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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 868-878, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480567

RESUMO

Lumholtz's tree-kangaroo (Dendrolagus lumholtzi) is one of two species of tree-kangaroos found in Queensland, Australia. There is little information about ocular anatomy and pathology in any species of tree-kangaroo, and there are claims of blindness from unknown causes in free-ranging Lumholtz's tree-kangaroos. This study investigated ocular anatomy and pathology in 80 individuals, using examination of 31 live animals and histopathologic examination of eyes from 49 carcasses. Tree-kangaroos were found to have a typical vertebrate eye with immuno-histochemical evidence for dichromatic color vision. Only 5.4% of animals had evidence of pathology from traumatic injury, infection, or a variety of nonspecific lesions. Toxoplasmosis was implicated in ocular lesions in three animals. This study did not find evidence of widespread blindness in free-ranging animals nor evidence of toxic optic neuropathy. Examinations of live animals highlighted the need to establish normal ocular examination parameters and vision testing protocols suitable for use in tree-kangaroos and the need for more comprehensive examination and testing of animals thought to have vision loss of unknown origin.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Macropodidae , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Queensland
2.
Biol Lett ; 16(12): 20200607, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321066

RESUMO

Domestication is generally assumed to have resulted in enhanced communication abilities between non-primate mammals and humans, although the number of species studied is very limited (e.g. cats, Felis catus; dogs, Canis familiaris; wolves, Canis lupus; goats, Capra hircus; horses, Equus caballus). In species without hands for pointing, gazing at humans when dealing with inaccessible food during an unsolvable task, and in particular gaze alternations between a human and the unsolvable task (considered forms of showing), are often interpreted as attempts at referential intentional communication. We report that kangaroos, marsupial mammals that have never been domesticated, actively gazed at an experimenter during an unsolvable problem task (10/11 kangaroos tested), thus challenging the notion that this behaviour results from domestication. Nine of the 10 kangaroos additionally showed gaze alternations between the unsolvable task and experimenter. We propose that the potential occurrence of these behaviours displayed towards humans has been underestimated, owing to a narrow focus on domestic animals, as well as a more general eutherian research bias.


Assuntos
Macropodidae , Lobos , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Animal , Gatos , Comunicação , Cães , Cavalos
3.
Zootaxa ; 4851(2): zootaxa.4851.2.3, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056727

RESUMO

A phylogenetic analysis of the genera of the strongyloid sub-family Cloacininae from macropodoid marsupials in Australasia was undertaken based on morphological characteristics and analysis of concatenated sequences (ITS+) of the first (ITS-1) and second (ITS-2) internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Neither approach provided a robust phylogeny, but similarities between the two methods in terms of generic groupings suggested that substantial revision is needed of the current phenetic classification, with some of the key morphological characteristics currently used to define genera and tribes proving to be homoplasious.


Assuntos
Macropodidae , Nematoides , Animais , Filogenia , Potoroidae , Ratos , Strongyloidea
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239060, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941511

RESUMO

Quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) are small macropodid marsupials from Western Australia, which are identified as of conservation concern. Studies on their blood analytes exist but involve small sample sizes and are associated with very little information concerning the health of the animals. Blood was collected from free-ranging quokkas from Rottnest Island (n = 113) and mainland (n = 37) Western Australia, between September 2010 and December 2011, to establish haematology and blood chemistry reference intervals. Differences in haematology and blood chemistry between sites (Rottnest Island v mainland) were significant for haematology (HMT, p = 0.003), blood chemistry (BLC, p = 0.001) and peripheral blood cell morphology (PBCM, p = 0.001). Except for alkaline phosphatase, all blood chemistry analytes were higher in mainland animals. There were also differences with time of year in HMT (p = 0.001), BLC (p = 0.001) and PBCM (p = 0.001) for Rottnest Island quokkas. A small sample of captive animals (n = 8) were opportunistically sampled for plasma concentrations of vitamin E and were found to be deficient compared with wild-caught animals. Fifty-eight of the 150 quokkas were also tested for the presence of Salmonella, microfilariae, Macropodid herpesvirus-6, Theileria spp., Babesia spp., trypanosomes, Cryptococcus spp. and other saprophytic fungi. All eight infectious agents were detected in this study. Infectious agents were detected in 24 of these 58 quokkas (41%), with more than one infectious agent detected for all 24 individuals. Salmonella were detected concurrently with microfilariae in 8 of these 24 quokkas, and this mixed infection was associated with lower values across all haematological analytes, with Salmonella having the greater involvement in the decreased haematological values (p < 0.05). There was no evidence for an effect of sex on HMT, BLC and PBCM. Our data provide important haematological and blood chemistry reference intervals for free-ranging quokkas. We applied novel methods of analyses to HMT and BLC that can be used more broadly, aiding identification of potential disease in wildlife.


