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1.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2343-2346, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435896

RESUMO

Marsupials of the genus Didelphis, such as black-eared opossums (Didelphis aurita), are common synanthropic animals in urban areas of Brazil. These marsupials are frequently parasitized by numerous helminth species, including ancylostomatid nematodes. This study aimed to report the occurrence of Ancylostoma caninum in black-eared opossums captured in an urban environment of Southeastern Brazil and discuss the potential impact of these findings for public health. From January to June 2019, we collected fecal samples from 49 restrained opossums and evaluated by a simple flotation method; Helminth eggs were observed at different magnifications and identified according to morphological and morphometric features. Genomic DNA was extracted from Ancylostomatidae eggs and screened by duplex PCR for Ancylostoma spp. and Necator americanus using primers that amplify a region of internal transcribed spacer 2 and the 28S ribosomal RNA (ITS2-28S rRNA). Ancylostoma spp. eggs were detected in 65.3% (32/49) of the animals. Sequence analysis revealed 100% homology with A. caninum sequences from GenBank. Our results demonstrate a new host-parasite interaction for A. caninum, suggesting that black-eared opossums may participate in the zoonotic cycle of this parasite in urban areas of Brazil.


Assuntos
Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Ancilostomíase/veterinária , Didelphis/parasitologia , Ancylostoma/genética , Ancilostomíase/epidemiologia , Ancilostomíase/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genoma Helmíntico/genética , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Prevalência
2.
Anim Cogn ; 23(5): 871-880, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394147

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate if the white-eared opossum under natural conditions is capable of spontaneously solving the parallel string task. The experimental study with this primitive mammal was carried out on fifteen naïve animals of both sexes in northeastern Brazil. The parallel strings task was arranged in apparatuses with a vertical and a horizontal arrangement. A food reward (a slice of banana) was connected at the extremity of one string. A total of 505 videos were recorded using trap cameras. Despite the observed interest in obtaining the bait, the number of attempts to reach it and the use of the strings as support (trying to directly reach the bait in the vertical apparatus), the individuals were unable to pull any of the strings, suggesting that they could not understand the problem. The present study points to the relevance of using the species Didelphis albiventris and other species from this family (e.g., D. virginiana) to broaden our knowledge about the cognitive capacity of mammalian species. In addition, the opossums might represent an advisable path to better understand the evolution of cognition in this group.


Assuntos
Didelphis , Animais , Brasil , Cognição , Feminino , Masculino
3.
Toxicon ; 178: 92-99, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135198

RESUMO

Opossums in the clade Didelphini are well known to be resistant to snake venom due to endogenous circulating inhibitors which target metalloproteinases and phospholipases. However, the mechanisms through which these opossums cope with a variety of other damaging venom proteins are unknown. A protein involved in blood clotting (von Willebrand Factor) has been found to have undergone rapid adaptive evolution in venom-resistant opossums. This protein is a known target for a subset of snake venom C-type lectins (CTLs), which bind it and then induce it to bind platelets, causing hemostatic disruption. Several amino acid changes in vWF unique to these opossums could explain their resistance; however, experimental evidence that these changes disrupt venom CTL binding was lacking. We used platelet aggregation assays to quantify resistance to a venom-induced platelet response in two species of venom-resistant opossums (Didelphis virginiana, Didelphis aurita), and one venom-sensitive opossum (Monodelphis domestica). We found that all three species have lost nearly all their aggregation response to the venom CTLs tested. Using washed platelet assays we showed that this loss of aggregation response is not due to inhibitors in the plasma, but rather to the failure of either vWF or platelets (or both) to respond to venom CTLs. These results demonstrate the potential adaptive function of a trait previously shown to be evolving under positive selection. Surprisingly, these findings also expand the list of potentially venom tolerant species to include Monodelphis domestica and suggest that an ecological relationship between opossums and vipers may be a broader driver of adaptive evolution across South American marsupials than previously thought.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Didelphis/fisiologia , Venenos de Serpentes/toxicidade , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo , Animais , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária , Venenos de Serpentes/química , Venenos de Serpentes/metabolismo , América do Sul
4.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 80(3): 329-338, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927646

