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1.
Primates ; 60(6): 565-573, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506896

RESUMO

The genetic variability of New World primates is still poorly documented. We present the first genetic study on two threatened endemic titi monkey species in northern Bolivia (Plecturocebus modestus and Plecturocebus olallae) using six microsatellite markers to investigate genetic structure and variability of 54 individuals from two wild populations. A low level of genetic diversity was found (34 alleles in the total sampled population). Locus 1118 presented the greatest number of alleles. The mean number of alleles per locus in the total population was 5.6 and the average heterozygosity was 0.38 (range 0.12-0.88). The FIS value for the total population using all microsatellite loci shows a statistically significant heterozygote deficit. The inbreeding coefficients (FIS) were positive and significantly different from zero (0.064 for P. olallae and 0.213 for P. modestus). The genetic differentiation between populations (FST) was moderate with a pair-wise FST estimate of 0.14. Population structure analyses assigned the two populations to two differentiated clusters (K = 2). These results suggest that these two species with very close distributional ranges arose from a single population, and that they remain in a process of genetic differentiation and speciation. This study further underlines the urgent need for conservation actions for both endemic primate species.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Pitheciidae/genética , Bolívia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Repetições de Microssatélites
2.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(6): 101261, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337544

RESUMO

Rickettsia parkeri sensu stricto (s.s.) is an emerging human pathogen in the Americas. Comprehension of the etiology of R. parkeri infections in South America is complicated by the existence of genetic variants (Atlantic rainforest, NOD and Parvitarsum) of this species that are associated with specific groups of Amblyomma ticks. The rickettsial bacterium strain ApPR was first reported in Amblyomma parkeri ticks in Southern Brazil in 2012 and was considered, based on sequencing of fragments of the gltA, htrA, ompA and ompB genes, to represent yet another genetic variant of R. parkeri. In the current work, a multi-locus phylogenetic analysis employing additional genes and intragenic regions was performed using DNA extracted from (a) larvae of A. parkeri and Amblyomma species haplotype Nazaré ticks collected from wild birds, (b) a nymph of Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré recovered from a monkey (Callicebus nigrifons), representing the first report of that tick parasitizing a non-human primate and (c) from a cultured isolate of ApPR, isolated from colony-reared adults of Amblyomma geayi. Phylogenetic inference performed using Maximum-likelihood (ML), Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Bayesian (B) methods, consistently placed strain ApPR outside the New World R. parkeri complex and instead grouped it in proximity to the Old World species Rickettsia africae and Rickettsia sibirica. Estimates of evolutionary divergence provided additional support for the inferred phylogenetic relationship. Given the clear evolutionary distance between strain ApPR and R. parkeri we propose the recognition of "Candidatus Rickettsia paranaensis".


Assuntos
Ixodidae/microbiologia , Rickettsia/classificação , Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Brasil , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Intergênico/análise , Feminino , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Filogenia , Pitheciidae/microbiologia , Rickettsia/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(2): 257-264, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747402

RESUMO

Although little studied, infections with nematodes of the Onchocercidae Leiper, 1911, predominated by the genera Dipetalonema Diesing, 1861 and Mansonella Faust, 1929, are frequent in wild primates and human populations in the Neotropical forest areas. This study reports natural infections with Dipetalonema freitasi Bain, Diagne & Muller, 1987 and D. gracile (Rudolphi, 1809) in two free-living species of pitheciid primates, extending the known geographical distribution of these species to the forest of the Peruvian Amazon. Adult worms were recovered from the thoracic and abdominal cavities of two species of monkeys, Pithecia monachus monachus (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) and Cacajao calvus ucayalii (Thomas) (Primates: Pitheciidae), collected along the Yavari-Mirin River basin and analysed via light and scanning electron microscopy. Both host species represent new host records for D. freitasi and D. gracile. Morphometric data are also presented for the sampled filarial worms in addition to morphological details obtained through light and electron microscopy examination of D. freitasi specimens.


