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2.
Exp Anim ; 69(1): 70-79, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527335

RESUMO

Chinchillas are herbivores, but wild chinchillas may occasionally consume animal-based foods. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fish meal (FM) and mealworm meal (MWM) included in complete pelleted diets on nutrient digestibility and gastrointestinal function in chinchillas. The experiment was performed on 24 male, divided into three groups, n=8. Control group (C) was fed a diet containing 10% soybean meal (SBM). In the experimental group FM, chinchillas received a diet containing 3% fish meal, and the diet administered to the experimental group MWM was supplemented with 4% dried mealworm larvae meal. The nutrient digestibility of diets was determined. At the end of the experiment animals were euthanized and their digestive tracts were removed to analyze gut activity. FM group animals were characterized by lower crude fat digestibility, whereas both alternative protein sources improved the digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF). A considerable increase in the activity of cecal intracellular and extracellular bacterial enzymes (in particular ß-glucosidase, ß-galactosidase and ß-xylosidase) was noted in the FM group, which however did not increase the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The inclusion of MWM in chinchilla diets shifted the bacterial fermentation site from the cecum (lowest SCFA pool) to the colon (highest SCFA pool), thus enabling to derive additional energy from less digestible dietary components. In conclusion, chinchilla diets can be supplemented with small amounts of animal protein such as fish meal and dried mealworm larvae meal.


Assuntos
Chinchila/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Peixes , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Tenebrio/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Chinchila/microbiologia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Larva/química , Masculino , Tenebrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 169-193, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759446

RESUMO

Diseases of the urinary tract are reviewed, covering infectious (bacterial, viral, parasitic), degenerative, congenital, metabolic, nutritional, neoplastic, obstructive, and toxic causes. Some clinical presentations and diagnostic procedures are described for ferrets, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, mice, rats, chinchillas, hedgehogs, and sugar gliders, as well as therapies.


Assuntos
Mamíferos , Doenças Urológicas/veterinária , Animais , Chinchila , Cricetinae , Furões , Cobaias , Ouriços-Cacheiros , Marsupiais , Camundongos , Animais de Estimação , Coelhos , Ratos , Doenças Urológicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Urológicas/patologia , Doenças Urológicas/terapia
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(50): 25068-25077, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767757

RESUMO

Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a critical component of the extracellular matrix of bacterial biofilms that protects the resident bacteria from environmental hazards, which includes imparting significantly greater resistance to antibiotics and host immune effectors. eDNA is organized into a lattice-like structure, stabilized by the DNABII family of proteins, known to have high affinity and specificity for Holliday junctions (HJs). Accordingly, we demonstrated that the branched eDNA structures present within the biofilms formed by NTHI in the middle ear of the chinchilla in an experimental otitis media model, and in sputum samples recovered from cystic fibrosis patients that contain multiple mixed bacterial species, possess an HJ-like configuration. Next, we showed that the prototypic Escherichia coli HJ-specific DNA-binding protein RuvA could be functionally exchanged for DNABII proteins in the stabilization of biofilms formed by 3 diverse human pathogens, uropathogenic E. coli, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus epidermidis Importantly, while replacement of DNABII proteins within the NTHI biofilm matrix with RuvA was shown to retain similar mechanical properties when compared to the control NTHI biofilm structure, we also demonstrated that biofilm eDNA matrices stabilized by RuvA could be subsequently undermined upon addition of the HJ resolvase complex, RuvABC, which resulted in significant biofilm disruption. Collectively, our data suggested that nature has recapitulated a functional equivalent of the HJ recombination intermediate to maintain the structural integrity of bacterial biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , DNA Cruciforme , Matriz Extracelular , Resolvases de Junção Holliday , Recombinação Genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Chinchila , DNA Helicases , DNA Cruciforme/química , DNA Cruciforme/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Matriz Extracelular/química , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Resolvases de Junção Holliday/química , Resolvases de Junção Holliday/metabolismo , Otite Média
5.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 161(6): 1004-1011, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) To characterize changes in brainstem neural activity following unilateral deafening in an animal model. (2) To compare brainstem neural activity from unilaterally deafened animals with that of normal-hearing controls. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective controlled animal study. SETTING: Vivarium and animal research facilities. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The effect of single-sided deafness on brainstem activity was studied in Chinchilla lanigera. Animals were unilaterally deafened via gentamycin injection into the middle ear, which was verified by loss of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Animals underwent measurement of ABR and local field potential in the inferior colliculus. RESULTS: Four animals underwent chemical deafening, with 2 normal-hearing animals as controls. ABRs confirmed unilateral loss of auditory function. Deafened animals demonstrated symmetric local field potential responses that were distinctly different than the contralaterally dominated responses of the inferior colliculus seen in normal-hearing animals. CONCLUSION: We successfully developed a model for unilateral deafness to investigate effects of single-sided deafness on brainstem plasticity. This preliminary investigation serves as a foundation for more comprehensive studies that will include cochlear implantation and manipulation of binaural cues, as well as functional behavioral tests.