RESUMO

Ticks and fleas are essential vectors of pathogens that affect humans and animals, and among their hosts, synanthropic animals such as the black-eared opossum, Didelphis aurita, play a role in public health due to their ability to move between urban centers and forested areas in Brazil. This study aimed to assess the ectoparasite fauna of D. aurita, as well as the presence of pathogens and endosymbionts in ticks and fleas. Opossums (n = 58) captured in Tomahawk livetraps were examined for ectoparasites, and their blood sampled for further analysis. Additionally, spleen samples were collected in individuals found dead. Samples were PCR screened for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp., Anaplasmataceae, and Babesia spp. Two tick species were morphologically identified as Ixodes loricatus 24/58 (41.4%) and Amblyomma sculptum 1/58 (1.7%). For fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was detected in 60.3% (35/58) of the animals, and Xenopsylla cheopis in 5.2% (3/58). PCR analysis detected Anaplasmataceae DNA in 34% (16/47) of pooled samples of C. felis, and in 66.7% (2/3) pooled samples of X. cheopis. Sequence analysis revealed Wolbachia pipientis symbiont in all positive samples. Tick, blood and spleen samples were all negative for the microorganisms assessed. These findings suggest that these arthropods circulate among wildlife and urban environments, which may implicate in their participation in the cycle of zoonotic pathogens among opossums, humans and companion animals.


Assuntos
Didelphis/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Anaplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Wolbachia/isolamento & purificação
5.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(2): 303-309, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701182

RESUMO

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used for many decades, both for the control of pests in agriculture and for the control of vectors of human and animal diseases. Several recent studies have reported significant concentrations of these compounds in multiple environmental substrates due to their persistence, as well as the effect they have on ecosystem health, human health, and wildlife populations. In the present study, organochlorine pesticide residues were determined and quantified in 260 blood samples from different populations of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) from 11 rural ex-henequen sites of the state of Yucatan, Mexico. The organochlorine groups detected, following an order of predominance and concentration, were: ΣDienes (0.0557 ppm) > ΣDDTs (0.0481 ppm) > ΣEndosulfans (0.0376 ppm) > and ΣHCHs (0.0319 ppm). The highest levels of OCPs were recorded in the opossums captured in the towns of Chicxulub and Cacalchen. In 6 of the 11 localities, the OCPs detected in the opossums showed significant differences in concentration, whereas the opossums in 4 of the 11 localities did not present this difference. The results confirm the presence and persistence of OCPs in the rural environmental of Yucatan due to both the misuse and abuse of the OCPs by rural populations. In addition, the synanthropic characteristics and abundant populations of D. virginiana in the Yucatecan region make it a good candidate to serve as a biomonitor of environmental pollution in the Yucatan Peninsula. This could aid in assessing the effects exposure to pesticides and other contaminants have on the health of the Yucatecan population, whether short, medium, or long term.


Assuntos
Didelphis/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Praguicidas/sangue , Agricultura , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , México
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 276: 108962, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704559

RESUMO

Sarcocystis neurona is the major cause of the equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in the Americas and has opossums of the genus Didelphis as definitive hosts. Most isolates of Sarcocystis sp. shed by opossums in Brazil differ genetically from the known species of Sarcocystis. These Brazilian isolates behave similarly as Sarcocystis falcatula, which causes sarcocystosis in birds, and for this reason, have been classified as Sarcocystis falcatula-like. Genes coding for the immunodominant surface antigens SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4 of S. falcatula-like are similar to those from S. neurona. It is unknown the Sarcocystis species that causes EPM in Brazil, as S. neurona has never been genetically confirmed in Brazilian horses. All cases associated with EPM in Brazil were diagnosed by immunological tests, which are not specific for S. neurona infection. It is possible that S. falcatula-like may infect horses in Brazil. The aims of the current study were to test the susceptibility of gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) to experimental infections with S. neurona and S. falcatula-like, and to investigate potential serologic cross-reactivity to these parasites by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and Western blot (WB). A total of 27 gerbils, distributed in five experimental groups (G1-G5), were employed in this work (G1: 4 negative controls; G2: 6 infected with S. neurona merozoites, G3: 6 infected with S. falcatula-like merozoites; G4 and G5 (5 and 6, respectively, infected with different doses of sporocysts). None of the 17 animals that seroconverted for the parasites in IFAT presented any visualized organism or Sarcocystis DNA in the examined tissues. No serologic cross-reactivity was observed using IFAT. However, sera from animals infected with S. falcatula-like and S. neurona presented the same pattern of antigenic recognition when S. neurona merozoites were used as antigen in WB, including reactivity to proteins of 30 and 16 kDa, regarded as specific markers for S. neurona-infected animals. Gerbils did not sustain infection by these parasites, although produced antibodies after inoculation. These results are suggestive that other animal species that are exposed to S. falcatula-like, including horses, may present serologic cross-reactivity to S. neurona in WB. IFAT was demonstrated to be more specific that WB for the detection of antibodies to S. falcatula-like and S. neurona in the experimental conditions of this study.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Sarcocystis/imunologia , Sarcocistose/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Superfície/imunologia , Western Blotting/veterinária , Linhagem Celular , Galinhas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Reações Cruzadas , Didelphis/parasitologia , Encefalomielite/imunologia , Encefalomielite/parasitologia , Encefalomielite/veterinária , Feminino , Imunofluorescência/veterinária , Gerbillinae , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sarcocistose/parasitologia , Sarcocistose/patologia , Células Vero
7.
Biomedica ; 39(2): 252-264, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529813

