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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 458, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaplasmosis is an emerging acute febrile disease that is caused by a bite of an Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected hard tick. As for healthy patients, reports on asymptomatic anaplasmosis resulting from such tick bites are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old female patient visited the hospital with a tick bite in the right infraclavicular region. The tick was suspected to have been on the patient for more than 10 days. PCR and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) were performed to identify tick-borne infectious diseases. The blood sample collected at admission yielded a positive result in nested PCR targeting Ehrlichia- or Anaplasma-specific genes groEL and ankA. Subsequent sequencing confirmed the presence of A. phagocytophilum, and seroconversion was confirmed by the IFA involving an A. phagocytophilum antigen slide. PCR detected no Rickettsia-specific genes [outer membrane protein A (ompA) or surface cell antigen 1 (sca1)], but seroconversion of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis was confirmed by an IFA. CONCLUSIONS: This study genetically and serologically confirmed an asymptomatic A. phagocytophilum infection. Although SFG rickettsiosis was not detected genetically, it was detected serologically. These findings indicate the possibility of an asymptomatic coinfection: anaplasmosis plus SFG rickettsiosis. It is, therefore, crucial for clinicians to be aware of potential asymptomatic anaplasmosis following a tick bite.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/imunologia , Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Infecções Assintomáticas , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Rickettsia/imunologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/diagnóstico , Animais , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Picadas de Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos
2.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(2): 326-333, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723287

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic disease that can be presented with fever, fatigue, generalized joint/body pain, diarrhea and bleeding in various parts of the body. The risk of developing a severe fatal disease in humans, the possibility of being infected with aerosols and the risk of being used as a biological weapon make the disease still an important health problem all over the world as there is no a specific treatment and vaccine that has proven effective againt the virus today. The pathogenesis of the disease is not known, but vascular endothelial damage is prominent. Therefore, it progresses with thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukopenia and this hematological findings can be confused with hematological malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy included in differential diagnoses and occurs as a result of mutations occuring at a stage of differentiation in the lymphoid precursor cells in the bone marrow. In this study, we present a case of ALL who was diagnosed with CCHF simultaneously. A 43-year old female patient who works in the library and does not have a chronic disease other than asthma and thyroid disorder, has admitted to our hospital with the complaints of intermittent fever, weakness, generalized joint and body pain for about 3 weeks. She had fever and the physical examination revealed bilateral cervical and right postauricular lymphadenopathies. Her aspartate aminotransferase: 77 U/L, alanine aminotransferase: 117 U/L, lactate dehydrogenase: 616 U/L, hemoglobin: 8.27 g/dl, leukocyte count: 15.690/mm3 , neutrophil count: 550/mm3 (%3.5), lymphocyte count: 6690/mm3 (%42.6), platelet count: 102.100/mm3 , C-reactive protein: 163.6 mg/L was detected and the patient was hospitalized on 5 August 2019 for further examination and treatment. Considering that the patient may have viral infection in the foreground the requested test results were detected as; anti-CMV IgM negative, anti-CMV IgG positive, anti-toxoplasma IgM negative, anti-toxoplasma IgG positive, anti-rubella IgM negative, anti-rubella IgG positive, HBsAg negative, anti-HBc IgM negative, antiHBs positive, anti-HAV IgM negative, anti-HAV IgG positive, anti-HCV negative, anti-HIV negative, EpsteinBarr virus (EBV) VCA IgM negative, EBV VCA IgG positive, EBV EBNA IgG positive. Brucella Rose Bengal and Coombs tube agglutination was found be negative. As the cytopenia of the patient deepened, the patient was accepted to have neutropenic fever and it was planned to start piperacillin-tazobactam 4 x 4.5 g/day and two units of erythrocyte replacement therapy. When the patient's history was questioned again, it was learned that she had a tick on her neck about three weeks ago and she had removed the tick herself; 4-5 days later she had the complaints of fever and flu like symptoms and also diarrhea complaints lasting for 3-4 days. Considering the current anamnesis and laboratory findings, the patient was thought to have CCHF and the patient was isolated. The serum sample taken from patient with an initial diagnosis of CCHF and sent to Department of Microbiology Reference Laboratory Public Health Agency of Turkey. The patient was referred to the Antalya Training and Research Hospital. The patient's CCHF serum result was positive. Ribavirin treatment was not initiated in the patient who was accepted to be in the convalescence period, piperacillin-tazobactam 4 x 4.5 g/day treatment was continued and supportive treatment was given. In the follow-up, as the patient's neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and lymphocytopenia still continuing, she was transferred to hematology clinic for malignancy examination and bone marrow biopsy performed by hematology and B cell ALL was diagnosed. She was accepted to be convalescent in terms of CCHF and chemotherapy was started for ALL treatment by hematology. The patient is still being followed up by the hematology clinic and allogenic hematopoietic stem cell tranplantation is planned for the patient. As a result, CCHF is a disease that can be confused with many differential diagnosis. With this case, it is aimed to draw attention to the diagnostic difficulties of CCHF and ALL and to be the first case in the literature.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adulto , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/complicações , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/diagnóstico , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Carrapatos/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e012220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667504