Assuntos
Tronco Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Chinchila , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/etiologia , Animais , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia
6.
mSphere ; 4(4)2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366707

RESUMO

Biofilms formed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) bacteria play an important role in multiple respiratory tract diseases. Visual inspection of the morphology of biofilms formed during chronic infections shows distinct differences from biofilms formed in vitro To better understand these differences, we analyzed images of NTHI biofilms formed in the middle ears of Chinchilla lanigera and developed an in silico agent-based model of the formation of NTHI biofilms in vivo We found that, as in vitro, NTHI bacteria are organized in self-similar patterns; however, the sizes of NTHI clusters in vivo are more than 10-fold smaller than their in vitro counterparts. The agent-based model reproduced these patterns and suggested that smaller clusters occur due to elimination of planktonic NTHI cells by the host responses. Estimation of model parameters by fitting simulation results to imaging data showed that the effects of several processes in the model change during the course of the infection.IMPORTANCE Multiple respiratory illnesses are associated with formation of biofilms within the human airway by NTHI. However, a substantial amount of our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie NTHI biofilm formation is obtained from in vitro studies. Our in silico model that describes biofilm formation by NTHI within the middle ears of Chinchilla lanigera will help isolate processes potentially responsible for the differences between the morphologies of biofilms formed in vivo versus those formed in vitro Thus, the in silico model can be used to glean mechanisms that underlie biofilm formation in vivo and connect those mechanisms to those obtained from in vitro experiments. The in silico model developed here can be extended to investigate potential roles of specific host responses (e.g., mucociliary clearance) on NTHI biofilm formation in vivo The developed computational tools can also be used to analyze and describe biofilm formation by other bacterial species in vivo.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Haemophilus influenzae/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Chinchila , Simulação por Computador , Orelha Média/microbiologia , Haemophilus influenzae/classificação , Cinética , Método de Monte Carlo
7.
Zoology (Jena) ; 135: 125691, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383296

RESUMO

Herbivores exhibit specializations at the intestinal level that facilitate the bacterial fermentation. The available information on the digestive physiology of Lagostomus maximus makes this rodent an interesting model to evaluate morpho-functional adaptations to herbivory. The general objective of this work was centered on the study of the morphology and histochemistry of the descending colon and rectum of L. maximus. To do so, a comparative analysis of the morphology, ultrastructure and glycosylation pattern of both anatomical regions was carried out. Histochemical results revealed that in both sectors of the large intestine, there are goblet cells with different glycosylation pattern within a morphologically homogeneous cell population. The main difference between both intestinal segments lay in the fact that the most distal region of the large intestine showed a greater proportion of sialomucins, characterized by being slightly O-acetylated. Further specific differences were revealed by lectin histochemistry. These data allowed to perform a functional interpretation of the cell types and secreted substances, thus contributing to a better understanding of the role of mucins in the intestinal tract functioning.


