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1.
Parasitol Res ; 119(4): 1327-1335, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179987

RESUMO

Permanent ectoparasites live in stable environments; thus, their population dynamics are mostly adapted to changes in the host life cycle. We aimed to investigate how static and dynamic traits of red-footed falcons interplay with the dynamics of their louse subpopulations during breeding and how they affect the colonisation of new hosts by lice. We sampled red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus) nestlings (two breeding seasons) and adults (one breeding season) in southern Hungary. The mean abundance of Colpocephalum subzerafae and Degeeriella rufa lice on the nestlings was modelled with generalized linear mixed models using clutch size and host sex in interaction with wing length. For adults, we used wing length and the number of days after laying the first egg, both in interaction with sex. D. rufa abundances increased with the nestlings' wing length. In one year, this trend was steeper on females. In adult birds, both louse species exhibited higher abundances on females at the beginning, but it decreased subsequently through the breeding season. Contrarily, abundances were constantly low on adult males. Apparently, D. rufa postpones transmission until nestlings develop juvenile plumage and choose the more feathered individual among siblings. The sexual difference in the observed abundance could either be caused by the different plumage, or by the females' preference for less parasitized males. Moreover, females likely have more time to preen during the incubation period, lowering their louse burdens. Thus, sex-biased infestation levels likely arise due to parasite preferences in the nestlings and host behavioural processes in the adult falcons.


Assuntos
Anoplura/fisiologia , Falconiformes/parasitologia , Iscnóceros/fisiologia , Ftirápteros/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Plumas , Feminino , Hungria , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Masculino , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/parasitologia
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1921): 20193005, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070251

RESUMO

Tinamous host the highest generic diversity of lice of any group of birds, as well as hosting representatives of all four avian feather louse ecomorphs. Although the generic diversity of tinamou feather lice is well documented, few attempts have been made to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among these lice. To test whether tinamou feather lice form a monophyletic group as a whole, we used whole-genome sequencing to estimate a higher-level phylogeny of tinamou feather lice, together with a broad diversity of other avian feather louse groups. In total, we analysed sequences from over 1000 genes for 48 genera of avian lice using both concatenated and coalescent approaches to estimate the phylogeny of this diverse group of avian feather lice. Although the body louse ecomorph of tinamou feather lice formed a monophyletic group, they did not strictly form a monophyletic group together with the other three ecomorphs of tinamou feather lice. In particular, a clade comprised of several feather louse genera, mainly from South America, is nested phylogenetically within tinamou lice, which also have their main centre of diversity in South America. These results suggest in situ radiation of these parasites in South America.


Assuntos
Paleógnatas/parasitologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Aves/parasitologia , Plumas/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ftirápteros , Filogenia , América do Sul
3.
Parasite ; 26: 75, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859620

RESUMO

For the sterile insect technique, and other related biological control methods where large numbers of the target mosquito are reared artificially, production efficiency is key for the economic viability of the technique. Rearing success begins with high quality eggs. Excess eggs are often stockpiled and stored for longer periods of time. Any pests that prey on these eggs are detrimental to stockpiles and need to be avoided. Psocids of the genus Liposcelis (Psocoptera, Liposcelididae) are common scavengers consuming various types of organic material that are distributed globally and thrive in warm damp environments, making insectaries ideal habitats. In this short report, we investigated the species that has been found scavenging stored mosquito eggs in our insectary and identified it to be Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, 1931. Additional observations were made to determine whether these predators indeed feed on mosquito eggs, and to suggest simple, effective ways of avoiding infestation.