RESUMO

In this commentary, the authors highlight the importance of basic research in the field of public health regarding the recent pandemic Covid-19, using tick-borne rickettsioses as an example. In addition, they alert politicians, government officials and managers of research funding agencies to increase the allocated financial resources to enhance basic research on public health in Brazil.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Brasil
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(6): 781-791, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478654

RESUMO

Ticks are the most important vectors of human pathogens, leading to increased public health burdens worldwide. Tick-borne pathogens include viruses (e.g. tick-borne encephalitis and Powassan); bacteria, such as the causative agents of Lyme disease, spotted fever rickettsiosis and human anaplasmosis; and malaria-like protozoan parasites causing babesiosis. Tick-borne diseases are emerging due to the geographical expansion of their tick vectors, especially in the northern hemisphere. Two examples of this phenomenon are Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum, which have expanded their ranges in the USA in recent decades and are responsible for the continuous emergence of Lyme disease and human ehrlichiosis, respectively. This phenomenon is also occurring worldwide and is reflected by the increasing number of tick-borne encephalitis and haemorrhagic fever cases in Europe and Asia. In this review, we provide a concise synopsis of the most medically important tick-borne pathogen worldwide, with a particular emphasis on emerging public health threats.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/etiologia , Animais , Humanos , Controle de Insetos , Insetos Vetores , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/virologia , Carrapatos
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2047-2057, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382991

RESUMO

Bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia are known as causative agents of vector-borne zoonotic diseases, such as spotted fevers, epidemic typhus and endemic typhus. Different species of ticks, mites and fleas could act as reservoirs and arthropod vectors of different pathogenic Rickettsia species. The aim of this work was to establish active surveillance of Rickettsia spp. in mites, ticks and fleas collected from small mammals (rodents and shrews) in Eastern Slovakia. A total of 964 animal ear biopsies, 871 mites, 667 ticks and 743 fleas were collected from small mammals in the Kosice region, Eastern Slovakia. All specimens were identified using specialized taxonomic keys, and were conserved in ethanol until DNA extraction was performed. After DNA extraction, identification of Rickettsia species was performed by PCR-based methods. The total prevalence of rickettsiae from ear biopsies was 4.6% (95% CI, 3.2-5.9), in tested mites 9.3% (95% CI, 7.4-11.2), 17.2% (95% CI, 14.3-20.1) in I. ricinus ticks and 3.5% (95% CI, 2.2-4.8) in fleas. Sequence analysis of the partial gltA gene and Rickettsia helvetica-, Rickettsia slovaca-, Rickettsia raoultii- species specific real-time PCR tests revealed the presence of R. helvetica, R. slovaca, unidentified Rickettsia and rickettsial endosymbionts. These pathogenic and symbiotic species were confirmed in the following ectoparasite species-Laelaps jettmari, Haemogamasus nidi, Laelaps agilis and Eulaelaps stabularis mites, Ixodes ricinus ticks, Ctenophthalmus solutus, C. assimilis and Megabothris turbidus fleas infesting host-Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus small mammals. These results confirm the circulation of R. helvetica, R. slovaca, unidentified Rickettsia and rickettsial endosymbionts in mites, ticks and fleas collected on small mammals in the Kosice region, Eastern Slovakia.