Assuntos
Chinchila/anatomia & histologia , Colo Descendente/anatomia & histologia , Glicoconjugados/análise , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Reto/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Chinchila/metabolismo , Colo Descendente/química , Colo Descendente/citologia , Glicoconjugados/metabolismo , Células Caliciformes/química , Reto/química , Reto/citologia
8.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 125: 134-140, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gel-forming mucins (GFMs) play important roles in otitis media (OM) pathogenesis. Increased mucin expression is activated by pathogens and proinflammatory cytokines. Bacterial biofilms influence inflammation and resolution of OM and may contribute to prolonged mucin production. The influence of specific pathogens on mucin expression and development of chronic OM with effusion (OME) remains an area of significant knowledge deficit. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between GFM expression, specific pathogens, middle ear mucosal (MEM) changes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic utilization. METHODS: Mixed gender chinchillas were inoculated with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) strain 86028NP or Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) strain TIGR4 via transbulla injection. Antibiotic was administered on day 3-5 post inoculation. GFM expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Biofilm formation was identified and middle ear histologic changes were measured. RESULTS: SP infection resulted in higher incidence of biofilm and ME effusion compared with NTHi infection. However, NTHi persisted in the ME longer than SP with no substantive bacterial clearance detected on day 10 compared with complete bacterial clearance on day 10 for 50-60% of the SP-infected chinchillas. Both infections increased MEM inflammatory cell infiltration and thickening. NTHi upregulated the Muc5AC, Muc5B and Muc19 expression on day 10 (p = 0.0004, 0.003, and 0.002 respectively). SP-induced GFM upregulations were trended toward significant. In both NTHi and SP infections, the degree of GFM upregulation had a direct relationship to increased MEM hypertrophy, inflammatory cell infiltration and biofilm formation. Antibiotic treatment reduced the incidence of ME effusion and biofilm, limited the MEM changes and reversed the GFM upregulation. In NTHi infection, the rate of returning to baseline level of GFMs in treated chinchillas was quicker than those without treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In an animal model of OM, GFM genes are upregulated in conjunction with MEM hypertrophy and biofilm formation. This upregulation is less robust and more quickly ameliorated to a significant degree in the NTHi infection with appropriate antibiotic therapy. These findings contribute to the understanding of pathogen specific influences on mucin expression during OM pathogenesis and provide new data which may have implications in clinical approach for OM treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucina-5AC/metabolismo , Mucina-5B/metabolismo , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Otite Média/metabolismo , Animais , Chinchila , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infecções por Haemophilus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Haemophilus/metabolismo , Haemophilus influenzae , Otite Média/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Pneumocócicas/metabolismo , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Regulação para Cima , Conduta Expectante
9.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(4): 340-345, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041818

RESUMO

This study is meant to illustrate and describe the features of the auditory ossicles of the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera), one of the species used more and more frequently in otology and ear surgery as animal model. Cephalic extremities of 12 C. lanigera individuals obtained from a private farm, where this species was bred for fur, were used in this study. The ossicles were obtained either by direct surgical harvesting by mastoid approach or after a dermestid beetle exposure followed by anatomical dissection. The three ossicles that form the assembly are the malleus, incus and stapes. After the removal of these ossicles, a series of anatomical descriptions were made, followed by seriate sets of measurements. The malleus and incus form a joined-single unit called the maleo-incal complex, with an elongated straight appearance, also due to the development of the anterior process. The handle of the malleus and the long process of incus are almost perpendicular to the main axis of the maleo-incal complex. The presence of the muscular process on the handle of the malleus is recorded. The overall shape of the incus is given by the uneven development of the two processes and the reduced neck part. The stapes is the smallest of the components that maintains the well-known architecture in accordance with the general model. The morphology of all three ossicles is backed by a series of measurements, some standard, some adapted to the morphology of the ossicles. From the very reduced comparative metrical data at our disposal, our study presents an average of 10% lower values for the ones presented earlier by other researchers in the same species.


Assuntos
Chinchila/anatomia & histologia , Ossículos da Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Microscopia/instrumentação , Microscopia/veterinária , Modelos Animais , Otolaringologia/métodos
10.
Infect Immun ; 87(8)2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109946

RESUMO

PE-PilA is a fusion protein composed of immunologically relevant parts of protein E (PE) and the majority subunit of the type IV pilus (PilA), two major antigens of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we report on the preclinical evaluation of PE-PilA as a vaccine antigen. The immunogenic potential of the PE and PilA within the fusion was compared with that of isolated PE and PilA antigens. When injected intramuscularly into mice, the immunogenicity of PE within the fusion was equivalent to that of isolated PE, except when it was formulated with alum. In contrast, in our murine models PilA was consistently found to be more immunogenic as a subentity of the PE-PilA fusion protein than when it was injected as an isolated antigen. Following immunization with PE-PilA, anti-PE antibodies demonstrated the same capacity to inhibit the binding of PE to vitronectin as those induced after PE immunization. Likewise, PE-PilA-induced anti-PilA antibodies inhibited the formation of NTHi biofilms and disrupted established biofilms in vitro These experiments support the immunogenic equivalence between fused PE-PilA and isolated PE and PilA. Further, the potential of PE-PilA immunization against NTHi-induced disease was evaluated. After intranasal NTHi challenge, colonization of the murine nasopharynx significantly dropped in animals formerly immunized with PE-PilA, and in chinchillas, signs of otitis media were significantly reduced in animals that had received anti-PE-PilA antibodies. Taken together, our data support the use of PE-PilA as an NTHi vaccine antigen.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Fímbrias/imunologia , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/imunologia , Haemophilus influenzae/imunologia , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Biofilmes , Chinchila , Feminino , Imunização , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Otite Média/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vitronectina/metabolismo
11.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(1): 166-172, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868508