Assuntos
Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/fisiologia , Pitheciidae/parasitologia , Cavidade Abdominal/parasitologia , Animais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nematoides/ultraestrutura , Especificidade da Espécie , Cavidade Torácica/parasitologia
4.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002716, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little systematic assessment of how total health expenditure is distributed across diseases and comorbidities. The objective of this study was to use statistical methods to disaggregate all publicly funded health expenditure by disease and comorbidities in order to answer three research questions: (1) What is health expenditure by disease phase for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in New Zealand? (2) Is the cost of having two NCDs more or less than that expected given the independent costs of each NCD? (3) How is total health spending disaggregated by NCDs across age and by sex? METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used linked data for all adult New Zealanders for publicly funded events, including hospitalisation, outpatient, pharmaceutical, laboratory testing, and primary care from 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2014. These data include 18.9 million person-years and $26.4 billion in spending (US$ 2016). We used case definition algorithms to identify if a person had any of six NCDs (cancer, cardiovascular disease [CVD], diabetes, musculoskeletal, neurological, and a chronic lung/liver/kidney [LLK] disease). Indicator variables were used to identify the presence of any of the 15 possible comorbidity pairings of these six NCDs. Regression was used to estimate excess annual health expenditure per person. Cause deletion methods were used to estimate total population expenditure by disease. A majority (59%) of health expenditure was attributable to NCDs. Expenditure due to diseases was generally highest in the year of diagnosis and year of death. A person having two diseases simultaneously generally had greater health expenditure than the expected sum of having the diseases separately, for all 15 comorbidity pairs except the CVD-cancer pair. For example, a 60-64-year-old female with none of the six NCDs had $633 per annum expenditure. If she had both CVD and chronic LLK, additional expenditure for CVD separately was $6,443/$839/$9,225 for the first year of diagnosis/prevalent years/last year of life if dying of CVD; additional expenditure for chronic LLK separately was $6,443/$1,291/$9,051; and the additional comorbidity expenditure of having both CVD and LLK was $2,456 (95% confidence interval [CI] $2,238-$2,674). The pattern was similar for males (e.g., additional comorbidity expenditure for a 60-64-year-old male with CVD and chronic LLK was $2,498 [95% CI $2,264-$2,632]). In addition to this, the excess comorbidity costs for a person with two diseases was greater at younger ages, e.g., excess expenditure for 45-49-year-old males with CVD and chronic LLK was 10 times higher than for 75-79-year-old males and six times higher for females. At the population level, 23.8% of total health expenditure was attributable to higher costs of having one of the 15 comorbidity pairs over and above the six NCDs separately; of the remaining expenditure, CVD accounted for 18.7%, followed by musculoskeletal (16.2%), neurological (14.4%), cancer (14.1%), chronic LLK disease (7.4%), and diabetes (5.5%). Major limitations included incomplete linkage to all costed events (although these were largely non-NCD events) and missing private expenditure. CONCLUSIONS: The costs of having two NCDs simultaneously is typically superadditive, and more so for younger adults. Neurological and musculoskeletal diseases contributed the largest health system costs, in accord with burden of disease studies finding that they contribute large morbidity. Just as burden of disease methodology has advanced the understanding of disease burden, there is a need to create disease-based costing studies that facilitate the disaggregation of health budgets at a national level.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/economia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/economia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/economia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/economia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/economia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pitheciidae , Fatores Sexuais
5.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210494, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673746

RESUMO

We examined photic and ecological factors related to initiation of feeding by four sympatric primates in the rain forest of Amazonian Ecuador. With rare exceptions, morning activities of all taxa began only after the onset of nautical twilight, which occurred 47-48 min before sunrise. The larger spider and woolly monkeys, Ateles belzebuth and Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii, left their sleeping trees before sunrise about half the time, while the smaller sakis and titi monkeys, Pithecia aequatorialis and Plecturocebus (formerly Callicebus) discolor, did not emerge until sunrise or later. None of the four taxa routinely began feeding before sunrise. Pithecia began feeding a median 2.17 h after sunrise, at least 0.8 h later than the median feeding times of the other three taxa. The early movement of Ateles and Lagothrix, and late initiation of feeding by Pithecia are consistent with temporal niche partitioning. Among most New World primate species, all males and many females, have dichromatic color vision, with only two cone photopigments, while some females are trichromats with three cone photopigments. Current evidence indicates that the dichromats have a foraging advantage in dim light, which could facilitate utilization of twilight periods and contribute to temporal niche partitioning. However, in our study, dichromatic males did not differentially exploit the dim light of twilight, and times of first feeding bouts of female Ateles and Lagothrix were similar to those of males. First feeding bouts followed a seasonal pattern, occurring latest in May-August, when ripe fruit abundance and ambient temperature were both relatively low. The most frugivorous taxon, Ateles, exhibited the greatest seasonality, initiating feeding 1.4 h later in May-August than in January-April. This pattern may imply a strategy of conserving energy when ripe fruit is scarcer, but starting earlier to compete successfully when fruit is more abundant. Lower temperatures were associated with later feeding of Ateles (by 26 min / °C) and perhaps Pithecia, but not Lagothrix or Plecturocebus. The potential for modification of temporal activity patterns and temporal niche partitioning by relatively small changes in temperature should be considered when predicting the effects of climate change.