Assuntos
Macropodidae/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Análise Química do Sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis/sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Macropodidae/microbiologia , Macropodidae/virologia , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Vitamina E/sangue , Austrália Ocidental
5.
Biol Lett ; 16(7): 20200329, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673541

RESUMO

Foraging by mammalian herbivores has profound impacts on natural and modified landscapes, yet we know little about how they find food, limiting our ability to predict and manage their influence. Mathematical models show that foragers exploiting odour cues outperform a random walk strategy. However, discovering how free-ranging foragers exploit odours in real, complex landscapes has proven elusive because of technological constraints. We took a novel approach, using a sophisticated purpose-built thermal camera system to record fine-scale foraging by a generalist mammalian herbivore, the swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor). We tested the hypothesis that odour cues shape forager movement and behaviour in vegetation patches. To do this, we compared wallaby foraging in two odour landscapes: Control (natural vegetation with food and non-food plants interspersed) and +Apple (the same natural vegetation plus a single, highly palatable food source with novel odour (apple)). The +Apple treatment led to strongly directed foraging by wallabies: earlier visits to vegetation patches, straighter movement paths, more hopping and fewer stops than in the Control treatment. Our results provide clear empirical evidence that odour cues are harnessed for efficient, directed search even at this fine scale. We conclude that random walk models miss a key feature shaping foraging within patches.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Odorantes , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Macropodidae
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 398-406, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549571

RESUMO

Three captive macropods comprising three different species sustained unilateral antebrachial fractures. All fractures were assumed to be trauma related, although the specific circumstances surrounding each case was unknown. Each fracture was surgically repaired with type Ia (unilateral, monoplanar) external skeletal fixators, which were all removed approximately 3 mo postoperatively. Although each animal experienced at least one complication, all animals showed adequate bridging and remodeling at the fracture sites and had good-to-excellent return to normal function after fixator removal. This case series is the first to describe the successful repair of antebrachial fractures using external skeletal fixation in captive macropods and details some of the complications that can occur with postoperative management of captive animals.


Assuntos
Fixação de Fratura/veterinária , Fraturas Fechadas/veterinária , Fraturas Cominutivas/veterinária , Macropodidae , Fraturas do Rádio/veterinária , Fraturas da Ulna/veterinária , Animais , Fraturas Fechadas/cirurgia , Fraturas Cominutivas/cirurgia , Masculino , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Fraturas da Ulna/cirurgia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2250, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418985

RESUMO

Explanations for the Upper Pleistocene extinction of megafauna from Sahul (Australia and New Guinea) remain unresolved. Extinction hypotheses have advanced climate or human-driven scenarios, in spite of over three quarters of Sahul lacking reliable biogeographic or chronologic data. Here we present new megafauna from north-eastern Australia that suffered extinction sometime after 40,100 (±1700) years ago. Megafauna fossils preserved alongside leaves, seeds, pollen and insects, indicate a sclerophyllous forest with heathy understorey that was home to aquatic and terrestrial carnivorous reptiles and megaherbivores, including the world's largest kangaroo. Megafauna species diversity is greater compared to southern sites of similar age, which is contrary to expectations if extinctions followed proposed migration routes for people across Sahul. Our results do not support rapid or synchronous human-mediated continental-wide extinction, or the proposed timing of peak extinction events. Instead, megafauna extinctions coincide with regionally staggered spatio-temporal deterioration in hydroclimate coupled with sustained environmental change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática/história , Extinção Biológica , Fósseis , Animais , Austrália , Carnivoridade , Classificação , Clima , Dromaiidae , Ecossistema , Florestas , História Antiga , Humanos , Macropodidae , Marsupiais , Nova Guiné , Paleontologia , Datação Radiométrica , Répteis , Urânio
8.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(3): 267-284, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318941

RESUMO

Specimens of four genetically distinct groups of Macropostrongyloides baylisi Wood, 1930 were analysed morphologically. Each genotype was found to represent a morphologically distinct species: Ma. baylisi from Osphranter robustus woodwardi (Thomas) and Osphranter robustus erubescens (Sclater); Ma. spearei n. sp. from Osphranter robustus robustus (Gould) and O. r. erubescens; Ma. mawsonae n. sp. from Macropus giganteus Shaw and Ma. woodi n. sp. from Osphranter rufus (Desmarest). The new species described here are differentiated primarily by several male-specific features that have been overlooked in previous taxonomic revisions. These features include striations on the terminal part of the spicule ala, the papillae surrounding the genital cone and the bursal striations. Furthermore, scanning electron photomicrographs have revealed greater details of previously undefined structures within the buccal cavity that warrant further investigations.