RESUMO

Three-point head fixation was constructed to provide mechanical stability for single unit recording (SUR) on vestibular sensory system in living chinchilla previously. However, it is no more qualified to this work when the stimulation intensity becomes large because of frequent unit losing and neuron damage, which strongly implies that the mechanical stability has been broken during the stimulation. Here, we constructed a novel head fixation (skull cap assistant head fixation) provided by skull cap on the basis of three-point head fixation in order to improve the mechanical stability for SUR under the stimulation with large magnitude. The large area bone connection is the feature and advantage of this improved method, which directly fixes the tested local nervous tissue and microelectrode in an intact stable system through skull cap except two ear bars and a tube face mask. Our data exhibited that skull cap assistant head fixation could significantly improve the success rate of neural response activity recording in the population of semicircular canal neurons under the stimulation with large intensity (amplitude ≥100 deg/s). Based on the analysis of neural response activity and noise base-line during stimulation, our data further indicated that this method could significantly improve the mechanical stability for SUR during high-speed motion stimulation on vestibular system in living chinchilla. Skull cap assistant head fixation extends the application of SUR on vestibular neuron in linear response range and provides a solid foundation for electrophysiological research on vestibular sensory system in further studies.


Assuntos
Neurônios/fisiologia , Canais Semicirculares/inervação , Crânio/fisiologia , Animais , Chinchila , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Microeletrodos , Canais Semicirculares/fisiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209688, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620734

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae displays increased resistance to antibiotic therapy following biofilm formation. A genome-wide search revealed that SP 0320 and SP 0675 (respectively annotated as 5-keto-D-gluconate-5-reductase and glucose dehydrogenase) contain the highest degree of homology to CsgA of Myxococcus xanthus, a signaling factor that promotes cell aggregation and biofilm formation. Single and double SP 0320 and SP 0675 knockout mutants were created in strain BS72; however, no differences were observed in the biofilm-forming phenotypes of mutants compared to the wild type strain. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media and invasive disease, all three mutants exhibited greatly increased virulence compared to the wild type strain (increased pus formation, tympanic membrane rupture, mortality rates). The SP 0320 gene is located in an operon with SP 0317, SP 0318 and SP 0319, which we bioinformatically annotated as being part of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Deletion of SP 0317 also resulted in increased mortality in chinchillas; however, mutations in SP 0318 and SP 0319 did not alter the virulence of bacteria compared to the wild type strain. Complementing the SP 0317, SP 0320 and SP 0675 mutant strains reversed the virulence phenotype. We prepared recombinant SP 0317, SP 0318, SP 0320 and SP 0675 proteins and confirmed their functions. These data reveal that disruption of genes involved in the degradation of ketogluconate, the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, and glucose dehydrogenase significantly increase the virulence of bacteria in vivo; two hypothetical models involving virulence triggered by reduced in carbon-flux through the glycolytic pathways are presented.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Chinchila/microbiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose 1-Desidrogenase/genética , Glucose 1-Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Glicólise , Otite Média/microbiologia , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Deleção de Sequência , Virulência
13.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 8(3): e1801409, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624860

RESUMO

Otitis media with effusion (OEM) is a common pediatric pathology treated with topical fluoroquinolones (ear drops) and tympanoplasty tube, also referred to as ear tube, implantation for middle ear drainage. Commercially available ear tubes are fabricated using poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) synthetic materials that are associated with long-complications due to premature extrusion. Resorbable materials have emerged as desirable alternatives to reduce extrusion-related complications, but often limited by fast resorption rates. Therefore, resorbable tubes with long-term functional integrity are required for future clinical translation. In this communication, a proof-of-concept study is reported on a bioresorbable and drug-eluting silk ear tube device. Preliminary in vitro assessments reveal time-dependent drug elution and antimicrobial properties, while maintaining long-term functional integrity in vivo. This report provides evidence of a silk ear tube with potential for future clinical translation and OEM treatment.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Antibacterianos , Fluoroquinolonas , Otite Média com Derrame , Timpanoplastia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Chinchila , Implantes de Medicamento/química , Implantes de Medicamento/farmacocinética , Implantes de Medicamento/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Humanos , Otite Média com Derrame/metabolismo , Otite Média com Derrame/patologia , Otite Média com Derrame/terapia , Seda/química , Seda/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 93-97, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888430