Assuntos
Atelinae/fisiologia , Ecologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Pitheciidae/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Clima Tropical , Animais , Atelinae/classificação , Equador , Feminino , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Pitheciidae/classificação , Estações do Ano , Luz Solar , Simpatria , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 132: 117-137, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496844

RESUMO

The taxonomy of the titi monkeys (Callicebinae) has recently received considerable attention. It is now recognised that this subfamily is composed of three genera with 33 species, seven of them described since 2002. Here, we describe a new species of titi, Plecturocebus, from the municipality of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We adopt an integrative taxonomic approach that includes phylogenomic analyses, pelage characters, and locality records. A reduced representation genome-wide approach was employed to assess phylogenetic relationships among species of the eastern Amazonian clade of the Plecturocebus moloch group. Using existing records, we calculated the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) of the new species and estimated future habitat loss for the region based on predictive models. We then evaluated the species' conservation status using the IUCN Red list categories and criteria. The new species presents a unique combination of morphological characters: (1) grey agouti colouration on the crown and dorsal parts; (2) entirely bright red-brown venter; (3) an almost entirely black tail with a pale tip; and (4) light yellow colouration of the hair on the cheeks contrasting with bright red-brown hair on the sides of the face. Our phylogenetic reconstructions based on maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed well-supported species relationships, with the Alta Floresta taxon as sister to P. moloch + P. vieirai. The species EOO is 10,166,653 ha and we predict a total habitat loss of 86% of its original forest habitat under a "business as usual" scenario in the next 24 years, making the newly discovered titi monkey a Critically Endangered species under the IUCN A3c criterion. We give the new titi monkey a specific epithet based on: (1) clear monophyly of this lineage revealed by robust genomic and mitochondrial data; (2) distinct and diagnosable pelage morphology; and (3) a well-defined geographical distribution with clear separation from other closely related taxa. Urgent conservation measures are needed to safeguard the future of this newly discovered and already critically endangered primate.


Assuntos
Pitheciidae/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Citocromos b/genética , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Genoma , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogenia , Pitheciidae/anatomia & histologia , Pitheciidae/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 167(4): 701-712, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30276790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Territoriality refers to the consistent defense of an area within the home range (HR) against intrusions of conspecifics. It implies exclusive space use with low degree of overlap among neighboring groups, high site fidelity, specific ranging behavior such as high mobility relative to HR size and frequent visits of territory borders, and monitoring behavior. We examined ranging behavior and use of space to evaluate territoriality in Pithecia aequatorialis in Ecuador. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2005 and 2015, we monitored one main study group continuously and five additional groups for shorter periods (5 months to 2.5 years) at the Tiputini Biodiversity Station, in eastern Ecuador. We scored the location of the study groups at 20 min intervals during, on average, 5 days per month. We estimated saki HRs and core areas (CAs) using the fixed kernel density method (95 and 50%, respectively). RESULTS: The average HR size was 57 ha and the average CA 14 ha. The degree of overlap between HRs of neighboring groups was low (2-9%). For the main study group, the average overlap between annual HRs was 82%. Mean daily path length across groups was 1,151 m; the defensibility index varied between 1.1 and 2.3 (values >1 are suggestive of territoriality), and the fractional monitoring rate varied between 0.06 and 0.15 (values >0.08 are suggestive of territoriality). Groups did not visit their HR borders (100 m inner buffer) more often than would be expected by chance. Travel speed and directness were comparable between the borders and the centers of groups' HRs. DISCUSSION: Our multiyear study suggests that equatorial sakis show low degree of range overlap and high site fidelity and have the potential to be territorial, given their high mobility relative to HR size that allows for frequent border monitoring. Nevertheless, their movement patterns in border areas did not reveal evidence for monitoring behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital/fisiologia , Pitheciidae/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Animais , Antropologia Física , Equador , Feminino , Masculino
8.
Am J Primatol ; 80(10): e22907, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106168