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study of the interaction between the parasite, the vector and the mammalian hosts, including man, allows to understand the behavior of the leishmaniases. OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of Lutzomyia species and to detect the Leishmania infection in Didelphis marsupialis in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phlebotomine fauna and individuals of D. marsupialis were collected with CDC and Tomahawk™ traps, respectively. The species of Lutzomyia were identified using the Young and Duncan key (1994). Ear and tail biopsies and blood samples from D. marsupialis were taken to identify the Leishmania species by amplifying a fragment of the gene associated with the 70 kD heat shock protein. RESULTS: Seven Lutzomyia species were identified: Lu. evansi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dubitans, Lu. cayennensis cayennensis, Lu. rangeliana and Lu. trinidadensis. The first three species have epidemiological importance in Colombia because of their implications in the transmission of the Leishmania parasite. Sixty-five tissue samples from 19 D. marsupialis individuals were negative for Leishmania spp. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the Lutzomyia species that have been identified as vectors for Leishmania inside and around houses in the village of El Bledo, in El Carmen de Bolívar represents a risk of infection. Furthermore, the presence of Lu. panamensis is reported for first time in El Carmen de Bolívar in Colombia. Although the lack of detection of Leishmania spp. in D. marsupialis samples may suggest that D. marsupialis does not play an important role in the transmission cycle of Leishmania in this region, it is necessary to carry out further longitudinal studies to confirm this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Didelphis , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Psychodidae , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Sangue/parasitologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Didelphis/parasitologia , Orelha Externa/parasitologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Habitação , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psychodidae/parasitologia , População Rural , Especificidade da Espécie , Cauda/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(7): 1801-1805, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197725

RESUMO

The occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife places at risk livestock, public health, and ecosystems that house endangered species. However, data on wild species that may act as possible reservoirs in the Americas are scarce. This systematic review analyses the available data on wildlife in the Americas regarding the infection by M. bovis. We searched articles published in indexed journals using the keywords: "Mycobacterium bovis," "wild," and "animals". After applying the keywords using online databases, during March and August of 2018, we found 12 articles which encompassed 15 species of wild animals, of which three consisted of wild ruminants. The evidence showed that M. bovis is present among the wild animals in the Americas. The methodological limitations for diagnosing M. bovis in wild animals are many, demanding the development of new and more precise tools. Furthermore, new researches are needed to elucidate the role of the wild animals in the epidemiology of M. bovis and its possible impact on production animals and public health.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Artiodáctilos , Carnívoros , Didelphis , Mycobacterium bovis/fisiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , América , Animais , Bovinos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 274, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oil palm plantation establishment in Colombia has the potential to impact Chagas disease transmission by increasing the distribution range of Rhodnius prolixus. In fact, previous studies have reported Trypanosoma cruzi natural infection in R. prolixus captured in oil palms (Elaeis guineensis) in the Orinoco region, Colombia. The aim of this study is to understand T. cruzi infection in vectors in oil palm plantations relative to community composition and host dietary specialization by analyzing vector blood meals and comparing these results to vectors captured in a native palm tree species, Attalea butyracea. METHODS: Rhodnius prolixus nymphs (n = 316) were collected from A. butyracea and E. guineensis palms in Tauramena, Casanare, Colombia. Vector blood meals from these nymphs were determined by amplifying and sequencing a vertebrate-specific 12S rRNA gene fragment. RESULTS: Eighteen vertebrate species were identified and pigs (Sus scrofa) made up the highest proportion of blood meals in both habitats, followed by house mouse (Mus musculus) and opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Individual bugs feeding only from generalist mammal species had the highest predicted vector infection rate, suggesting that generalist mammalian species are more competent hosts for T. cruzi infection . CONCLUSIONS: Oil palm plantations and A. butyracea palms found in altered areas provide a similar quality habitat for R. prolixus populations in terms of blood meal availability. Both habitats showed similarities in vector infection rate and potential host species, representing a single T. cruzi transmission scenario at the introduced oil palm plantation and native Attalea palm interface.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Rhodnius/fisiologia , Árvores , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Sangue , Colômbia , Didelphis , Ecossistema , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Camundongos , Óleo de Palmeira , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Suínos
10.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(4-5): 433-440, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087202