Assuntos
Macropodidae/parasitologia , Strongyloidea/classificação , Strongyloidea/ultraestrutura , Animais , Austrália , Genótipo , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Especificidade da Espécie , Strongyloidea/anatomia & histologia , Strongyloidea/genética
9.
Oecologia ; 193(1): 97-107, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306115

RESUMO

Life history theory predicts trade-offs in allocation between survival, maintenance, growth, and reproduction, especially when resources are scarce. Individual variation in resource acquisition can affect trade-offs, but is often unaccounted for. We quantified the fitness costs of reproduction, accounting for environmental conditions, maternal characteristics and individual variation. We analyzed 10 years of data from marked kangaroos to evaluate how reproductive allocation affected annual mass change and skeletal growth, subsequent fecundity and weaning success, and survival, accounting for maternal mass or size and forage availability. Through repeated measurements of 76-91 females, we investigated how trade-offs varied within and between individuals, assessing whether individual variation could mask population-level trade-offs. In poor environments, females that weaned an offspring lost mass. Females that nursed an offspring for > 7 months had reduced skeletal growth. Females that did not gain mass over the previous 12 months rarely reproduced, especially if they had nursed an offspring for > 7 months the previous year. Reproductive allocation had no effect on weaning success, which was very low, and did not affect maternal survival, suggesting a conservative strategy. Disentangling within- and between-individual responses revealed trade-offs within individuals, but because individuals did not vary in their responses to earlier effort, these trade-offs did not drive population trends. The interacting effects of environmental conditions, maternal characteristics and individual variation on allocation trade-offs demonstrate the importance of long-term monitoring for understanding life history variations in changing environments.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Macropodidae
10.
Zootaxa ; 4747(3): zootaxa.4747.3.7, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230101

RESUMO

Three new species of Cloacininae are described from Dorcopsis muelleri obtained from Salawati Island and Kaimana, Papua. Cloacina woworae sp. nov. differs from all congeners by having postero-lateral and medio-lateral rays not fused and the esophagus wider anterior to the nerve ring. Compared to its congeners, C. beveridgei sp. nov. resembles C. caballeroi Mawson, 1977, C. cretheis Beveridge, 2002, C. erigone Beveridge, 2002, and C. syphax Beveridge Speare, 1999 in the morphology of the dorsal ray.  However, C. beveridgei has distal segments of sub-median papillae longer than the proximal segments. This character differentiates it from C. caballeroi, C. cretheis, and C. erigone, which have the distal segment of the sub-median papilla shorter than the proximal. Furthermore, this new species can be distinguished with C. syphax in having a shorter vagina vera and in the shape of the anterior region of the vagina. Cervonemella kaimanaensis sp. nov. differs from Ce. reardoni, the sole species in the genus Cervonemella, in the shape and longer vagina, shorter and slender tail, shorter position of vulva from posterior end and longer spicules.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Strongyloidea , Animais , Feminino , Indonésia , Ilhas , Macropodidae
11.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 131-139, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212556

RESUMO

There are limited reports of the genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii infecting captive macropods in North America. A novel genotype, ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 263, was reported from six wallabies at a zoological facility in Virginia, USA, prompting an investigation into the genotypes from T. gondii strains infecting macropods at a zoological park in Florida, USA. Cardiac muscle and/or lung samples from an agile wallaby (Macropus agilis, n = 1), red kangaroos (Macropus rufus, n = 8), red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus, n = 1), and a tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii, n = 1) that died between 2014 and 2018 were collected. All 11 cases were confirmed to have died from systemic toxoplasmosis by histopathology and immunohistochemical staining. Multilocus PCR-RFLP genotyping of T. gondii was performed directly on tissue samples or on parasites isolated from myocardium by mouse bioassay. Two cases of toxoplasmosis were identified as the reported novel genotype, ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 263, but no common source of exposure could be identified. Five cases were identified as genotype 2 (type III strain, haplogroup 3), and four cases were identified as genotype 216, which has been previously reported in North American wildlife. There were no overt differences in lesion severity or distribution related to genotype. These results suggest that the premise was contaminated with at least three genotypes of T. gondii causing systemic toxoplasmosis in macropods. The largest cluster of fatal toxoplasmosis in macropods in the study period occurred following severe rainfall flooding of the exhibit, suggesting the transmission of T. gondii by water and pointing out the importance of this transmission mechanism. In summary, our study revealed three T. gondii outbreaks that caused significant loss of macropods within 5 yr in a zoological facility in Florida. More studies are needed to understand transmission and prevention of toxoplasmosis in sensitive zoo animals.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Macropodidae , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Florida/epidemiologia , Chuva , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/mortalidade , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 5938-5942, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123078