RESUMO

Coordination of oxytocin (OT) activity and partner interactions is important for the facilitation and maintenance of monogamous pair bonds. We used coppery titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) to identify the effects of male aggressive temperament on OT activity, affiliative partner-directed behaviors, aggressive partner-directed behaviors, anxiety-related behaviors, and hormone-behavior interactions. We used a mirror technique, simulating an intruder in the home territory of pairs to elicit behavioral responses, and quantified behaviors using an established ethogram. Plasma concentrations of OT (pg/ml) were quantified using enzyme immunoassay. We used general linear mixed models to predict 1) percent change in OT as a function of aggression score, and 2) percent change in behaviors as a function of aggression, OT, and OT by aggression interactions. High-aggressive males exhibited a significant drop in OT concentration relative to control when exposed to the front of the mirror (ß = -0.22, SE = 0.10, t = -2.20, p = 0.04). High-aggressive males spent significantly less time in contact with their mates (ß = -1.35, SE = 0.60, t = -2.26, p = 0.04) and lip-smacked less (ß = -1.02, SE = 0.44, t = -2.32, p = 0.03) relative to control. We also saw a trend toward an interaction effect between OT and proximity such that High-aggressive males displaying a drop in OT exhibited a smaller percent increase in social proximity (ß = 6.80, SE = 3.48, t = 1.96, p = 0.07). Males exhibiting a decrease in OT also trended toward back-arching and tail-lashing less in response to the mirror (ß = 4.53, SE = 2.5, t = 1.82, p = 0.09). To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study to examine interactions between OT and temperament in adult monogamous primates. Future studies should incorporate measures of pair-mate interactions and early-life experience to further understand variation in responses to social stressors and their effects on pair bonding.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Ocitocina/sangue , Pitheciidae/psicologia , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiedade , Feminino , Masculino , Ligação do Par , Pitheciidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Temperamento/fisiologia
9.
Primates ; 59(5): 469-474, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019232

RESUMO

The predation of army ants (Eciton rapax) was recorded during an observational study of the feeding behavior of a group of titi monkeys (Plecturocebus toppini) in an urban fragment of forest in Acre, Brazil. During one observed event, the group's adult female used its tail to retrieve ants, a type of behavior not observed previously in this genus. All incidents of on-forest floor foraging occurred during the dry season, when fruit was least abundant in the forest, while on other occasions, the ants were captured from tree branches and leaves. The observation of predation and ground-level foraging recorded in this study reinforce the adaptive capacity of P. toppini for survival in fragmented forests, and this was also the first record of the predation of army ants by this titi species.


Assuntos
Formigas , Cadeia Alimentar , Pitheciidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Masculino
10.
Comp Med ; 68(4): 319-323, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907165

RESUMO

A 20-y-old male intact white-faced saki monkey (Pithecia pithecia) presented with an acute ocular disease of the right eye. Clinical signs included periocular swelling, conjunctivitis, and anisocoria with a miotic right pupil. Conjunctival swabs were positive for Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV1) according to PCR amplification with sequencing. Initial clinical signs resolved with supportive treatment, and the animal was managed chronically by using acyclovir (5 mg/kg PO twice daily) during flare-ups. After more than 2 y, the progression of clinical disease led to enucleation of the right eye. At 2 mo after surgery, acute presentation of severe neurologic signs, including ataxia and blindness, resulted in euthanasia. Histopathology, PCR analysis, and sequencing results were consistent with viral encephalitis due to HHV1; coinfection with Pithecia pithecia lymphocryptovirus 1 was identified. This report describes the first case of managed HHV1 infection in a platyrrhine primate and the first case of HHV1 in a white-faced saki monkey that was not rapidly fatal.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Herpes Simples/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Oftalmopatias/virologia , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Simples/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Pitheciidae
11.
Am J Primatol ; 80(6): e22868, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29756654