Assuntos
Ácaros/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/transmissão , Roedores/parasitologia , Musaranhos/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/microbiologia , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ectoparasitoses/microbiologia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/fisiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão
6.
Arch Virol ; 165(8): 1759-1767, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435856

RESUMO

A total of 1,337 serum and plasma specimens (939, 393 and 15 from cattle, sheep and goats, respectively) were collected monthly for one a year from ruminant species slaughtered in three Turkish cities endemic for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Samsun, Sivas and Tokat. The serum samples were tested by commercial indirect ELISA to detect CCHFV antibodies, and positive or equivocal samples were later confirmed by a virus neutralization test (VNT). The seroprevalence in cattle, sheep, and goats was 36.21% (340/939), 6.27% (24/383), and 6.67% (1/15), respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was employed to detect viraemic animals at slaughter time. The percentage of CCHFV-viraemic animals was 0.67% (9/1337). The virus load varied between 4.1 x 101 and 2.4 x 103 RNA equivalent copies/mL in viraemic animals. The plasma samples that were positive for CCHFV genomic RNA were collected between April and May, when Hyalomma ticks are active. This study presents quantitative CCHFV load data in ruminant species at slaughter and interprets the likelihood of transmission for employees working in slaughterhouses in CCHFV-endemic regions.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Ruminantes/virologia , Matadouros , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops/imunologia , Chlorocebus aethiops/virologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/imunologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/imunologia , Ruminantes/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Carrapatos/imunologia , Carrapatos/virologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Células Vero
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 201, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent reports have demonstrated the presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) genomic material in Hyalomma aegyptium ticks feeding primarily on tortoises belonging to the genus Testudo. This raises the question if these ticks and their hosts play a role in the natural transmission dynamics of CCHFV. However, the studies are limited, and assessing the relevance of H. aegyptium in perpetuating the virus in nature, and a potential spillover to humans remains unknown. This study aimed to detect CCHFV in H. aegyptium ticks and their tortoise hosts in the East Thrace region of Turkey, where H. aegyptium is the most common human-biting tick and where a high density of tortoises of the genus Testudo can be found. METHODS: During the study period, 21 blood samples from different tortoises (2 T. hermanni and 19 T. graeca), 106 tick pools (containing 448 males, 152 females, 93 nymphs and 60 larvae) collected from 65 tortoises (5 T. hermanni and 60 T. graeca), 38 adult unfed questing ticks (25 males and 13 females, screened individually) and 14 pools (containing 8 nymphs and 266 larvae) of immature unfed questing ticks collected from the ground were screened for CCHFV genome by nested PCR and partial genomes sequenced. RESULTS: As a result of the screening of these 179 samples, 17 (9.5%) were detected as positive as follows: 2 of 21 blood samples (9.52%), 13 (containing 18 nymphs in 3 pools, and 52 males and 8 females in 10 pools) of 106 tick pools from tortoises (12.26%), and 2 of 38 adult questing ticks (5.26%). No positive result was determined in 14 pools of immature questing ticks. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies have shown that reptiles can participate in the transmission of arthropod-borne viruses, but they may contribute to different aspects of the disease ecology and evolution of tick-borne viral pathogens. Our results indicate the presence of CCHFV in questing and feeding H. aegyptium ticks as well as tortoise hosts. This may indicate that CCHFV circulates in a cryptic transmission cycle in addition to the primary transmission cycle that could play a role in the natural dynamic of the virus and the transmission to humans.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/transmissão , Carrapatos/virologia , Tartarugas/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/virologia , DNA Viral , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/genética , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Turquia/epidemiologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia
8.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 81(1): 51-58, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246381