RESUMO

Cruzia americana Maplestone, 1930 is a common nematode parasite of opossums in North America. However, our present knowledge on the morphology of this species is still limited and its validity is uncertain. In the present study, specimens of C. americana collected from the type-host Didelphis virginiana (Kerr) (Mammalia: Didelphidae) in the USA were studied using light microscopy and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM observations revealed the internal structures of the pharynx of C. americana and the presence of pharyngeal lamellae rather than pharyngeal teeth/tooth-like structures. In addition, the detailed morphology of the lips, vulva, eggs and phasmids in females and the caudal papillae in males are also reported for the first time.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios/classificação , Ascaridídios/fisiologia , Didelphis/parasitologia , Animais , Ascaridídios/anatomia & histologia , Ascaridídios/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 102(6): 836-842, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989282

RESUMO

The aim of the present work was to apply a validated methodology for the detection of organochlorine pesticides in Didelphis virginiana (Virginia opossum) serum samples collected in Yucatan, Mexico. Recent studies performed to investigate the presence of Organochlorines (OCLs) in water, human blood and milk, and animal tissues from Yucatan have shown that the OCLs concentrations are high and can be associated with potential human health risk. Since opossum is considered an important synanthropic species in Yucatan, 40 opossum serum samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The most common OCLs found in opossum sera were lindanes, chlordanes, drines, and endosulfan. Heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and lindanes were found at the highest concentrations, while dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites were found at the lowest concentrations in the samples. The good linearity, precision, and accuracy obtained in the evaluated parameters in the extraction and chromatographic methods support its application for the monitoring of OCLs pesticides in populations of opossums and other wild species in Yucatan.


Assuntos
Didelphis/sangue , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Praguicidas/sangue , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa , DDT/sangue , Endossulfano/sangue , Heptacloro/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , México , Praguicidas/química
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 16: 100286, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027595

RESUMO

Didelphis (Marsupialia, Didelphimorphia) are synanthropic mammals, whose omnivorous diet predisposes them to infections caused by endoparasites. Their higher frequency in urban areas makes them potential carriers of zoonotic protozoans and helminths, enhancing potential transmission to humans. Our purpose was to study two common species, Didelphis albiventris (54 individuals) and D. aurita (2 individuals), which were screened for blood, skin and intestinal parasites in animals captured in urban areas and in riparian forest regions associated with the Capivari River Basin, in Monte Mor's municipality, São Paulo state (SP), Brazil. Blood and tissue samples were collected for DNA extraction and PCR. Fecal samples were collected and submitted to two sedimentation and two flotation methods. 77.6% of fecal samples were positive for nematode eggs, 34.5% for trematode eggs and 32.7% for protozoans. Two D. aurita specimens were naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. Molecular analysis in a D. albiventris captured on a forested rural area was positive for Leishmania sp. DNA. Several parasites were found infecting Didelphis sp., demonstrating that this group of animals can harbor important zoonotic parasites, potentially playing a role as sylvatic reservoirs for human and domestic animal pathogens.


Assuntos
Didelphis/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitemia/veterinária , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/transmissão , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Cidades , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Florestas , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Masculino , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/transmissão , Rios , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
13.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(4): 990-994, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008678

RESUMO

A fatal case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection was diagnosed based on histopathologic findings and the presence of WNV RNA by reverse transcription PCR in the affected organs in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Quebec, Canada in 2017. Disease caused by WNV has not been described in a marsupial species.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/veterinária , Didelphis/virologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/veterinária , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Evolução Fatal , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/patologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental
14.
J Helminthol ; 93(6): 720-731, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220264