RESUMO

Reproduction in mammals requires distinct cycles of ovulation, fertilization, pregnancy, and lactation often interspersed with periods of anoestrus when breeding does not occur. Macropodids, the largest extant species of marsupials, the kangaroos and wallabies, have a very different reproductive strategy to most eutherian mammals whereby young are born at a highly altricial stage of development with the majority of development occurring over a lengthy lactation period. Furthermore, the timings of ovulation and birth in some species occurs within a very short interval of each other (sometimes hours). Female swamp wallabies have an oestrous cycle shorter than their pregnancy length and were, therefore, speculated to mate and form a new embryo before birth thereby supporting two conceptuses at different stages of pregnancy. To confirm this, we used high-resolution ultrasound to monitor reproduction in swamp wallabies during pregnancy. Here, we show that females ovulate, mate, and form a new embryo prepartum while still carrying a full-term fetus in the contralateral uterus. This embryo enters embryonic diapause until the newborn leaves the pouch 9 mo later. Thus, combined with embryonic diapause, females are continuously pregnant and lactating at the same time throughout their reproductive life, a unique reproductive strategy that completely blurs the normal staged system of reproduction in mammals.


Assuntos
Macropodidae/fisiologia , Gravidez/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/fisiologia , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Lactação , Macropodidae/embriologia , Ovulação , Parto , Ultrassonografia , Vitória
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 135, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australian marsupials harbour a diverse array of helminth parasites. Despite current attempts to assess the extent of this diversity in macropodid hosts, it has been suggested that unique parasite fauna of Australian wildlife is difficult to document comprehensively due to the common occurrence of cryptic species. This paper assessed genetic variation within Austrostrongylus thylogale Johnston & Mawson, 1940 from the tammar wallaby, Notamacropus eugenii (Gray), and the quokka, Setonix brachyurus (Quoy & Gaimard), from different localities using the molecular characterisation of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) within the nuclear ribosomal DNA. METHODS: Thirty-seven specimens of A. thylogale collected from N. eugenii (from Parndana, Kangaroo Island, South Australia, and Perup, Western Australia) and S. brachyurus (from Wellington Dam, Western Australia) were characterised using a molecular-phylogenetic approach utilising the first (ITS1) and second (ITS2) internal transcribed spacers. RESULTS: Genetic variation was detected in both ITS1 and ITS2 between specimens of A. thylogale from N. eugenii and S. brachyurus; however, no variation was detected between specimens collected from N. eugenii from Parndana, South Australia, and Perup, Western Australia. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analyses of ITS sequences showed two clades of A. thylogale originating from two hosts, N. eugenii and S. brachyurus, suggesting the presence of cryptic species. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of genetic variation within A. thylogale based on collections from two different host species. Morphological studies are required to fully confirm the presence of a new species or cryptic species. Further molecular studies using a larger number of specimens are warranted to explore the genetic variation between A. thylogale from different geographical localities.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Macropodidae/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/genética , Animais , Austrália , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Macropodidae/classificação , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Trichostrongyloidea
14.
Parasitol Res ; 119(4): 1271-1279, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072327

RESUMO

To date, more than 50 Eimeria spp. have been isolated from marsupials of the family Macropodidae. Although 18 species of Eimeria have been previously detected from multiple animal species belonging to the genus Macropus of the family, limited genetic analyses of the parasites are available, and their pathogenicity remains unclear. Here, we report the isolation of Eimeria spp. from a zoo specimen of red-necked wallaby (Macropodidae; Macropus rufogriseus). Specifically, two distinct types of Eimeria oocysts were recovered, one from the feces before treatment with an anthelmintic and the second from the intestinal contents after death of the animal. The oocysts obtained from the two sources were morphologically identified as E. hestermani and E. prionotemni, respectively. We successfully determined partial gene sequences from the two isolates, including segments of the 18S rRNA genes, and for the first time have used phylogenetic analyses of these sequences to assign the species to distinct clades. In combination with further genetic data, these results are expected to help elucidate the pathogenicity and host ranges of Eimeria spp. within the respective family and genus.


