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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 492, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638158

RESUMO

Composting is a process recommended as a way to recycle the organic part of the solid waste in which several micro and macroorganisms act as decomposers of the organic matter, in a process that takes around 120 days and faces roughly three different phases. Because we do not know the community of arthropods associated with the compost produced in one of the biggest landfills placed in Brazil, here we collected and identified the community of arthropods present in each phase of the organic compost. Our hypothesis is that the abundance and diversity of arthropods are different within each phase of the compost and we hope to find particular groups of arthropods that can be used as indicator of specific phases. In total, we identified the taxa of 1204 arthropods (insects, arachnidan and diplopods). We found that diversity and abundancy of arthropods were indeed different for each maturation phase of the compost, but we did not find families that are good indicators of each phase. In addition, to be certain about the safety of the compost produced, we investigated the presence of microorganisms in the final product and we found considerable levels of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in some samples. Finally, we argue that the presence of these macro and microorganisms during the process may be beneficial or harmful. Since their presence decreased greatly by the end of the process, we acknowledge that composting works efficiently as a way to recycle the organic part of the waste generated in Brazil.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Compostagem , Animais , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1926): 20200470, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370674

RESUMO

The cuticle of ecdysozoans (Panarthropoda, Scalidophora, Nematoida) is secreted by underlying epidermal cells and renewed via ecdysis. We explore here the relationship between epidermis and external cuticular ornament in stem-group scalidophorans from the early Cambrian of China (Kuanchuanpu Formation; ca 535 Ma) that had two types of microscopic polygonal cuticular networks with either straight or microfolded boundaries. Detailed comparisons with modern scalidophorans (priapulids) indicate that these networks faithfully replicate the cell boundaries of the epidermis. This suggests that the cuticle of early scalidophorans formed through the fusion between patches of extracellular material secreted by epidermal cells, as observed in various groups of present-day ecdysozoans, including arthropods. Key genetic, biochemical and mechanical processes associated with ecdysis and cuticle formation seem to have appeared very early (at least not later than 535 Ma) in the evolution of ecdysozoans. Microfolded reticulation is likely to be a mechanical response to absorbing contraction exerted by underlying muscles. The polygonal reticulation in early and extant ecdysozoans is clearly a by-product of the epidermal cell pavement and interacted with the sedimentary environment.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Células Epidérmicas , Animais , Evolução Biológica , China , Epiderme , Fósseis , Muda , Filogenia
3.
J Environ Manage ; 266: 110624, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392148

RESUMO

Edaphic (i.e. soil dwelling) microarthropods play crucial roles in soil ecosystem services. Fire is a widespread form of disturbance with severe effects on soil invertebrates. Research on the effects of fire on soil arthropods, however, has been mostly focused on surface-active species. Information on the effects of fire on strictly edaphic invertebrates is limited. Thanks to their variable degree of specialization to the edaphic life, soil microarthropods can be used to evaluate soil quality and how it is affected by disturbance. We used an index of soil biological quality based on microarthropods (QBS-ar) to assess the effects of wildfire in three habitats (a natural beechwood, a grassland and a conifer reforestation) in a burnt upland plain in Central Italy, one year after the fire event. Fire affected significantly soil biology quality. In all habitats, burnt soils had a biological quality about 1.4 lower than the respective unburnt soils. Sampling period did not affect QBS-ar values. QBS-ar values varied among habitat types, being highest in the beechwood, lowest in the pinewood, and intermediate in the grassland. These findings indicate that the QBS-ar approach can be profitably used to evaluate the impact of fire on soil biology quality and stress the poor performance of planted conifers in terms of soil quality.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Fogo , Animais , Ecossistema , Itália , Solo
4.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 18(6): 316-317, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273596
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348341