RESUMO

Among the Brazilian marsupials, the species of the genus Didelphis are the most parasitized by helminths. This study aimed to describe the species composition and to analyse the helminth communities of the Atlantic Forest common opossum Didelphis aurita at infracommunity and component community levels using the Elements of Metacommunity Structure Analysis, considering peri-urban, sylvatic and rural environments in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Seventy-three specimens of D. aurita were captured during the study. Fourteen species of helminths were collected: nine of the phylum Nematoda (Trichuris minuta, Trichuris didelphis, Globocephalus marsupialis, Heterostrongylus heterostrongylus, Travassostrongylus orloffi, Viannaia hamata, Aspidodera raillieti, Cruzia tentaculata and Turgida turgida); four of the phylum Platyhelminthes (three species of Trematoda, Duboisiella proloba, Brachylaima advena and Rhopalias coronatus, and one species of the class Cestoda); and one species of the phylum Acanthocephala (Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus). More than 95% of the animals were infected with parasites. The most abundant parasite species were V. hamata, T. turgida, C. tentaculata and T. orloffi. The nematodes T. turgida, C. tentaculata and A. raillieti were the most dominant species in the three environments. The analysis of the metacommunity structure indicated a structured pattern as a function of the environmental gradient, but only when all localities were considered together. At the infracommunity and component community levels, quasi-nested and nested structures with stochastic species loss were observed, respectively. The results indicate that the settlement of helminth species in the opossums can be attributed to the heterogeneity among individual hosts in relation to their exposure to parasites and to extrinsic factors, which vary among habitats, considering a regional scale. On a local scale, the characteristics of this host species may promote homogenization among individual hosts in terms of their exposure to the helminths. This study constitutes a new host record for the species G. marsupialis and T. didelphis and represents a pioneering investigation of the helminth metacommunity of a Neotropical marsupial.


Assuntos
Didelphis/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/genética , Helmintos/fisiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Masculino , População Rural
15.
Braz J Biol ; 79(4): 594-602, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379237

RESUMO

Didelphis albiventris are found throughout Northeast and Central Brazil to central-southern Uruguay and it was subject of few studies in a population level. Given this, the present study investigated the genetic variability of the species using the mitochondrial molecular marker cytochrome oxidase c subunit I. We analyzed samples from the different biomes within three Brazilian regions: Northeast (Caatinga , Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest), Southeast (Cerrado , Atlantic Forest, Cerrado/Atlantic Forest, and Cerrado/Caatinga ecotones) and South (Pampa and Atlantic Forest). Software BAPs retrieved five distinct demes: dm 1, dm 2, and dm 5 that occurs in South, Northeast and Southeast regions respectively and the dm 3 and dm 4 are wide distributed in Northeast and Southeast. Population analysis performed with AMOVA, haplotype network and Mantel test estimated the veracity of the demes. The FST shows structuring for the five demes, with dm 1 (South region) isolated from the others, however the other analysis showed the Northeast/Southeast demes (dm 2-5) united, diagnosing gene flow between them, mainly at the transitional zones, in areas as far away as areas with similar latitude interval (Southeast vs South) that was not detected gene flow. In the haplotype network, the mutational steps was conclusive in split dm1 from dm 2-5 with 15 mutational steps and the Mantel test was moderated, which is explained by genetic similarity despite the great geographic distances (Northeast/Southeast). Thus, our analysis recognized two different lineages (South and Northeast/Southeast) and indicate that the biomes were not decisive in their isolation. The sharing of demes at the transitional zones and in areas with high latitudinal intervals reflects a recent ancestral polymorphism for D. albiventris. The plasticity in the occupation of the space by this species contributes in its wide dispersion capability, that is, geographical distribution. Our results revealed important implications for the management of D. albiventris in these transitional zones areas where demes were shared.


Assuntos
Didelphis/genética , Variação Genética , Animais , Brasil , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(1): 140-144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427523

RESUMO

Erlichiosis affects humans and animals worldwide. Its distribution and prevalence depends on the presence of tick vectors and hosts in one geographic area. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. in opossums (Didelphis sp.) from the State of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. Blood samples from 37 animals were tested for these two pathogens using molecular methods. One animal (2.7%) was positive for Ehrlichia sp. by 16S rRNA-based nested PCR. In a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene using the maximum likelihood method and the GTRGAMMA+I evolutionary model, we detected a novel Ehrlichia sp. genotype closely related to genotypes of E. canis previously reported in dogs from Brazil. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first molecular detection of Ehrlichia sp. in opossums from this State in the southeastern region of the country.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Didelphis/microbiologia , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , Brasil , Ehrlichia/genética , Feminino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 13(4): 342-347, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045379