Assuntos
Aedes , Óvulo , Ftirápteros/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Entomologia/métodos , Feminino , Controle de Insetos
4.
Zootaxa ; 4691(5): zootaxa.4691.5.4, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719378

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to record the species of chewing lice parasitising Gyps bengalensis (Gmelin, 1788), the white-rumped vulture, in Pithauli, Nawalparasi District, Nepal, from February to June 2017. Three louse species were identified: Cuculiphilus (Aegypiphilus) gypsis (Eichler, 1944), Colpocephalum sp., and the new species Aegypoecus bengalensis, described herein.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Falconiformes , Iscnóceros , Infestações por Piolhos , Ftirápteros , Animais , Nepal
5.
Zootaxa ; 4615(2): zootaxa.4615.2.2, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716342

RESUMO

Two large taxonomic revisions of chewing lice belonging to the Brueelia-complex were published independently in 2017: Gustafsson Bush (August 2017) and Mey (September 2017). However, Mey (2017) was incorrectly dated "Dezember 2016" on the title page. These two publications described many of the same taxonomic units under different names and therefore, the names in Gustafsson and Bush (2017) have priority over the synonyms in Mey (2017). Here we clarify some of the resulting taxonomic confusion.                Firstly, we confirm the availability of the genera Guimaraesiella Eichler, 1949 and Acronirmus Eichler, 1953, as well as the status of Nitzschinirmus Mey Barker, 2014 as a junior synonym of Guimaraesiella.                Nine genera were described and simultaneously placed as juniors synonyms by Mey (2017: 182). We agree with his synonymy in seven of them: Australnirmus Mey, 2017 under Saepocephalum Gustafsson Bush, 2017; Couanirmus Mey, 2017 under Couala Gustafsson Bush, 2017; Estrildinirmus Mey, 2017 under Mirandofures Gustafsson Bush, 2017; Harpactiacus Mey, 2017 under Harpactrox Gustafsson Bush, 2017; Leiothrichinirmus Mey, 2017 under Resartor Gustafsson Bush, 2017; Manucodiacus Mey, 2017 under Manucodicola Gustafsson Bush, 2017, and Protonirmus Mey, 2017 under Ceratocista Gustafsson Bush, 2017. Furthermore, Mey (2017) described and placed Pomatostomiacus as an absolute junior synonym of Sychraella Gustafsson Bush, 2017; here, we argue that Pomatostomiacus is actually a junior synonym of Anarchonirmus Gustafsson Bush, 2017. Also, Mey (2017) described and placed Timalinirmus as a probable junior synonym of Turdinirmoides Gustafsson Bush, 2017; here we argue that Timalinirmus is a valid genus.We place ten more genera from Mey (2017) as junior synonyms, as follows: Callaenirmus Mey, 2017 and Philemoniellus Mey, 2017 under Guimaraesiella Eichler, 1949; Carpodaciella Mey, 2017 under Turdinirmoides Gustafsson Bush, 2017; Cinclosomatiellum Mey, 2017 under Maculinirmus Zlotorzycka, 1964; Koanirmus Mey, 2017 and Tesonirmus Mey, 2017 under Couala Gustafsson Bush, 2017; Garrulaxeus Mey, 2017 under Priceiella (Camurnirmus) Gustafsson Bush, 2017; Lycocoranirmus Mey, 2017 under Corvonirmus Eichler, 1944; Neosittiella Mey, 2017 and Plesionirmus Mey, 2017 under Brueelia Kéler, 1936.                We accept Melinirmus Mey, 2017 as valid, and Mohoaticus Mey, 2017 as a valid subgenus of Guimaraesiella Eichler, 1949. Also, we provisionally accept Ptilononirmus Mey, 2017 as valid but, until a proper redescription determines its true status, we categorize Ptilononirmus as genus inquirenda.                We accept most species described by Mey (2017) as valid, except for two which we place as junior synonyms: Callaenirmus kokakophilus Mey, 2017 under Brueelia callaeincola Valim Palma, 2015, and Mohoaticus pteroacariphagus Mey, 2017 under Guimaraesiella (Mohoaticus) diaprepes (Kellogg Chapman, 1902). We agree with Mey's assessment that four of his new species are junior synonyms of previously described taxa. Furthermore, among the species (subspecies) described by Mey (2017) as new, we establish 31 new generic (subgeneric) combinations, and we regard 16 species as species inquirenda, and three as incertae sedis.