RESUMO

Multivariate geometric designs for mixture experiments and response surface methodology (RSM) were tested as a means of optimizing plant mixtures to support generalist predatory arthropods. The mixture design included 14 treatment groups, each comprised of six planters and having a proportion of 0.00, 0.17, 0.33, 0.66, or 1.00 of each plant species. The response variable was the frequency of predators trapped on sticky card traps placed in each group and replaced 2 times per week. The following plant species were used: Spring 2017: Euphorbia milii, E. heterophylla, and Phaseolus lunatus; Summer 2017: E. milii, Fagopyrum esculentum, and Chamaecrista fasciculata; and, Summer 2018: E. milii, F. esculentum, and Portulaca umbraticola. Predator occurrence was influenced by: 1) Linear mixture effects, which indicated that predator occurrence was driven by the amount of a single plant species in the mixture; or, 2) Nonlinear blending effects, which indicated that the plant mixture itself had emergent properties that contributed to predator occurrence. Predator abundance was highest in the Spring 2017 experiment and both linear mixture effects and nonlinear blending effects were observed. Predator occurrence decreased in subsequent experiments, which were conducted in the warmer summer months. In both Summer experiments, only linear mixture effects were observed, indicating that predator occurrence was driven by the amount of a single plant species in the test mixtures: Euphorbia milii in 2017 and Portulaca umbraticola in 2018. The results showed that not only did the species composition of a plant mixture drive predator occurrence but that proportionality of species contributed to the outcome as well. This suggests that, when formulating a plant mixture to aid in conservation biological control consideration should be given to the proportion of each plant species included in the mixture. RSM can be an important tool for achieving the goal of optimizing mixtures of plants for conservation biological control.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Plantas , Estações do Ano
6.
Oecologia ; 193(1): 177-187, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322986

RESUMO

Approximately 90% of all annual net primary productivity in temperate deciduous forests ends up entering the detritus food web as leaf litter. Due to chemical and physical differences from native litter, inputs from invasive species may impact the litter-dwelling community and ecosystem processes. We compared leaf-litter nutritional quality and decomposition rates from two invasive shrubs, Lonicera maackii and Rhamnus davurica, and the invasive tree Ailanthus altissima to litter from native oak-hickory forest in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, USA. We sampled litter from both invaded and uninvaded habitats and conducted litter colonization experiments to test for effects on microflora and the litter-dwelling arthropod communities. Litter from all three invasive species decomposed more rapidly than native litter, with native habitats averaging two to nearly five times as much litter by June. Invasive litter had higher nitrogen concentration and lower C:N ratios than native litter. Invasive litter supported greater growth of bacteria and fungi. Higher numbers of arthropods colonized invasive litter than native litter, but litter arthropod numbers on the forest floor of invaded habitats dropped in the early summer as litter decomposed. Litter had no effect on arthropod richness. Over short time scales, our results indicate that these invasive species represent beneficial, novel resources for the litter-dwelling community. However, the short-lived nature of this resource resulted in a crash in the abundance of the litter-dwelling organisms once the litter decomposed. As a whole, native habitat seems to support a larger, more stable litter-dwelling community over the course of a growing season.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Árvores , Animais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Espécies Introduzidas , Folhas de Planta
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 21552-21559, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279254

RESUMO

Transgenic maize expressing the Cry1Ab and Cry2Ab protein simultaneously from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-maize) has been grown for farm-scale study to investigate its potential impact to non-target arthropod (NTA). The trials were conducted between Bt maize 2A-7 and its parental line (B73-329) in Beijing, China, over 3 years. Richness (C), Shannon index (H), Pielou index (J), Simpson index (D), and Bray-Curtis index were used to evaluate the population dynamics and biodiversity of the dominant arthropods from per 50 plants in crop field. The mainly abundant groups were Aphidoidea, Araneae, Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, and Thripidae which represented about 90% of the total number of NTA. Although the abundance of NTA varied from year to year, there is no significant difference between Bt maize and non-Bt maize field. Fluctuations were found at individual sample dates, but the trend of these descriptors remained consistent. Further analysis showed the biodiversity indexes of the dominant arthropods C, H, J, D, and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between Bt maize producing Cry1Ab and Cry2Ab toxin simultaneously and its parental line had no significant difference except for some sampling dates. These results suggested that Bt maize is compatible with the NTAs and provides further evidence of the ecological impact of genetically modified maize.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Pequim , China , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays/genética
8.
Zootaxa ; 4731(2): zootaxa.4731.2.7, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229819