RESUMO

Highly valued food items are often used as rewards to reinforce an animal's behavior. For social species, social interaction is rewarding and can drive an individual's behavior as well. In the currently study, we wanted to compare the efficacy of a food reward and a social reward on object discrimination learning in socially monogamous titi monkeys. We hypothesized that titi monkeys would perform more accurately for a social reward (their pair mate) than for a food reward (a highly desired food item). Eleven adult titi monkeys were tested with a two-object visual discrimination task for both types of reward. The colors and shapes of the objects in the two-object discrimination task were counterbalanced across subjects. During each trial, subjects were shown two objects, and the trial ended when the subject touched the reinforced shape (S+) or after 5 min. A correct trial was defined as one when the subject touched S+ first. We found that 45.5% of subjects were able to learn the task with a social reward, and 83.3% were able to learn the task with a food reward. We found that subjects balked more often and had fewer correct trials for the social reward. Finally, subjects took longer to approach the shapes for a social reward, possibly indicating lower motivation to engage in the task when a social reward is used compared to a food reward. Although significantly fewer subjects met criteria of success with the social reward than with the food reward, our results show that titi monkeys can learn a visual discrimination task with either type of reward.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Pitheciidae/psicologia , Recompensa , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Alimentos , Masculino , Ligação do Par , Comportamento Social
12.
Am J Primatol ; 80(5): e22759, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664191

RESUMO

Primates are interpreted to be ancestrally adapted to frugivory, although some modern groups show clear adaptations to other diets. Among them, pitheciids stand out for specifically predating seeds. This dietary specialization is known as sclerocarpy and refers to the extraction of seeds from surrounding hard tissues using the anterior dentition followed by the mastication of seeds by the molars. It has been proposed that Callicebus-Pithecia-Chiropotes-Cacajao represent a morphocline of increasingly specialized anatomical traits for sclerocarpic foraging. This study addresses whether there is a sclerocarpic specialization gradient in the mandibular morphology of pitheciids. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to simulate two biting scenarios and the obtained stress values were compared between different pitheciids. Geometric morphometrics (GM) were used to display the morphological variation of this group. No support was found for the morphocline hypothesis from a biomechanical viewpoint since all pitheciins showed similar stress values and on average Chiropotes rather than Cacajao exhibited the strongest mandible. From a morphological perspective, it was found that there is indeed relative "robusticity" continuum in the pitheciid mandible for some aspects of shape as expected for the morphocline hypothesis, but this gradient could be related to other factors rather than sclerocarpic specialization. The present results are expected to contribute to a better insight regarding the ecomorphological relationship between mandibular morphology and mechanical performance among pitheciids.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Pitheciidae/anatomia & histologia , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Frutas , Mastigação
13.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 124: 10-15, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505826

RESUMO

The titi monkeys belong to a genus of New World primates endemic to South America, which were recently reclassified in three genera (Cheracebus, Plecturocebus and Callicebus). The genus Callicebus, which currently includes five species, is endemic to eastern Brazil, occurring in the Caatinga, Savanna, and Atlantic Forest biomes. In the present study, we investigated the validity of these species and inferred their phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and biogeographic patterns based on the molecular analysis of a concatenated sequence of 11 mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, derived from 13 specimens. We ran Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) analyses, and estimated genetic distances, divergence times. Ancestral areas were estimated on BioGeoBears. Our results suggest that at about twelve million years ago, the ancestor of all titi monkeys inhabited a wide area that extended from the Amazon forest to the South of the Atlantic forest. A first vicariant event originated Cheracebus in the West of the Amazon and the ancestor of Callicebus and Plectorocebus which, later were separated by a second one. The diversification of Callicebus occurred during the Plio-Pleistocene (beginning at 5 Ma) probably influenced by climatic fluctuations and geological events. Therefore, the results of the present work confirmed the existence of five species that currently inhabit forested areas under increasing threat from human activities. Thus, a reliable diagnosis of the taxonomic status of species living in endangered environments is extremely important for the development of conservation measures.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Filogeografia , Pitheciidae/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Med Primatol ; 47(2): 139-141, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388214