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To establish whether there is cone contribution to retinal function and structure in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera), in view of the prevailing notion that this species possesses a pure rod retina. METHODS: Photopic electroretinography (ERG) responses to high-intensity flashes (10 and 25 cd*s/m2 ) were recorded unilaterally in six pigmented chinchillas following 10 minutes of light adaptation (30 cd/m2 ). Retinas of two animals were studied histologically, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to detect the presence of short and medium/long wavelength cone photoreceptors. RESULTS: ERG recordings revealed photopic responses, albeit of low amplitudes. Histopathology demonstrated presumptive cone inner segments in the photoreceptor layer. Presence of cone photoreceptors was confirmed by IHC. Cone density was higher in the central retina, and red/green cones outnumbered blue cones. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide convincing evidence for the presence of functioning cone photoreceptors in the chinchilla retina, disproving the established belief that the species has a pure rod retina.


Assuntos
Chinchila/anatomia & histologia , Retina/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Eletrorretinografia/veterinária , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes
15.
Parasitol Int ; 68(1): 9-13, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240872

RESUMO

Long-tailed chinchillas Chinchilla lanigera are popular rodent species kept both in households, where they are hand-raised as pets, and in zoological facilities. From January 2016 to February 2017, 13 juvenile chinchillas from five facilities in Japan were diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at the animal hospital. Eight of the cases were fatal. All of the animals were imported from the Czech Republic by the same vendor. Histopathological and multilocus sequence analyses using 18S ribosomal RNA, actin, 70-kDa heat shock protein, and 60-kDa glycoprotein genes confirmed Cryptosporidium ubiquitum of subtype XIId as the etiological agent. Multilocus analysis demonstrated the presence of two new sequence types closely related to the C. ubiquitum Xlld strain isolated from a human in the USA. This study indicated that potentially zoonotic Cryptosporidium is widespread and may have caused a high number of deaths among imported juvenile chinchillas.


Assuntos
Chinchila/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/patologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/mortalidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/mortalidade , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Japão/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
16.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(1): 15-26, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454759

RESUMO

This article discusses the clinical appearance, differential diagnoses, and treatment considerations of corneal disease in the most common domesticated species of rodent: mouse, rat, chinchilla, and guinea pig. Many corneal diseases are related to inbred strains of either research or pet rodents. Diseases are complicated by husbandry and treatment-related challenges in this small, social species. This article is broken down by species, first discussing normal anatomy, then discussing commonly encountered diseases, and concluding with treatment considerations.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite/veterinária , Ceratoconjuntivite/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/diagnóstico , Escorbuto/veterinária , Animais , Chinchila , Conjuntivite/diagnóstico , Conjuntivite/terapia , Córnea/anatomia & histologia , Cobaias , Ceratoconjuntivite/diagnóstico , Ceratoconjuntivite/terapia , Camundongos , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/terapia , Roedores , Escorbuto/diagnóstico , Escorbuto/terapia
17.
J Anat ; 234(1): 50-65, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402944

RESUMO

Chinchilloidea are a clade of caviomorph rodents that includes seven living species, the Dinomyidae Dinomys branickii, the Chinchillidae Lagostomus maximus, two species of Chinchilla and three species of Lagidium. In addition, two extinct families are traditionally considered chinchilloids - Neoepiblemidae and Cephalomyidae. The phylogeny of the Chinchilloidea has so far not been well established and is based on partial analyses. Studying the anatomy and ontogeny of extinct and extant taxa, we propose homologies for the upper molars of Chinchilloidea for which these homologies have not been previously proposed: that is the Chinchillidae Prolagostomus, Lagostomus, Lagidium and Chinchilla, and the Neoepiblemidae Neoepiblema and Phoberomys. We identify patterns of occlusal simplification within Chinchilloidea and evaluate its importance in an evolutionary context. A phylogenetic analysis recovered Dinomyidae, Chinchillidae and Neoepiblemidae as clades. 'Cephalomyidae' have not been not recovered as a monophyletic group and 'cephalomyids' are closely related to Neoepiblemidae. Branisamys is not included within the Dinomyidae and appears to be a basal chinchilloid.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Chinchila/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Filogenia , Animais , Roedores
18.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 273: 32-39, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574151