RESUMO

A quick and easy handling method for ethanol-preserved arthropods is presented, based on tea filter bags and holders. The method is especially suitable for short term storage of specimens resulting from Malaise traps, yellow pan traps and pitfall traps and can be used directly in the field, for subsequent transport and processing of specimens in the laboratory.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Biodiversidade , Animais , Etanol , Preservação Biológica , Chá
9.
Zootaxa ; 4731(1): zootaxa.4731.1.3, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229827

RESUMO

Entomobrya Rondani, 1861 is one of the largest genera of springtails and the most diverse group of scaleless Entomobryoidea. Only 14 species of Entomobrya were recorded from Brazil so far. Herein we present two new Brazilian species of the genus. Entomobrya juneae sp. nov. can be diagnosed by antennae shorter or as long as the trunk; prelabral and labial chaeta e smooth, mesothorax lacking m5 and p5 macrochaetae, mucro distal tooth reduced, among other features. It is somehow similar to E. atrocincta Schött, 1896 and E. nivalis (Linnaeus, 1758) sensu Katz et al. (2015) in some aspects of dorsal chaetotaxy, but the new species presents less macrochaetae on mesothorax and third and fourth abdominal segments. Entomobrya barbata sp. nov. is quite similar to E. linda Soto-Adames 2002 especially due to its remarkable reduced dorsal chaetotaxy, but can be separated from it in dorsal head, mesothorax, fourth abdominal segment and manubrial plate chaetotaxy. We also investigate the similarities of Brazilian Entomobrya species with Entomobryoides Maynard, 1951 and provide comments on the morphology of both genera.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Aranhas , Animais , Brasil , Cabeça
10.
Zootaxa ; 4729(1): zootaxa.4729.1.2, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229870

RESUMO

A new genus and two new species of Sminthurinae are described. Keratosminthurus tapigu gen. nov. sp. nov. and K. calamitosus sp. nov. show a combination of features that redefines the subfamily Sminthurinae, such as a pair of sminthuroid chaetae, unguis without cavity, nine apical chaetae on tibiotarsus, 11 or more anterior dental chaetae, fourth antennal segment clearly subdivided into many (18 or more) subsegments, and asymmetric apex of mucro. The new genus also presents a striking sexual dimorphism, with modifications on male apical organ of antennal segment III, spines on the clypeus and special organs on the interocular area.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Brasil , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Coluna Vertebral
11.
Zootaxa ; 4729(1): zootaxa.4729.1.3, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229871

RESUMO

Seven new species of the millipede genus Nepalmatoiulus Mauriès, 1983 (Julidae) are described from China: N. sichuanensis sp. nov., N. chinensis sp. nov., N. muli sp. nov., N. tianbaoshanensis sp. nov., N. pallidus sp. nov., N. weixi sp. nov., N. immaturus sp. nov. One species of the genus Anaulaciulus Pocock, 1895 is new for the Chinese fauna: A. inaequipes Enghoff, 1986.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , China
12.
Zootaxa ; 4718(1): zootaxa.4718.1.9, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230045

RESUMO

A new species of Plutomurus Yosii, 1956, P. jangamensis sp. nov., was found in a limestone cave of South Korea. The new species is very similar to P. gul (Yosii, 1966) in the general pattern of cephalic and body chaetotaxy, absence of eye, presence of pointed tenent hair, number of lateral macrochaetae in basal segment of dens, and number of mucronal intermediate tooth; however, the two species can be distinguished by the small spines arranged in-a-row along with dental spines and lighter body color. This species, however, shows variability and was not easily classified morphologically as P. jangamensis sp. nov. and P. gul., in terms of body color, formula of dental spine, or even the number of prelabral chaetae. Partial DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were used as DNA barcodes to distinguish the species. This result suggests that the COI gene is useful for discrimination of P. jangamensis sp. nov. with high support (bootstrap=100). An identification key to the world species of Plutomurus is also provided.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Carbonato de Cálcio , Animais , DNA , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , República da Coreia
13.
Zootaxa ; 4718(1): zootaxa.4718.1.10, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230046

RESUMO

Dolistenus Fanzago, 1874 is a widespread Mediterranean millipede genus of the order Platydesmida, currently including three valid species, each with relict distributions. Here we describe a fourth species of Dolistenus, and characterize it using morphological and molecular (mitochondrial DNA) characters. We provide an updated key to the species of Dolistenus and the first COI barcode sequences for the new species and several other European representatives of the Andrognathidae (Platydesmida).