RESUMO

Pulau Tioman is a popular tourist island off the east coast of Peninsula Malaysia, known for its vast areas of intact vegetation. Six tick species have been recorded on the island but little is known about their local ecology or public health importance. To facilitate studies of the tick fauna of Pulau Tioman, a checklist of all species and host associations is presented with the first host records, from Pulau Tioman, of Amblyomma helvolum from the Asian water monitor (Varanus salvator) and Amblyomma varanense from the keeled rat snake (Ptyas carinata). A pictorial key is also presented for all tick species known from the island.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Carrapatos/classificação , Animais , Lagartos/parasitologia , Malásia , Serpentes/parasitologia
9.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 81(1): 37-50, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246382

RESUMO

Haemaphysalis longicornis is one of the most prevalent tick species across eastern Asia, Australia, and New Zealand, and has been implicated as a vector of several pathogenic agents. This study evaluated the in vitro acaricidal efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil on unfed H. longicornis using the adult and nymph immersion test, and the larval packet test. Six concentrations with three replications each of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg/mL (adults and nymphs) were used, and 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/mL (larvae), with control group (50% ethanol). The adult and nymph mortality rates were 98 and 100% at 50 mg/mL, and 95 and 100% at 60 mg/mL, respectively, whereas the larval mortality rate was 94 and 96% at 40 and 80 mg/mL, respectively. Mortality of adult, nymph and larva increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The LC50 for adult, nymph, and larva, were 29.21 (95% confidence interval 25.90-32.58), 28.18 (23.78-32.25), and 28.06 (25.57-30.90) mg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy revealed a disjointed sensilla base from the sockets, cuticular cracks, blocked aeropyles, and shrinking of the midgut. These results showed that C. citratus essential oil could be a good eco-friendly alternative control strategy against ectoparasites like ticks due to its high acaricidal efficacy.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/química , Cymbopogon/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Carrapatos , Animais , Larva , Ninfa
10.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 81(1): 1-35, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291551

RESUMO

Ticks are obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites and notorious as vectors of a great diversity of, in many instances, zoonotic pathogens which can cause considerable damage to animal and human health. The most commonly used approach for the control of ticks is the application of synthetic acaricides. However, the negative impacts of synthetic acaricides on the treated animals and the environment, in addition to its documented role in the development of resistance has led to the search for safer and more environmentally friendly alternative methods without compromising efficacy. An emerging promising approach for the control of ticks which has attracted much attention in recent years is the use of botanicals. Indeed, botanicals have been widely reported to show diverse effects and great potential as tick repellent and control. Although several excellent reviews have previously focused on this topic, studies on the exploration and application of botanicals to control ticks have expanded rapidly. Herein, we provide an update on the current understanding and status of botanical acaricides and repellents in tick control using recently published articles between 2017 and 2019. We also discuss the challenges and future directions in the application of botanicals in tick control, with a view of providing important clues for designing new integrated tick control methods.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Preparações de Plantas , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e017119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294720