Assuntos
Iscnóceros , Ftirápteros , Animais
7.
Zootaxa ; 4612(1): zootaxa.4612.1.10, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717085

RESUMO

Three species of chewing lice-Eucolpocephalum femorale (Piaget, 1880) (Amblycera: Menoponidae), Ibidoecus plataleae (Denny, 1842) (Ischnocera: Philopteridae) and Ardeicola plataleae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Ischnocera: Philopteridae)-are reported from the black-faced spoonbill (Platalea minor Temminck Schlegel, 1849) in Japan. These three louse species are new records for this host. The black-faced spoonbill is classified as a "Critically Endangered" species in the IUCN Red List; although its species of lice are known to infest other species of spoonbills, these lice are endangered at the population level.


Assuntos
Amblíceros , Doenças das Aves , Iscnóceros , Infestações por Piolhos , Ftirápteros , Animais , Japão
8.
Elife ; 82019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478483

RESUMO

Insects are the only known animals in which sexual differentiation is controlled by sex-specific splicing. The doublesex transcription factor produces distinct male and female isoforms, which are both essential for sex-specific development. dsx splicing depends on transformer, which is also alternatively spliced such that functional Tra is only present in females. This pathway has evolved from an ancestral mechanism where dsx was independent of tra and expressed and required only in males. To reconstruct this transition, we examined three basal, hemimetabolous insect orders: Hemiptera, Phthiraptera, and Blattodea. We show that tra and dsx have distinct functions in these insects, reflecting different stages in the changeover from a transcription-based to a splicing-based mode of sexual differentiation. We propose that the canonical insect tra-dsx pathway evolved via merger between expanding dsx function (from males to both sexes) and narrowing tra function (from a general splicing factor to dedicated regulator of dsx).


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Baratas/fisiologia , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/biossíntese , Ftirápteros/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Sexual , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Animais , Baratas/genética , Hemípteros/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Ftirápteros/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/biossíntese , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
Prev Vet Med ; 171: 104771, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521964

RESUMO

Caligidosis and Piscirickettsiosis are currently the most important sanitary challenges for the Chilean salmon industry. Caligidosis is caused by the ectoparasite, Caligus rogercresseyi and Piscirickettsiosis is caused by the intracellular bacterium, Piscirickettsia salmonis. Both diseases are highly prevalent and widely distributed in farming areas in Chile. The co-occurrence of the two diseases is frequently reported on salmon farms. However, there is little epidemiological evidence as to whether these two diseases are associated and generate interactive effects. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential effects of C. rogercresseyi infestation on P. salmonis-attributed mortalities in farmed salmonids in Chile. Using a linear regression model, the potential association between the mean abundance of adult C. rogercresseyi in a period of 10 weeks and Piscirickettsiosis cumulative mortalities observed in the following 10 weeks was evaluated, while controlling for important confounders. These two 10-week windows were set around the time-point at which Piscirickettsiosis weekly mortality exceeded 0.1% for the first time in a production cycle. We found that the mean abundance of adult C. rogercresseyi was significantly associated with the Piscirickettsiosis cumulative mortality, suggesting the two diseases have a synergistic relationship. This relationship was of the same intensity in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Our findings highlight the importance of taking effective control measures for C. rogercresseyi as a part of the strategies in place to reduce P. salmonis-attributed mortalities on salmon farms in Chile.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/mortalidade , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Infecções por Piscirickettsiaceae/veterinária , Salmonidae/microbiologia , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Pesqueiros , Infestações por Piolhos/microbiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/mortalidade , Modelos Lineares , Ftirápteros , Piscirickettsiaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Piscirickettsiaceae/mortalidade , Infecções por Piscirickettsiaceae/parasitologia
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 376-382, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390433