Assuntos
Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Macropodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Eimeria/classificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Japão , Tipagem Molecular , Oocistos/classificação , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S
15.
Acta Trop ; 205: 105416, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105667

RESUMO

Q fever is considered one of the most important zoonoses in Australia. Whilst ruminants are the primary reservoirs for Coxiella burnetii, and the major source of human infection, human cases have also been reported following contact with pet dogs and cats. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of seropositivity to, and bacterial shedding of, C. burnetii by pet dogs and cats in a region with a high human Q fever incidence and explore risk factors for C. burnetii exposure. Samples (serum, whole blood, reproductive tissue, reproductive swabs) and questionnaires (completed by the pet's owner) were collected from dogs and cats from eight communities across remote New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Overall 86/330 dogs (26.1%, 95% CI 21.3-30.8%) and 19/145 cats (13.1%, 95% CI 7.6-18.6%) were seropositive to C. burnetii. Seroprevalence varied significantly between communities and was highest in communities within 150 km of a 2015 human Q fever outbreak. Feeding raw kangaroo was identified as a risk factor for seropositivity (adjusted OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.21-9.43). Coxiella burnetii DNA was not detected from any dog or cat whole blood, reproductive tissue or vaginal/preputial swab using qPCR targeting the IS1111 and com1 genes. Our findings suggest that companion animals are frequently exposed to C. burnetii in western NSW. Geographical variation in C. burnetii seroprevalence amongst companion animals - which corresponds with a human Q fever outbreak - suggests a shared environmental source of infection is likely with important consequences for public and animal health. The lack of detection of C. burnetii DNA from healthy companion animals suggests that pet dogs and cats are not an important reservoir for human Q fever infection outside a narrow periparturient window.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Ração Animal , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Macropodidae/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
16.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(1): 41-55, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912421

RESUMO

Four new species of Rugopharynx Mönnig, 1927 are described from macropodid marsupials in Australia, some identified initially using molecular methods. Rugopharynx thetidis n. sp. from Thylogale thetis (Lesson) was initially included within R. sigma Chilton, Beveridge & Andrews, 1993 but was identified as being distinctive using molecular methods and is differentiated morphologically from R. sigma by the more anterior position of the deirid and by the distinctive curvature of the spicule tips. Rugopharynx thylogale n. sp., also from Thylogale thetis, is distinguished by the extreme elongation of the dorsal lobe of the bursa and spicule length (1.07-1.23 mm). Rugopharynx solitarius n. sp., again from Thylogale thetis, was initially included within Rugopharynx zeta (Johnston & Mawson, 1939) but differs morphologically in the features of the bursa. Rugopharynx disiunctus n. sp. from Macropus fuliginosus (Desmarest) was initially included within Rugopharynx rho Beveridge & Chilton, 1999 but was identified as distinctive based on DNA sequence differences. The new species differs from R. rho in the pattern of striations on the buccal capsule and in the lengths of the spicules. Additional records of species of Rugopharyx in M. fuliginosus in Western Australia are provided.


Assuntos
Macropodidae/parasitologia , Strongyloidea/classificação , Animais , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Estômago/parasitologia , Strongyloidea/anatomia & histologia , Strongyloidea/genética , Austrália Ocidental
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963388

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies in phalluses caused by endocrine disruptors have gained a great deal of attention due to its annual increasing rate in males. However, the endocrine-driven molecular regulatory mechanism of abnormal phallus development is complex and remains largely unknown. Here, we review the direct effect of androgen and oestrogen on molecular regulation in phalluses using the marsupial tammar wallaby, whose phallus differentiation occurs after birth. We summarize and discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying phallus differentiation mediated by sonic hedgehog (SHH) at day 50 pp and phallus elongation mediated by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), as well as multiple phallus-regulating genes expressed after day 50 pp. We also identify hormone-responsive long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are co-expressed with their neighboring coding genes. We show that the activation of SHH and IGF1, mediated by balanced androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) signalling, initiates a complex regulatory network in males to constrain the timing of phallus differentiation and to activate the downstream genes that maintain urethral closure and phallus elongation at later stages.