RESUMO

The present study aimed to characterize the importance of the Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in the genesis of cattle tick fever (CTF) among dairy calves in the northwest of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples from 300 calves were collected, followed by DNA extraction and nested PCR using oligonucleotide primers to amplify fragments of the semi-nested for the msp5 gene (A. marginale), sbp-4 (B. bovis) and rap-1a (B. bigemina) Among the examined calves, the prevalence of A. marginale was 55.6% (n=167/300), B. bovis was 4.0% (n=12/300) and B. bigemina was 15.3% (n=46/300), by PCR techniques. Parasitic forms of A. marginale and B. bigemina were found in 36,3% and 2,6% of the blood smears while B. bovis was not detected. There was a statistical difference between the positivity of infected animals in the age groups 1 (10-70 days) and (>70-300 days) for A. marginale and B. bigemina. A total of 15 calves with the classic symptoms of disease were examined, and the samples obtained were confirmed as a simple infection by A. marginale through semi-nested PCR. These results confirm bovine anaplasmosis as the primary cause of CTF among the calves of dairy cattle within the studied area.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale/genética , Anaplasmose/parasitologia , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 281, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that commonly has a lethal course caused by the tick-borne Huaiyangshan banyang virus [former SFTS virus (SFTSV)]. The viral load in various body fluids in SFTS patients and the best infection control measure for SFTS patients have not been fully established. CASE PRESENTATION: A 79-year-old man was bitten by a tick while working in the bamboo grove in Nagasaki Prefecture in the southwest part of Japan. Due to the occurrence of impaired consciousness, he was referred to Nagasaki University Hospital for treatment. The serum sample tested positive for SFTSV-RNA in the genome amplification assay, and he was diagnosed with SFTS. Furthermore, SFTSV-RNA was detected from the tick that had bitten the patient. He was treated with multimodal therapy, including platelet transfusion, antimicrobials, antifungals, steroids, and continuous hemodiafiltration. His respiration was assisted with mechanical ventilation. On day 5, taking the day on which he was hospitalized as day 0, serum SFTSV-RNA levels reached a peak and then decreased. However, the cerebrospinal fluid collected on day 13 was positive for SFTSV-RNA. In addition, although serum SFTSV-RNA levels decreased below the detectable level on day 16, he was diagnosed with pneumonia with computed tomography. SFTSV-RNA was detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid on day 21. By day 31, he recovered consciousness completely. The pneumonia improved by day 51, but SFTSV-RNA in the sputum remained positive for approximately 4 months after disease onset. Strict countermeasures against droplet/contact infection were continuously conducted. CONCLUSIONS: Even when SFTSV genome levels become undetectable in the serum of SFTS patients in the convalescent phase, the virus genome remains in body fluids and tissues. It may be possible that body fluids such as respiratory excretions become a source of infection to others; thus, careful infection control management is needed.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Encefalopatias/virologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/virologia , Phlebovirus/genética , Pneumonia/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Idoso , Animais , Encefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Terapia Combinada , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Escarro/virologia , Carrapatos/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e020219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267390

RESUMO

Rickettsia rickettsii is the causative agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), for which humans and dogs are both susceptible. Dogs are sentinels in serological surveys, however, canine disease is rarely reported. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate natural infection by spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in dogs and ticks collected from domiciles close to forest fragments, featuring domestic-wildlife interface areas. Samples from 115 dogs and 135 ixodids were assessed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeting the gltA gene for Rickettsia spp. and the ompA gene for the SFG rickettsial species. One dog (0.87%; 1/115) was positive for R. rickettsii. This dog presented nonspecific laboratory and clinical abnormalities (thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia, lymph node enlargement, emaciation, anorexia, and lethargy). Rickettsia parkeri was identified in 2.96% (4/135) of the ticks (Amblyomma sculptum, A. aureolatum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). This study confirmed the presence of SFG bacteria in non-endemic and preserved locations, where domestic and wild populations interact. We reinforce the fact that the dog is susceptible to natural R. rickettsii infection. Although this is a rare finding, preventive measures should be taken against BSF in the studied areas. Finally, R. parkeri infection is possibly being demonstrated in A. sculptum for the first time.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/veterinária , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/diagnóstico , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/microbiologia
14.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 1173-1176, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140779