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial
14.
Zootaxa ; 4749(1): zootaxa.4749.1.1, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230049

RESUMO

An updated and extensively revised checklist of the arthropods of Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti) is presented 11 years after the publication of the original in 2008. It integrates and quantifies all the terrestrial and surrounding marine arthropod species (plus those of Tardigrada and Onychophora), reported in the zoological literature for Hispaniola through the middle of 2019.        A total of 9,920 valid species (8,202 extant and 1,718 fossil) are listed, which represents an increase of 1,683 species (1,369 extant and 314 fossil) from the original list. The largest component is Insecta (6,784 extant and 1,136 fossil), including 2,206 extant species of Coleoptera, 1,042 species of Hemiptera, 929 species of Diptera, 913 species of Lepidoptera and 774 species of Hymenoptera.        Emphasis is on reviewing and updating the original list, including all newly recorded taxa and all pertinent taxonomic changes proposed since then. Important corrections have been made, and explanatory notes have been added. For example, multiple authors have confused the Lesser Antillean island of Dominica with the Dominican Republic. This error is much more common in the literature than was initially recognized. Erroneous records attributing species from one island to the other have been identified and corrected. The original spelling of the cricket species Scapsipedus bastardoi Otte Perez-Gelabert, 2009, dedicated to Dominican biologist Ruth H. Bastardo, is corrected to Scapsipedus bastardoae nom. emend.        High species endemism is typical of the biota of Caribbean islands. In this checklist, a total of 3,161 arthropod species (38.6%) are considered endemic or unique to Hispaniola. Among the speciose groups with higher levels of endemism are the Diplopoda (91.6%), Orthoptera (90.1%), Trichoptera (82.6%), Coleoptera (49.3%) and Araneae (47.5%). Also, a total of 201 arthropod species (174 insects + 27 non-insects) are identified as introduced to the island.        The accompanying bibliography complements the taxonomic information and includes over 5,000 titles.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais
15.
Zootaxa ; 4750(1): zootaxa.4750.1.6, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230055

RESUMO

We report the discovery of a new species of the genus Pycnogonum Brünnich, 1764 found in the shallow waters of Green Island, Taiwan. Pycnogonum (Nulloviger) granulatum sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of the granular integument, a dorsal tubercle on the proboscis, the transverse ridges on the dorsal surface of the trunk, and the spines on the ventral surface of the tibia, tarsus, and propodus having cleft tips. Because the male gonopores are present and ovigers are absent, the present species belongs to the subgenus Nulloviger. The present species has been compared with P. (N.) moolenbeeki Stock, 1992, P. (N.) lobipes Stock, 1991, P. (N.) tuberculatum Clark, 1963, P. nodulosum Döhrn, 1881, and P. spatium Takahashi, Dick Mawatari, 2007. Among the congeners, P. spatium is geographically the closest congener, of which type locality is Amami Island, Japan. The holotype of P. spatium was loaned from Hokkaido University Museum (ICHUM) and re-examined. To determine the exact gender of the holotype of P. spatium, additional investigations of the coxal pellicula and gonopores are required.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Ilhas , Masculino , Taiwan
16.
Zootaxa ; 4758(2): zootaxa.4758.2.4, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230143

RESUMO

The significant taxonomic characters of the millipede family Striariidae Bollman, 1888 are discussed. The monotypic genus Vaferaria Causey, 1958 is synonymized under Amplaria Chamberlin, 1941, giving the new combination Amplaria imberbis (Loomis, 1936). The genera Striaria Bollman, 1888 and Amplaria are assigned to the subfamily Striariinae. A new subfamily, Trisariinae, is established that presently includes only Trisaria new genus, with three new species: Trisaria rex, T. olympia and T. washingtonensis. The new subfamily, genus, and species are endemic to western Washington state, USA.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais
17.
Zootaxa ; 4731(3): zootaxa.4731.3.3, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230295