RESUMO

Information about parasites associated with diurnal raptors from Chile is scarce. Between 2006 and 2017, a total of 15 specimens of the Variable hawk, Geranoaetus polyosoma (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) were collected, 14 of them from different localities in the Biobío region and one specimen from the Valparaíso region. An external examination of the plumage was made to collect ectoparasites, and necropsies were performed, focusing primarily on the gastrointestinal tract. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) were found on five (33.3%) of the birds corresponding to three species: 97 specimens of Degeeriella fulva (Giebel, 1874), six specimens of Colpocephalum turbinatum Denny, 1842 and nine belonging to an unidentified species of the genus Craspedorrhynchus Kéler, 1938. Endoparasites found in three (20%) of the birds included round worms (Nematoda) of the genus Procyrnea Chabaud, 1958, and spiny-headed worms (Acanthocephala) of the genus Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911. The species Colpocephalum turbinatum and the genera: Craspedorrhynchus sp., Procyrnea sp. and Centrorhynchus sp. are new records for the Variable hawk.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Falcões/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Ftirápteros/classificação , Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Chile , Feminino , Masculino , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Parasitol ; 105(3): 459-468, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251702

RESUMO

Human infestation with head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is the most prevalent ectoparasitic condition in the modern world. The purpose of this study was to test human head lice from Madagascar for infection with 2 louse-borne bacteria, Bartonella quintana and Acinetobacter spp. including Acinetobacter baumannii, to assess the potential risk of exposure to these pathogens in rural populations experiencing head-louse pediculosis. A second aim was to determine the occurrence of a biomarker for permethrin resistance in head lice from 6 isolated human communities in Madagascar. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of B. quintana was detected using species-specific Fab3 gene TaqMan in 12.6% of lice from 4 villages. DNA of Acinetobacter spp. was detected using rpoB TaqMan in 42.1% of lice collected from all locations; 58.3% of rpoB-positive lice had the blaOXA51-like enzyme gene specific for A. baumannii. The kdr-resistant allele was detected in 70% of lice tested and was found in lice from each location. These results provide the first information regarding these combined characteristics of head-louse infestations in Madagascar. This approach can be applied to larger and broader surveys of lice from pediculosis capitis occurring in other geographic locations.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Permetrina/farmacologia , Ftirápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Ftirápteros/genética , Acinetobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter/genética , Acinetobacter/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA/análise , DNA/química , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Madagáscar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ftirápteros/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Adulto Jovem
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(27): 13440-13445, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182608

RESUMO

Ecological speciation occurs when local adaptation generates reproductive isolation as a by-product of natural selection. Although ecological speciation is a fundamental source of diversification, the mechanistic link between natural selection and reproductive isolation remains poorly understood, especially in natural populations. Here, we show that experimental evolution of parasite body size over 4 y (approximately 60 generations) leads to reproductive isolation in natural populations of feather lice on birds. When lice are transferred to pigeons of different sizes, they rapidly evolve differences in body size that are correlated with host size. These differences in size trigger mechanical mating isolation between lice that are locally adapted to the different sized hosts. Size differences among lice also influence the outcome of competition between males for access to females. Thus, body size directly mediates reproductive isolation through its influence on both intersexual compatibility and intrasexual competition. Our results confirm that divergent natural selection acting on a single phenotypic trait can cause reproductive isolation to emerge from a single natural population in real time.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Columbidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Especiação Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Ftirápteros/fisiologia , Reprodução , Caracteres Sexuais
14.
Parasitology ; 146(8): 1083-1095, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046855

RESUMO

Unlike most bird species, individual kingfisher species (Aves: Alcedinidae) are typically parasitized by only a single genus of louse (Alcedoffula, Alcedoecus, or Emersoniella). These louse genera are typically specific to a particular kingfisher subfamily. Specifically, Alcedoecus and Emersoniella parasitize Halcyoninae, whereas Alcedoffula parasitizes Alcedininae and Cerylinae. Although Emersoniella is geographically restricted to the Indo-Pacific region, Alcedoecus and Alcedoffula are geographically widespread. We used DNA sequences from two genes, the mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF-1α genes, to infer phylogenies for the two geographically widespread genera of kingfisher lice, Alcedoffula and Alcedoecus. These phylogenies included 47 kingfisher lice sampled from 11 of the 19 currently recognized genera of kingfishers. We compared louse phylogenies to host phylogenies to reconstruct their cophylogenetic history. Two distinct clades occur within Alcedoffula, one that infests Alcedininae and a second that infests Cerylinae. All species of Alcedoecus were found only on host species of the subfamily Halcyoninae. Cophylogenetic analysis indicated that Alcedoecus, as well as the clade of Alcedoffula occurring on Alcedininae, do not show evidence of cospeciation. In contrast, the clade of Alcedoffula occurring on Cerylinae showed strong evidence of cospeciation.