RESUMO

Babesia is tick-transmitted protozoan parasites that infect mammalian hosts and have a major impact on farm and pet health-associated costs worldwide. This study aimed to test the prevalence of Babesia spp. infection in a small cohort of dogs at a veterinary hospital and to perform molecular characterization of the Babesia species causing the infection. For the PCR assay, 5 mL of blood was collected by venipuncture of the cephalic or radial veins in 300 dogs of different ages, sex, and breeds, which were presented to the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia between March 2015 and April 2016. In addition, a drop of blood was collected from the marginal blood vessels of the ear of dogs included in this study. Ninety-two (30.67%) were positive for Babesia spp., as determined by microscopic observation of the blood smear, revealing the presence of intra-erythrocyte merozoites. For molecular characterization by PCR, 17 samples were chosen from dogs who were tested positive for Babesia spp. by blood smears. Among them, B. vogeli was found to infect all 17 dogs, as determined by 99-100% sequence identity (closest GenBank match KT246307) using primers PIRO A/PIRO B. Our results indicate that the species observed in these dogs was B. vogeli.


Assuntos
Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Animais , Babesia/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Primers do DNA , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Carrapatos/parasitologia
15.
Biol Lett ; 16(2): 20190811, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070234

RESUMO

Newborn mammals have an immature immune system that cannot sufficiently protect them against infectious diseases. However, variation in the effectiveness of maternal immunity against different parasites may couple with temporal trends in parasite exposure to influence disparities in the timing of infection risk. Determining the relationship between age and infection risk is critical in identifying the portion of a host population that contributes to parasite dynamics, as well as the parasites that regulate host recruitment. However, there are no data directly identifying timing of first infection among parasites in wildlife. Here, we took advantage of a longitudinal dataset, tracking infection status by viruses, bacteria, protists and gastro-intestinal worms in a herd of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to ask: how does age of first infection differ among parasite taxa? We found distinct differences in the age of first infection among parasites that aligned with the mode of transmission and parasite taxonomy. Specifically, we found that tick-borne and environmentally transmitted protists were acquired earlier than directly transmitted bacteria and viruses. These results emphasize the importance of understanding infection risk in juveniles, especially in host species where juveniles are purported to sustain parasite persistence and/or where mortality rates of juveniles influence population dynamics.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Carrapatos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mamíferos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0220593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have the potential to act as disease reservoirs for wildlife and are important sentinels for common circulating pathogens. Therefore, the infectious disease seroprevalence among domestic dogs in northern Botswana may be indicative of pathogen exposure of various wildlife species. The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., Dirofilaria immitis, canine adenovirus, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus in domestic dogs as proxies of disease prevalence in the local wildlife in the Okavango Delta region of Botswana. Statistical analysis assessed crude and factor-specific seroprevalence proportions in relation to age, sex, and geographical location as predictors of seropositivity. Logistic regression was used to identify adjusted predictors of seropositivity for each of the pathogens of interest. RESULTS: Samples from 233 dogs in a total of seven locations in Maun, Botswana, and surrounding villages were collected and serologically analyzed. No dogs were seropositive for B. burgdorferi, while