Assuntos
Macropodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pênis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Genitália Feminina , Genitália Masculina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Macropodidae/metabolismo , Masculino , Pênis/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo
18.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(1): 57-67, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927704

RESUMO

Two new species of Wallabinema Beveridge, 1983 are described from the sacculated fore-stomachs of macropodid marsupials in Australia. Wallabinema petrogale n. sp. from the rock wallabies Petrogale penicillata (J. Gray) and P. inornata Gould, from Queensland, differs from all congeners in having its four sub-median lips subdivided at the base. Wallabinema macropodis n. sp. from the black stripe wallaby Macropus dorsalis (J. Gray) and the red-necked pademelon Thylogale thetis (Lesson), also from Queensland, is most similar to congeners with the nerve-ring encircling the oesophageal isthmus (W. parvispiculare Beveridge, 1983, W. tasmaniense Beveridge, 1983 and W. thylogale Beveridge, 1983), but differs in the length of the spicules. Wallabinema gallardi (Johnston & Mawson, 1939) is redescribed from T. thetis in Queensland and New South Wales, with T. thetis considered to be the type-host.


Assuntos
Macropodidae/parasitologia , Estômago/parasitologia , Strongyloidea/classificação , Animais , Austrália , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Strongyloidea/anatomia & histologia
19.
J Helminthol ; 94: e114, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928550

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal helminth parasites of 170 common wallaroos or euros, Osphranter robustus (Gould), collected from all mainland states in which the species occurs as well as the Northern Territory, are presented, including previously published data. A total of 65 species of helminths were encountered, including four species of anoplocephalid cestodes found in the bile ducts and small intestine, and 61 species of strongylid nematodes, all but two of which occurring in the stomach, and with the remainder occurring in the terminal ileum, caecum and colon. Among the mainland subspecies of O. robustus, 52 species of helminths were encountered in O. r. robustus, compared with 30 species in O. r. woodwardi and 35 species in O. r. erubescens. Of the parasite species encountered, only 17 were specific to O. robustus, the remaining being shared with sympatric host species. Host-specific species or species occurring in O. robustus at a high prevalence can be classified as follows: widely distributed; restricted to northern Australia; restricted to the northern wallaroo, O. r. woodwardi; found only in the euro, O. r. erubescens; found essentially along the eastern coast of Australia, primarily in O. r. robustus; and species with highly limited regional distributions. The data currently available suggest that the acquisition of a significant number of parasites is due to co-grazing with other macropodids, while subspeciation in wallaroos as well as climatic variables may have influenced the diversification of the parasite fauna.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Intestinos/parasitologia , Macropodidae/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Ductos Biliares/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Cestoides/parasitologia , Colo/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Íleo/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/parasitologia , Estômago/parasitologia , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Estrongilídios/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão
20.
Ecol Appl ; 30(3): e02055, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828865

RESUMO

Urbanization significantly impacts the health and viability of wildlife populations yet it is not well understood how urban landscapes differ from non-urban landscapes with regard to their effects on wildlife. This study investigated the physiological response of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) to land use at a landscape scale. Using fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) we compared stress levels of kangaroo populations in urban and non-urban environments. We modeled FGM concentrations from 24 kangaroo populations against land use (urban or non-urban) and other anthropogenic and environmental factors, using a linear modeling approach. We found that land use was a significant predictor of FGM concentrations in eastern grey kangaroos with significant differences in concentrations between urban and non-urban populations. However, the direction of the relationship differed between northern and southern regions of Australia. In the northern study sites, kangaroos in urban areas had significantly higher FGM levels than their non-urban counterparts. In contrast, in southern sites, where kangaroos occur in high densities in many urban areas, urban kangaroos had lower FGM concentrations than non-urban kangaroos. Rainfall and temperature were also significant predictors of FGM and the direction of the relationship was consistent across both regions. These results are consistent with the contrasting abundance and persistence of kangaroo populations within the urban matrix between the two study regions. In the northern region many populations have declined over the last two decades and are fragmented, also occurring at lower densities than in southern sites. Our study indicates that it is the characteristics of urban environments, rather than the urban environment per se, which determines the extent of impacts of urbanization on kangaroos. This research provides insights into how the design of urban landscapes can influence large mammal populations.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Macropodidae , Animais , Austrália , Herbivoria , Urbanização
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