RESUMO

Chinchilla lanigera is a hystricomorph rodent from South America whose reproductive biology presents particular characteristics that distinguishes it from other Rodentia species, such as low reproductive rate, seasonal breeding pattern, and long estrous cycle. Nevertheless, reproductive features in female chinchillas are still poorly investigated, with a scarce knowledge concerning the estrous cycle and the histology of reproductive organs. In this study, we investigate the morphology, histomorphometry, secretory activity, and immunolocalization of estrogen receptors ERα and ERß in oviducts of nulliparous chinchillas, euthanized at fall season in Brazil. Follicular phase of estrous cycle of all studied animals was characterized by ovary and uterine morphology inspection, as well as vaginal cytology. Similar to other mammals, the oviduct wall of infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus was composed of mucosa, muscle, and serosa layers. Morphometric data of oviduct layers were used for identifying each oviduct segment. In the follicular phase, the oviduct was characterized by intense secretory activity, mainly in the ampulla, and expression of ERα and ERß throughout the oviduct epithelium. Both ERα and ERß were also detected in the connective tissue and smooth muscle cells. Our findings point out to the important role of estrogen in this female organ. Similar wide distribution of both ER proteins has been described for human Fallopian tube. Taken together, our data add to the understanding of the reproductive biology of female chinchillas, and may assist in the intensive breeding of this species and any eventual endeavor for conservation of chinchillas in the wild.


Assuntos
Chinchila/anatomia & histologia , Chinchila/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Oviductos/anatomia & histologia , Oviductos/metabolismo , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Endométrio/citologia , Epitélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Vagina/citologia , Vagina/metabolismo
19.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 66(3): 775-783, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prosthetic electrical stimulation delivered to the vestibular nerve could provide therapy for people suffering from bilateral vestibular dysfunction. Common encoding methods use pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) to stimulate the semicircular canals of the vestibular system. We previously showed that delivery of ionic direct current (iDC) can also modulate the vestibular system. In this study, we compare the dynamic range of head velocity encoding from iDC modulation to that of PFM controls. METHODS: Gentamicin-treated wild-type chinchillas were implanted with microcatheter tubes that delivered ionic current to the left ear vestibular canals and stimulated with steps of anodic/cathodic iDC or PFM. Evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex eye velocity was used to compare PFM and iDC vestibular modulation. RESULTS: Cathodic iDC steps effectively elicited eye rotations consistent with an increased firing rate of the implanted semicircular canal afferents. Anodic iDC current steps elicited eye rotations in the opposite direction that, when paired with an adapted cathodic offset, increased the dynamic range of eye rotation velocities in comparison to PFM controls. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that iDC modulation can effectively modulate the vestibular system across a functional range of rotation vectors and velocities, with a potential benefit over a PFM stimulation paradigm. SIGNIFICANCE: In conjunction with a safe dc delivery system, iDC modulation could potentially increase the range of simulated head rotation velocities available to neuroelectric vestibular prostheses.


Assuntos
Engenharia Biomédica/instrumentação , Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Próteses Neurais , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia , Animais , Engenharia Biomédica/métodos , Chinchila , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/efeitos da radiação , Gentamicinas , Neurociências/instrumentação , Neurociências/métodos
20.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(2): 193-196, 2019 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555123

RESUMO

A tumor had formed in the right eye of a 14-year-old male chinchilla. The black-and-white-colored tumor occupied the entire eye except for the lens and had invaded extensively inside the orbit. Histologically, round, spindle- to polygonal-shaped tumor cells had proliferated in a solid-sheet arrangement. The tumor cells exhibited polymorphic nuclei ranging from round- to polygonal-shaped, as well as abundant cytoplasm, which occasionally contained melanin granules. In some areas, several cells were surrounded by the basal lamina. Additionally, the tumor showed cervical lymph-node metastasis. Upon immunostaining, the tumor cells were positive for epithelial markers (cytokeratin AE1/AE3, 8/18, and 20), S100, and vimentin. Consequently, we diagnosed primary pleomorphic iridociliary adenocarcinoma with lymph-node metastasis. This is the first report of iridociliary adenocarcinoma in chinchillas.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/veterinária , Chinchila , Corpo Ciliar , Neoplasias Uveais/veterinária , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Corpo Ciliar/patologia , Olho/patologia , Iris/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Neoplasias Uveais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Uveais/patologia
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