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Approximately 60% of emerging pathogens originate from wild animals, with mammals being the main hosts. Among Didelphis, which are restricted to the Americas, the species Didelphis aurita and Didelphis albiventris are particularly widely distributed throughout Brazil, where they act as hosts for several pathogens transmissible to humans. The reduction of their natural habitat has resulted in the adaptation of these species to human environments. Animals hunting, due to food necessity or cultural habit, may increase pathogen exposure with a potential to zoonotic disease transmission. METHODOLOGY: From November to December 2016, we administered semi-structured questionnaires in a rural community in northeastern Brazil to assess knowledge, practices and perceptions regarding human-didelphis interactions and possible exposure to zoonoses. RESULTS: There were 213 respondents. Based on photographs of D. albiventris and D. aurita, 91.2% and 78% respondents, respectively, identified the animal by the popular name "sariguê", 61% (130/213) believed the animal could convey any disease, 4.7% stated they did not, and 34% did not know. Opossum meat consumption was reported by 20.2% (43/213), of which 58.1% admitted disease transmission possibility. Only 15.9% of respondents had a secondary or higher education level. The distribution of these frequencies is discussed according to the respondents educational level. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal the need to carry out health educational activities, including better community knowledge regarding the possible exposure to pathogens due to marsupial consumption.


Assuntos
Didelphis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reservatórios de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão , Adulto , Animais , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 47(6): 566-572, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191584

RESUMO

Opossums, the largest marsupials found in Brazil, are animals of great interest due to their commonality in large urban centres and their frequent use as laboratory animals. Thus, this study was designed to describe the vaginal complex in ten female opossums by gross anatomy and light microscopy. The vaginal complex comprises two lateral vaginae, a vaginal cul-de-sac and a urogenital sinus. No marked morphological contrast of the vaginal complex was observed in the proestrus and metestrus phases of the females studied. The epithelium lining of cul-de-sac was simple columnar and folded. The lateral vagina was lined by a stratified squamous epithelium that was keratinised in its cranial portion and nonkeratinised in the caudal region. The urogenital sinus was also lined by a stratified squamous epithelium. The morphology of vaginal complex of white-eared opossum is similar to those reported for other marsupials, showing similar histological features.


Assuntos
Didelphis/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia/veterinária , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Vagina/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Brasil , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Membrana Mucosa/anatomia & histologia
19.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 9(6): 1451-1458, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006201

RESUMO

Associations with environmental and host parameters were assessed to describe tick parasitism patterns in two medium-sized mammals of the Atlantic rainforest region of Argentina. Ticks found on 93 specimens of Nasua nasua and 26 specimens of Didelphis aurita captured at six sites in the Iguazú National Park were collected. Generalized linear models were constructed to explain the presence and abundance of ticks and the most appropriate ones were selected after stepwise simplification. The season, site and host body mass variables were important to explain the abundance of Amblyomma coelebs nymphs, while site was important to describe larval abundance of this species. Season was the most important variable for larvae and nymphs of Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, while Amblyomma brasiliense nymphs were associated with host age. Amblyomma ovale larvae were related to host age, and adult ticks with host sex. The results indicate that these medium-sized mammals are important to support the immature tick stages and that both host and environmental factors may be associated with parasite loads.


Assuntos
Didelphis , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Procyonidae , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Prevalência , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
20.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 49(2): 480-483, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900782

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to determine the basal parameters in opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) during physical examination in Yucatan, Mexico. Sixty-six opossums were captured and manually handled for physical examinations. Sex, age, cardiac and respiratory rate, body temperature, pulse, mucous membranes, capillary refill time, hydration, size of superficial lymph nodes, mental status, and body condition were evaluated. Also, comparisons between rectal and auricular temperatures were performed. The means of physiological parameters obtained were: cardiac frequency 146 beats per minute (95% confidence interval [CI]: 138.91-155.24), respiratory frequency 27.33 breaths per minute (95% CI: 25.15-29.64), and body temperature 34.01°C (95% CI: 33.71-34.31). In 54% of animals, a sinus arrhythmia was present. A significant difference was found between rectal and auricular temperature measurements. A variation of -1.64 to 1.14°C was obtained via the auricular thermometer compared with the rectal device.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Didelphis/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Taxa Respiratória , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , México , Exame Físico/veterinária
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