low seroprevalence proportions were observed for Anaplasma spp. (2.2%) and D. immitis (0.9%). Higher seroprevalence proportions were observed for the tick-borne pathogen Ehrlichia spp. (21.0%), and 19.7% were seropositive for canine adenovirus (hepatitis). The highest seroprevalence proportions were for canine parvovirus (70.0%) and canine distemper virus (44.8%). The predictors of seropositivity revealed that adults were more likely to be seropositive for canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, and canine parvovirus than juveniles, and location was a risk factor for canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, and Ehrlichia spp. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that increasing tick control and vaccination campaigns for domestic dogs may improve the health of domestic animals, and potentially wildlife and humans in the Okavango Delta since viral and vector-borne bacterial pathogens can be transmitted between them.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/patogenicidade , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Anaplasmose/transmissão , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Borrelia burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia burgdorferi/patogenicidade , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilaria immitis/patogenicidade , Dirofilariose/microbiologia , Dirofilariose/transmissão , Cinomose/microbiologia , Cinomose/transmissão , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/patogenicidade , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia/patogenicidade , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/microbiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/transmissão , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Parvovirus Canino/patogenicidade , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Carrapatos/microbiologia
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(4): 1543-1552, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne zoonotic pathogen. It causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease in humans. Hard ticks, in particular Hyalomma spp., are considered to function as reservoir as well as vector for CCHFV. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the province of Balochistan, Pakistan, from September to November 2017. Ticks were collected from cattle, sheep and goats in livestock farms. The ticks were morphologically identified, followed by confirmation with molecular methods (PCR and sequencing). Furthermore, ticks were examined for CCHFV genomes (S segment) by a one-step multiplex real-time RT-qPCR and positive samples were sequenced to determine the CCHFV genotype. RESULTS: In total, 525 of 529 livestock infesting adult ticks belonged to the genus Hyalomma, and 4 ticks to the genus Rhipicephalus (R. microplus 3×, R. turanicus 1×). In the genus Hyalomma, H. marginatum (28%), H. excavatum (26%), H. dromedarii (22%), H. anatolicum (16%) and H. scupense (8%) ticks were identified. Tick infestations were as follows: sheep 58%, goats 28% and cattle 14%. Four per cent (20/525) of ticks were CCHFV genome-positive, and all genomes clustered in CCHFV genotype Asia 1. Among CCHFV-positive ticks, 75% (15/20) were female and 25% (5/20) male. CCHFV genomes were most frequently detected in H. marginatum (30%, 6/20), followed by H. dromedarii (25%, 5/20), H. excavatum (20%, 4/20), H. anatolicum (20%, 4/20) and H. scupense (5%, 1/20). All CCHFV-positive ticks were found on sheep. The largest number of CCHFV-positive ticks were detected in the district of Kalat (60%, 12/20), followed by the districts of Quetta (30%, 6/20) and Killa Abdullah (10%, 2/20). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the circulation of CCHFV in ticks in Balochistan, south-western Pakistan. It is imperative to take effective tick control measures in this area, especially to control livestock tick infestations to prevent CCHF infections in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Fazendas , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Ixodidae/classificação , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/virologia
18.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 80(3): 349-361, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927645