Assuntos
Coevolução Biológica , Aves/parasitologia , Especiação Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ftirápteros/fisiologia , Animais , Ftirápteros/classificação , Ftirápteros/genética
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16157-16165, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972667

RESUMO

The essential oil was extracted from the roots of Valeriana officinalis L. by hydrodistillation. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of its chemical constituents was conducted on GC-MS and GC-FID in this study. Seventeen compounds were detected and the major constituents included bornyl acetate (48.2%) and camphene (13.8%). The toxic and repellent effects of the essential oil and its two major constituents were evaluated on Liposcelis bostrychophila and Tribolium castaneum. The results of bioassays indicated that the essential oil showed the promising fumigant and contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila (LC50 = 2.8 mg/L air and LD50 = 50.9 µg/cm2, respectively) and the notable contact effect on T. castaneum (LD50 = 10.0 µg/adult). Meanwhile, the essential oil showed comparable repellent effect on T. castaneum at all testing concentrations. Bornyl acetate and camphene also exhibited strong fumigant and contact toxicity against both species of pests (LC50 = 1.1, 10.1 mg/L air and LD50 = 32.9, 701.3 µg/cm2 for L. bostrychophila; > 126.3, 4.1 mg/L air, and 66.0, 21.6 µg/adult for T. castaneum). Bornyl acetate and camphene showed moderate repellent effect on T. castaneum and conversely showed attractant effect on L. bostrychophila. This work highlights the insecticidal potential of V. officinalis, which has been noted as a traditional medicinal plant.


Assuntos
Canfanos/farmacologia , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Valeriana/química , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Ftirápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(16): 7620-7621, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948636
17.
J Parasitol ; 105(2): 334-344, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021736

RESUMO

Chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are abundant ectoparasites of birds and mammals. They are adapted to life in the plumage or pelage of their hosts and virtually never leave the host during their life cycle. Most species are highly host specific. This study was carried out to determine species richness, abundance, and prevalence of chewing lice of wild forest birds in the southern region of China. Between July 2012 and June 2016, 2,210 birds (belonging to 8 orders, 45 families, and 215 species) were captured by mist nets and examined for chewing lice. In total, 622 birds of 117 species were parasitized by lice belonging to 89 species in 25 genera from 2 suborders (Amblycera and Ischnocera). Of these, 28 louse species represent new host-louse records for China and 10 worldwide. Chewing louse prevalence varied significantly among host species. There was no evidence of a correlation between climate zones and louse prevalence, but host guild affected prevalence significantly, with insectivorous birds having the lowest prevalence. Louse prevalence was positively correlated with host body mass and bill length, but mean intensity was only correlated with host body mass. These findings contribute further knowledge of avian chewing lice.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Ftirápteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Migração Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bico/anatomia & histologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves/classificação , Aves/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Clima , Dieta/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Ftirápteros/fisiologia , Prevalência
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(9): 9371-9378, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805842

RESUMO

The presence of human pharmaceuticals in the environment has garnered significant research attention because these compounds may exert therapeutic effects on exposed wildlife. Yet, for many compounds, there is still little research documenting their stability in the water column and uptake in organism tissues. Here, we measured the uptake and stability of methylphenidate (Ritalin®, a frequently prescribed central nervous system stimulant) and its primary metabolite, ritalinic acid, in (1) water only or (2) with nine-spine stickleback and water louse. Methylphenidate degraded to ritalinic acid in both studies faster at a higher temperature (20 °C versus 10 °C), with concentrations of ritalinic acid surpassing methylphenidate after 48-100 h, depending on temperature. The concentration of methylphenidate in stickleback was highest at the first sampling point (60 min), while the concentration in water louse tissues reached comparatively higher levels and peaked after ~ 6 days. Neither stickleback nor water louse took up ritalinic acid in tissues despite being present in the water column. Our findings provide valuable data for use in future risk assessment of methylphenidate and will aid in the design of studies aimed at measuring any ecotoxicological effects on, for example, the behaviour or physiology of aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Isópodes/fisiologia , Metilfenidato/análogos & derivados , Metilfenidato/metabolismo , Smegmamorpha/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Humanos , Isópodes/metabolismo , Ftirápteros , Smegmamorpha/metabolismo , Água
19.
Zootaxa ; 4543(4): 451-497, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647282