RESUMO

Pedigree metrics are essential for investigating colony genetic structure. The genetic structure of a closed Callicebus cupreus colony was examined using multigenerational pedigrees. Inbreeding was low, but genetic drift caused the loss of founder genome representation. Pedigrees can be used to detect founder representation and prevent bottlenecks and allele loss.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Linhagem , Pitheciidae/genética , Animais , Animais de Laboratório/genética , Feminino , Masculino
15.
Primates ; 59(1): 89-97, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28894994

RESUMO

Anthropogenic noise pollution is increasing and can constrain acoustic communication in animals. Our aim was to investigate if the acoustic parameters of loud calls and their diurnal pattern in the black-fronted titi monkey (Callicebus nigrifrons) are affected by noise produced by mining activity in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Brazil. We installed two passive acoustic monitoring devices to record sound 24 h/day, 7 days every 2 months, for a year; one unit was close to an opencast mine and the other 2.5 km away from it. Both sites presented similar habitat structures and were inhabited by groups of black-fronted titi monkeys. We quantified the noise at both sites by measuring the equivalent continuous sound level every 2 months for 1 year and quantified the emission of loud calls by titi monkeys through visual inspection of the recordings. The close site presented higher ambient noise levels than the far site. The quantitative comparison of loud calls of black-fronted titi monkeys between the two sites showed less calling activity in the site close to the mine than in the site further away. Approximately 20 % of the calls detected at the site close to the mine were masked by noise from truck traffic. Loud calls were longer at the site far from the mine and the diurnal patterns of vocal activity differed in the amount of calling as well as in the timing of peak calling activity between the two sites. Our results indicate that mining noise may constrain titi monkeys' long-distance vocal communication. Loud calls occupy a similar frequency band to mining noise, and an increase in ambient noise may be triggering black-fronted titi monkeys to adjust their long-distance communication patterns to avoid masking of their calls. Given that vocalizations are an important means of social interaction in this species, there are concerns about the impact of mining noise on populations exposed to this human activity.


Assuntos
Mineração , Ruído , Pitheciidae/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Brasil
16.
J Therm Biol ; 69: 104-109, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29037369

RESUMO

Maintaining a constant body temperature is critical to the proper functioning of metabolic reactions. Behavioural thermoregulation strategies may minimize the cost of energetic balance when an animal is outside its thermoneutral zone. We investigated whether ambient temperature and relative air humidity influence the use of behavioural strategies by a group of Prince Bernhard's titi monkeys (Callicebus bernhardi) living in a forest fragment. We monitored a social group composed of four individuals (an adult couple and two juveniles) for 1010h from March to September 2015. We used the instantaneous scan sampling method to record the body posture, the microhabitat, and the occurrence of huddling with group mate(s) when animals were resting. We recorded ambient temperature and relative humidity in the shade every 10min with a data logger hanging at a height of approximately 5m. Daytime temperature ranged from 18.5°C to 38.5°C and relative humidity ranged from 21% to 97%. Titi monkeys avoided sunny places at higher temperatures, especially above 31°C. Minimum night temperature did not influence the choice of resting microhabitats during the first hour after sunrise. Sitting was the major resting posture during the day (62%). Titi monkeys increased the use of heat-dissipating postures at ambient temperatures >27°C. In addition, an increase in relative humidity increased the use of these postures at 26°C, 27°C, 29°C and 33°C, but caused a decrease at 24°C. On the other hand, the ambient temperature did not influence the occurrence of huddling. We conclude that microhabitat choice and postural behaviour are important for titi monkeys to prevent overheating and suggest that these behavioural adjustments might also be critical for other tropical arboreal mammals.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Pitheciidae/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Temperatura Corporal , Ecossistema , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Umidade , Masculino , Postura , Temperatura
17.
Am J Primatol ; 79(12)2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926116