RESUMO

Apyrase is one of the essential platelet aggregation inhibitors in hematophagous arthropods due to its ability to hydrolyze ATP and ADP molecules. Here, an apyrase (TNapyrase) with antiplatelet aggregation activity was purified and characterized from the nymphs of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii through anion exchange and gel filtration columns. The homogeneity of TNapyrase was confirmed by native-PAGE, SDS-PAGE as well as with isoelectric focusing. Purified TNapyrase had a molecular mass of 25 kDa and a monomer structure. TNapyrase hydrolyzed various nucleotides in the order of ATP > PPi > ADP > UDP > 6GP. The Km value was 1.25 mM ATP and its optimum activity reached at pH 8.4. The influence of various ions on TNapyrase activity showed that FeCl2, FeCl3 and ZnCl2 are activators of TNapyrase. EDTA inhibited TNapyrase activity competitively with a single binding site on the molecule and Ki value of 2 mM. Finally, TNapyrase caused 70% inhibition of ADP-stimulated platelets aggregation and is a possible target for antibodies in future tick vaccine studies.


Assuntos
Apirase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária , Carrapatos/enzimologia , Animais , Camelus , Ninfa
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007519, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ecological determinants of most emerging vector-borne diseases are understudied, particularly for neglected tropical disease. Moreover, although socioeconomic impacts can have significant downstream effects on human risks to vector-borne diseases via a change in land cover, particularly facilitating the invasion of exotic plants, related studies remains very scarce. Scrub typhus and spotted fever are neglected diseases emerging around the globe and are transmitted by chigger mites and ticks infective of Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia spp., respectively, with small mammals as the primary hosts of both vectors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated how invasions of the plant Leucaena leucocephala caused by widespread abandonment of farmlands driven by industrialization affected abundance of chiggers and ticks in Penghu Island, Taiwan. We determined ectoparasite abundance by trapping small mammals in three types of habitats (invasion site, agricultural field, human residential) every two months for a year. Based on ectoparasite burdens, invasion sites harbored more chiggers and ticks than the other two habitats. Furthermore, hosts maintained higher burdens of both vectors in early winter and burdens of chiggers were more stable across seasons in invasion sites, suggesting that sites with invasive plants could be a temporary refuge for both vectors and might help mitigate the negative influence of unfavorable climate. Infective rates of O. tsutsugamushi in chiggers and Rickettsia in ticks were also consistently not lower in invasion sites. Top soil temperature and relative humidity were similar across the three habitats, but invasion sites contained more of the rat Rattus losea, on which chiggers and ticks were more engorged than those from the most commonly trapped species (Suncus murinus shrew), indicating that abundance of the host R. losea instead of microclimate might better determine the abundance of both vectors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights an important but largely neglected issue that socioeconomic change can have unexpected consequences for human health induced particularly by invasive plants, which could become a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases but usually are very hard to be eradicated. In the future, a more comprehensive approach that integrates socio-economics, land use, exotic species, and human health should be considered to fully understand potential emergence of vector-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/parasitologia , Tifo por Ácaros/transmissão , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/transmissão , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Trombiculidae/microbiologia , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Vetores Aracnídeos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas/economia , Orientia tsutsugamushi/fisiologia , Ratos , Rickettsia/fisiologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Tifo por Ácaros/microbiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/microbiologia , Taiwan , Carrapatos/fisiologia
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 1, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TTBP) are a major constraint to livestock production in Pakistan; despite a high prevalence of TTBPs, knowledge on the capacity of Pakistani ticks to carry pathogens and endosymbionts is limited. Furthermore, mixed infections with multiple microorganisms further complicate and limit the detection potential of traditional diagnostic methods. The present study investigated the tick-borne microorganisms in bovine ticks in Pakistan, employing a high-throughput microfluidic real-time PCR based technique. METHODS: Ticks were collected from clinically healthy cattle (n = 116) and water buffaloes (n = 88) from 30 villages across six districts located in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Pakistan from September to November 2017. The microfluidic real-time PCR was used to test the genomic DNA of individual ticks for the presence of 27 bacterial and eight parasitic microorganisms. Phylogenetic methods were used to assess the genetic relationship of DNA sequences determined herein. RESULTS: PCR detected DNA of at least one microorganism in each of 221 ticks tested (94.4%, 221/234). DNA-based detection inferred that single pathogens/endosymbionts were the most common (43.4%, 96/221) followed by double (38.9%, 86/221), triple (14.5%, 32/221), quadruple (2.3%, 5/221) and quintuple (0.9%, 2/221) mixed infections. Piroplasms (Babesia/Theileria spp.) were the most prevalent (31.6%, 74/234), followed by Ehrlichia spp. (20%, 47/234) and Anaplasma marginale (7.7%, 18/234). Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. ovis, A. centrale, Babesia ovis, Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., R. massiliae, Bartonella spp. and Hepatozoon spp. were also detected. Endosymbionts such as Francisella-like (91.5%, 214/234) and Coxiella-like (1.3%, 3/234) organisms were also detected in ticks. The highest diversity of microorganisms was detected in Hyalomma anatolicum ticks (test-positive for 14/14 microorganisms), followed by Rhipicephalus microplus (4/14), Hy. hussaini (3/14) and Rh. annulatus (2/14). Ticks collected from cattle carried significantly more frequently piroplasms (41.2%, 54/131; P < 0.05) than those from buffaloes (19.4%, 20/103). However, the overall prevalence of microorganisms did not vary significantly among ticks from the two host species as well as across different AEZs. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate a wide range of tick-borne microorganisms in bovine ticks using a high-throughput diagnostic method from different AEZs in Pakistan. These findings will aid in establishing the distribution patterns and the control of tick-borne pathogens of bovines in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Búfalos/parasitologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Paquistão , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Filogenia , Carrapatos/classificação
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