palliata mexicana and A. pigra. We argue that the inclusion of expert knowledge at different stages in the construction of niche models in an explicit and systematic fashion is a recommended practice as it produces overall positive results for representing realized species distributions.


Assuntos
Alouatta/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Atelinae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Animais , México , Modelos Biológicos
16.
J Virol ; 92(19)2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997213

RESUMO

Like many other large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, herpesviruses are known to capture host genes to evade host defenses. Little is known about the detailed natural history of such genes, nor do we fully understand their evolutionary dynamics. A major obstacle is that they are often highly divergent, maintaining very low sequence similarity to host homologs. Here we use the herpesvirus genus Rhadinovirus as a model system to develop an analytical approach that combines complementary evolutionary and bioinformatic techniques, offering results that are both detailed and robust for a range of genes. Using a systematic phylogenetic strategy, we identify the original host lineage of viral genes with high confidence. We show that although host immunomodulatory genes evolve rapidly compared to other host genes, they undergo a clear increase in purifying selection once captured by a virus. To characterize this shift in detail, we developed a novel technique to identify changes in selection pressure that can be attributable to particular domains. These findings will inform us on how viruses develop strategies to evade the immune system, and our synthesis of techniques can be reapplied to other viruses or biological systems with similar analytical challenges.IMPORTANCE Viruses and hosts have been shown to capture genes from one another as part of the evolutionary arms race. Such genes offer a natural experiment on the effects of evolutionary pressure, since the same gene exists in vastly different selective environments. However, sequences of viral homologs often bear little similarity to the original sequence, complicating the reconstruction of their shared evolutionary history with host counterparts. In this study, we use a genus of herpesviruses as a model system to comprehensively investigate the evolution of host-derived viral genes, using a synthesis of genomics, phylogenetics, selection analysis, and nucleotide and amino acid modeling.


Assuntos
Genes Virais/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Rhadinovirus/genética , Seleção Genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Antígenos CD/química , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Atelinae/virologia , Evolução Biológica , Antígenos CD59/química , Antígenos CD59/genética , Antígenos CD59/imunologia , Callithrix/virologia , Quimiocina CCL3/química , Quimiocina CCL3/genética , Quimiocina CCL3/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Interleucina-17/química , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Ratos , Rhadinovirus/química , Rhadinovirus/imunologia , Saimiri/virologia , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 285(1879)2018 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848648

RESUMO

Groups of animals (including humans) may show flexible grouping patterns, in which temporary aggregations or subgroups come together and split, changing composition over short temporal scales, (i.e. fission and fusion). A high degree of fission-fusion dynamics may constrain the regulation of social relationships, introducing uncertainty in interactions between group members. Here we use Shannon's entropy to quantify the predictability of subgroup composition for three species known to differ in the way their subgroups come together and split over time: spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). We formulate a random expectation of entropy that considers subgroup size variation and sample size, against which the observed entropy in subgroup composition can be compared. Using the theory of set partitioning, we also develop a method to estimate the number of subgroups that the group is likely to be divided into, based on the composition and size of single focal subgroups. Our results indicate that Shannon's entropy and the estimated number of subgroups present at a given time provide quantitative metrics of uncertainty in the social environment (within which social relationships must be regulated) for groups with different degrees of fission-fusion dynamics. These metrics also represent an indirect quantification of the cognitive challenges posed by socially dynamic environments. Overall, our novel methodological approach provides new insight for understanding the evolution of social complexity and the mechanisms to cope with the uncertainty that results from fission-fusion dynamics.


Assuntos
Atelinae/fisiologia , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Theropithecus/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Incerteza
18.
Genome Biol Evol ; 10(7): 1647-1656, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905781

RESUMO

During the last decades, the mammalian genome has been proposed to have regions prone to breakage and reorganization concentrated in certain chromosomal bands that seem to correspond to evolutionary breakpoints. These bands are likely to be involved in chromosome fragility or instability. In Primates, some biomarkers of genetic damage may be associated with various degrees of genomic instability. Here, we investigated the usefulness of Sister Chromatid Exchange as a biomarker of potential sites of frequent chromosome breakage and rearrangement in Alouatta caraya, Ateles chamek, Ateles paniscus, and Cebus cay. These Neotropical species have particular genomic and chromosomal features allowing the analysis of genomic instability for comparative purposes. We determined the frequency of spontaneous induction of Sister Chromatid Exchanges and assessed the relationship between these and structural rearrangements implicated in the evolution of the primates of interest. Overall, A. caraya and C. cay presented a low proportion of statistically significant unstable bands, suggesting fairly stable genomes and the existence of some kind of protection against endogenous damage. In contrast, Ateles showed a highly significant proportion of unstable bands; these were mainly found in the rearranged regions, which is consistent with the numerous genomic reorganizations that might have occurred during the evolution of this genus.


Assuntos
Alouatta/genética , Atelinae/genética , Cebus/genética , Evolução Molecular , Rearranjo Gênico , Instabilidade Genômica , Troca de Cromátide Irmã , Animais , Quebra Cromossômica , Cromossomos/genética , Feminino , Masculino
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 27(2): 154-160, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846443

RESUMO

Dipetalonema gracile (Rudolphi, 1809) (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) is one of six species of cavities filarial parasites of Neotropical non-human primates. The present study recorded the occurrence of D. gracile, provides morphological and morphometric data and extends the geographical distribution. Adult filariae were obtained from the thoracic and abdominal cavities of 38 specimens of woolly monkey, which were used for local human consumption, in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Male and female filarids were processed and analysed using light and scanning electron microscopy. Details of the cephalic papillae, post-cloacal bands and papillae, vulva, phasmid position and lateral appendages are showed by scanning electron microscopy and is recorded the occurrencce of Lagothrix poeppigii monkey as a new host of this filaria in the Yavari-Mirin river basin, Peruvian Amazon.


Assuntos
Atelinae/parasitologia , Dipetalonema/anatomia & histologia , Dipetalonema/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Peru
20.
J Comp Psychol ; 132(2): 220-229, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745692

RESUMO

Spider monkeys are interesting to study with regard to hand preferences, as they are one of the few primate species that lack a thumb and, thus, are unable to perform a precision grip. Further, being platyrrhine primates, they also largely lack independent motor control of the digits and, thus, have only limited manual dexterity. It was therefore the aim of the present study to assess hand preferences in black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in 4 tasks differing in task demand: simple unimanual reaching for food and 3 versions of the widely used tube task, including 2 bimanual versions that differ from each other in the degree of fine motor control needed and a unimanual version that does not require coordinated action of the hands. We found that black-handed spider monkeys display significant hand preferences at the individual, but not at the population, level. This was true both in the 2 bimanual coordinated tasks and in the 2 unimanual tasks. Further, our results show that the majority of animals were consistent in the hand they preferred in these 4 tasks. Our findings only partially support the notion that task demand positively correlates with strength of hand preference. Finally, we found that the index finger was the most frequently used digit in all 3 tube tasks, although the animals also used other digits and 2- and 3-finger combinations to extract food from a tube. We conclude that limited manual dexterity does not prevent spider monkeys from displaying strong and consistent hand preferences at the individual level. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Atelinae/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
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