RESUMO

A new species of Entomobrya Rondani: E. tristriata sp. nov., from Jilin, one province of the Northeast China and first record of Entomobryoides sotoadamesi Jordana, Potapov Baquero, 2011, are herein described. Entomobrya tristriata sp. nov. is characterised by three longitudinal dark blue stripes from Th. II to Abd. III, prelabral smooth chaetae and larger subapical tooth on mucro. However, in most species of Entomobrya, prelabral chaetae are ciliated and subapical tooth is subequal to the apical one. Entomobryoides sotoadamesi was first described from Far East of Russia and Chinese specimens agree with the original description.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , China
18.
Zootaxa ; 4743(1): zootaxa.4743.1.13, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230360

RESUMO

The new species Leeonychiurus zijinensis sp. nov. is described from east China. It is similar to L. fusongensis Sun Arbea, 2014 and L. mai (Wray, 1950) sensu Bernard (2015) as having the same dorsal pso formula (32/133/33343). However, the new species can be distinguished by pso formula on Abd. sterna II-IV as 111 (112 in L. fusongensis, and 001 in L. mai), presence of the unpaired axial chaetae m0 on Abd. tergum V (absent in L. fusongensis and L. mai), and more vesicles of postantennal organ (18-20 in the new species, 13-16 in L. fusongensis, and 15 in L. mai). A key to the world known species of the genus Leeonychiurus and a checklist of Chinese Onychiurini species are provided.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , China
19.
Zootaxa ; 4753(1): zootaxa.4753.1.1, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230402

RESUMO

The center of diversity for the chordeumatidan millipede family Conotylidae is northwestern North America, where five of six subfamilies and ten of fourteen previously described genera occur; in this paper, seven additional new genera and 33 new species from the region are described. New species in the genus Taiyutyla Chamberlin, 1952 are: Taiyutyla tillamook, Taiyutyla acuphora, and Taiyutyla amicitia; in the genus Bollmanella Chamberlin, 1941: Bollmanella bombus, Bollmanella washingtonensis and Bollmanella leonardi; in the genus Brunsonia Loomis Schmitt, 1971: Brunsonia pulchra, Brunsonia digitata, Brunsonia wenatchee, Brunsonia chelanoparva, Brunsonia chelanomagna, Brunsonia selwayana and Brunsonia benewah. Vancouvereuma n. gen. is described with the type species Taiyutyla shawi Shear 2004. Calityla n. gen. includes the new species Calityla siskiyou, Calityla ubicki, Calityla trinitaria, Calityla essigi, and Calityla humboldtensis. Ovaskella, n. gen. includes the new species Ovaskella ovaskae and Ovaskella sinuosa. Karagama, n. gen. includes the new species Karagama ladybird. Complicatella, n. gen. includes the new species Complicatella pectenifera and Complicatella neili. Bifurcatella n. gen. includes the new species Bifurcatella olympiana, Bifurcatella hoh, Bifurcatella angulata, Bifurcatella pacifica, Bifurcatella germania, Bifurcatella uniclada, Bifurcatella inflata and Bifurcatella hobo. Loomisiella, n. gen. includes the new species Loomisiella evergreen and Loomisiella pylei. New distribution records are provided for numerous previously described species of conotylids. A complete bibliography of the family Conotylidae of the world is also included.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Vaga-Lumes
20.
Zootaxa ; 4751(3): zootaxa.4751.3.9, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230411

RESUMO

Specimens housed in the Australian Museum assigned to the genus Stylopallene are reviewed on the basis of their questionable geographic locations in the tropical waters of north Western Australia. Re-examination of those specimens shows only a superficial resemblance to the genus Stylopallene. The new genus Labrumoides gen. nov. is erected to accommodate those specimens and a new species L. vibrissa sp. nov. is described. Cheilopallene hirta previously assigned to genus incertae sedis is provisionally reassigned to the new genus.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Austrália , Austrália Ocidental
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