RESUMO

Dental microwear textures have been examined for a broad range of extant primates to assess their efficacy for reconstructing diets of fossil species. To date though, no dental microwear texture data have been published for pitheciid molars, despite reported variation in degree of sclerocarpy and, by extension, the fracture properties of foods these platyrrhines eat. While all pitheciids eat hard or tough seeds, Chiropotes and Pithecia have been documented to consume more than Callicebus. In this study, we explored whether measures of molar microwear texture complexity discriminate taxa following variation in reliance upon seeds, and whether dispersion among variables is greatest in Callicebus, which has the most variable diet. Here we report results for a study of microwear textures on M2 "Phase II" facets of Ch. satanas (N = 14), P. irrorata (N = 8), and Ca. moloch (N = 24) from the Brazilian Amazon (Oriximina, UHE Samuel, and Taperinha, respectively). Textures examined using a scanning confocal profiler showed significant differences in central tendencies for three measures: mean dale area (Sda), anisotropy (Str), and heterogeneity (HAsfc9 ). Ten measures showed significant differences in dispersion, with Callicebus being significantly more variable in eight of those ten. These results demonstrate that the pitheciids with different morphological adaptations and dietary reliance on seeds differ in their dental microwear textures, though less than initially hypothesized. Measures of dispersion, especially, show potential for identifying dietary variability.


Assuntos
Dieta , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Pitheciidae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Brasil
18.
Am J Primatol ; 79(10)2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28763579

RESUMO

The costs imposed by predation may result in behavioral adaptations to reduce mortality risk, including the choice and use of sleeping sites. The threat of predation, however, is rarely the sole force shaping sleeping site choice, which is likely to reflect other factors such as foraging needs as well. Here we describe the use of sleeping sites by three groups of small Neotropical monkeys, the black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons), and evaluate the role of predation pressure and foraging optimization in their choice of sleeping sites. We monitored each group for 9-20 months at two Atlantic Forest sites in southeastern Brazil. The titi monkeys used taller and larger trees to sleep than the average trees at each study site and chose branches with high vegetation coverage and located in higher forest strata than those used during diurnal activity. Sleeping sites were randomly distributed within each group's home range, and the groups avoided using the same site on consecutive nights. The characteristics of the sleeping sites and the behavior of the titi monkeys suggest that predation avoidance, especially of scansorial carnivores, is an important factor driving sleeping site choice. We conclude that titi monkeys' strategy to avoid predation while sleeping depends on the presence of a heterogeneous forest stratum with large emergent trees and liana tangles, which offer a physical barrier against predators.


Assuntos
Pitheciidae , Sono , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Brasil , Haplorrinos , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital
19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 7737, 2017 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28798406

RESUMO

New World primates feature a complex colour vision system. Most species have polymorphic colour vision where males have a dichromatic colour perception and females can be either dichromatic or trichromatic. The adaptive value of high allelic diversity of opsins, a light sensitive protein, found in primates' eyes remains unknown. Studies revealing the allelic diversity are important as they shed light on our understanding of the adaptive value of differences in the colouration of species and their ecologies. Here we investigate the allelic types found in Pitheciidae, an understudied New World primate family, revealing the diversity of medium/long wavelength sensitive opsins both in cryptic and conspicuous species of this primate family. We found five alleles in Cacajao, six in Callicebinae (i.e. Plecturocebus, Cheracebus, and Callicebus), four in Chiropotes, and three in Pithecia, some of them reported for the first time. Both cryptic and conspicuous species in this group presented high allelic diversity.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Pitheciidae/genética , Opsinas de Bastonetes/genética , Alelos , Animais , Percepção de Cores , Visão de Cores , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Masculino
20.
Neuroinformatics ; 15(4): 365-382, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28849545

RESUMO

CAS (Cell Annotation Software) is a novel tool for analysis of microscopic images and selection of the cell soma or nucleus, depending on the research objectives in medicine, biology, bioinformatics, etc. It replaces time-consuming and tiresome manual analysis of single images not only with automatic methods for object segmentation based on the Statistical Dominance Algorithm, but also semi-automatic tools for object selection within a marked region of interest. For each image, a broad set of object parameters is computed, including shape features and optical and topographic characteristics, thus giving additional insight into data. Our solution for cell detection and analysis has been verified by microscopic data and its application in the annotation of the lateral geniculate nucleus has been examined in a case study.


Assuntos
Tecido Nervoso/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Software , Algoritmos , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Macaca , Camundongos , Rede Nervosa/citologia , Rede Nervosa/metabolismo , Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Pitheciidae
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