RESUMO

The chewing louse subgenus Cicchinella new subgenus is erected and described for species of Guimaraesiella Eichler, 1949, parasitizing Old World babblers (Leiothrichidae, Pellorneidae, Timaliidae). The subgenus is divided into three species groups based on chaetotaxy, head and genitalia of both sexes. Two species are redescribed: Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) sehri (Ansari, 1955) from Trochalopteron lineatum lineatum (Vigors, 1831) and T. lineatum setafer (Hodgson, 1836), and Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) avinus (Ansari, 1956) from Trochalopteron subunicolor subunicolor Blyth, 1843. In addition, 12 new species are described and illustrated: Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) falcifrons n. sp. from Actinodura cyanouroptera sordidior (Sharpe, 1888); Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) iuga n. sp. from Alcippe peracensis peracensis Sharpe, 1887; Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) gombakensis n. sp. from Turdinus abbotti abbotti (Blyth, 1845); Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) mcgrewi n. sp. from Alcippe morrisonia Swinhoe, 1863; Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) tenella n. sp. from Cyanoderma ruficeps davidi (Oustalet, 1899); Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) retusa n. sp. from Trochalopteron milnei sinianum Stresemann, 1930; Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) philiproundi n. sp. from Trochalopteron melanostigma schistaceum (Deignan, 1938) and Trochalopteron peninsulae Sharpe, 1887; Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) hannesundinae n. sp. from Heterophasia picaoides wrayi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1910); Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) pallidobrunneis n. sp. from Heterophasia melanoleuca melanoleuca (Blyth, 1859); Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) hampuslybecki n. sp. from Heterophasia auricularis (Swinhoe, 1864); Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) scottvillai n. sp. from Liocichla steerii Swinhoe, 1877 and Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) ambusta n. sp. from Leiothrix argentauris rubrogularis Kinnear, 1925. A key to identify the species of Cicchinella, and both a checklist and a host-louse list of the species of Cicchinella known from the Old World babblers are provided.


Assuntos
Iscnóceros , Passeriformes , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastrópodes , Infestações por Piolhos , Masculino , Ftirápteros
20.
FP Essent ; 476: 18-24, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615406

RESUMO

Bedbugs, mites, and scabies are ectoparasites that commonly affect humans. Bedbugs (Cimex species) were once rare in the United States but are now common. They cause intensely pruritic lesions on areas of exposed skin. The bites are highly allergenic and can cause asthma exacerbations or anaphylaxis. Management of bedbug bites involves symptomatic relief of itching and dealing with patient anxiety. Identification and elimination of infestation are most important. Another ectoparasite of concern is lice (Pediculus and Pthirus species), which causes head, body, and pubic infestations. Patients can experience hypersensitivity to the saliva of lice, but such symptoms often do not develop until several weeks after infestation. Diagnosis involves identification of nits (ie, eggs) or lice on the skin or hair. Several pediculicides are used for management but wet combing without use of pediculicides may be more effective. A third common ectoparasitic infestation, scabies (ie, infestation with the mite Sarcoptes scabiei), affects 5% of the world's population. Patients present with pruritic lesions in skin folds, finger webs, and areas in which clothing is tight. The diagnosis can be confirmed with dermatoscopy or microscopy. Management involves use of permethrin cream, oral ivermectin, or benzyl benzoate.


Assuntos
Percevejos-de-Cama , Ectoparasitoses , Infestações por Piolhos , Ácaros , Ftirápteros , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/transmissão , Humanos
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