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1.
Zootaxa ; 4612(1): zootaxa.4612.1.10, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717085

RESUMO

Three species of chewing lice-Eucolpocephalum femorale (Piaget, 1880) (Amblycera: Menoponidae), Ibidoecus plataleae (Denny, 1842) (Ischnocera: Philopteridae) and Ardeicola plataleae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Ischnocera: Philopteridae)-are reported from the black-faced spoonbill (Platalea minor Temminck Schlegel, 1849) in Japan. These three louse species are new records for this host. The black-faced spoonbill is classified as a "Critically Endangered" species in the IUCN Red List; although its species of lice are known to infest other species of spoonbills, these lice are endangered at the population level.


Assuntos
Amblíceros , Doenças das Aves , Iscnóceros , Infestações por Piolhos , Ftirápteros , Animais , Japão
2.
Med Vet Entomol ; 33(3): 407-419, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032960

RESUMO

In total, 366 birds representing 55 species in 24 families and eight orders, were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) in two high-altitude localities in Yunnan Province, China. In Ailaoshan, almost all of the birds examined were resident passeriforms, of which 36% were parasitized by chewing lice. In Jinshanyakou, most birds were on migration, and included both passerine and non-passerine birds. Of the passerine birds caught in Jinshanyakou, only one bird (0.7%) was parasitized by chewing lice. The prevalence of Myrsidea and Brueelia-complex lice on birds caught in Ailaoshan was higher than in previous reports. Of the chewing lice identifiable to species level, three represent new records for China: Actornithophilus hoplopteri (Mjöberg, 1910), Maculinirmus ljosalfar Gustafsson & Bush, 2017 and Quadraceps sinensis Timmermann, 1954. In total, 17 new host records are included, of which we describe two as new species in the Brueelia-complex: Guimaraesiella (Cicchinella) ailaoshanensis sp. nov. ex Schoeniparus dubius dubius (Hume, 1874) and G. (C.) montisodalis sp. nov. ex Fulvetta manipurensis tonkinensis Delacour & Jabouille, 1930. This published work has been registered in ZooBank, http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9FC3D8EE-2CED-4DBE-A1DB-471B71260D27.


Assuntos
Altitude , Amblíceros/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Iscnóceros/fisiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Distribuição Animal , Migração Animal , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Prevalência , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(1): 86-102, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864097

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe a new genus and two new species of chewing lice from Southeast Asian trogons (Trogoniformes). These lice belong in the Philopterus-complex. METHODS: Slide-mounted lice were examined in a light microscope, illustrated by means of a drawing tube, and described using standard procedures. RESULTS: The new genus and species were successfully described. CONCLUSIONS: The genus Vinceopterus n. gen. is described from two species of Southeast Asian trogons (Trogoniformes: Harpactes). It presently comprises two species: Vinceopterus erythrocephali n. sp. from three subspecies of the Red-headed Trogon Harpactes erythrocephalus (Gould, 1834), and Vinceopterus mindanensis n. sp. from two subspecies of the Philippine Trogon Harpactes ardens (Temminck, 1826). Vinceopterus belongs to the Philopterus-complex, and thus likely constitutes a genus of head lice. Vinceopterus is the second new genus of chewing lice discovered on Southeast Asian trogons in recent years, the first genus of presumed head lice on trogons worldwide, and the fifth genus of chewing lice known from trogons globally. A translated and revised key to the Philopterus-complex is provided, as well as notes on the various chewing lice genera known from trogons.


Assuntos
Amblíceros/anatomia & histologia , Amblíceros/classificação , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Animais , Ásia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Microscopia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4418(5): 401-431, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313568

RESUMO

Twenty-four species of chewing lice of the genus Myrsidea Waterston, 1915 (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from Neotropical Suboscines (Passeriformes: Formicariidae, Furnariidae, Pipridae, Thamnophilidae, Tityridae, Tyrannidae) are recorded and discussed. They include: eight new species which are described and illustrated (Myrsidea capeki new species ex Chiroxiphia caudata; Myrsidea leptopogoni new species ex Leptopogon superciliaris; Myrsidea leucophthalmi new species ex Automolus leucophthalmus; Myrsidea pachyramphi new species ex Pachyramphus polychopterus; Myrsidea philydori new species ex Philydor rufum; Myrsidea pyriglenae new species ex Pyriglena leucoptera; Myrsidea scleruri new species ex Sclerurus scansor and Myrsidea zuzanae new species ex Furnarius rufus), as well as nine previously known species with additional data on intraspecific morphological variability, host associations and geographical distribution (Myrsidea barbati Price, Hellenthal Dalgleish, 2005; Myrsidea dalgleishi Valim, Price Johnson, 2011; Myrsidea flaviventris Price, Hellenthal Dalgleish, 2005; Myrsidea klimesi Sychra, 2006; Myrsidea meyi Valim, Price Johnson, 2011; Myrsidea oleaginei Price, Hellenthal Dalgleish, 2005; Myrsidea olivacei Price, Hellenthal Dalgleish, 2005; Myrsidea pitangi Price, Hellenthal Dalgleish, 2005 and Myrsidea spellmani Price, Johnson Dalgleish, 2008b). Seven further species are recorded at genus level only due to lack of adequate material. A 379 bp portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was sequenced from seven species in order to assess relative genetic divergences among Myrsidea populations.


Assuntos
Iscnóceros , Passeriformes , Amblíceros , Animais , Doenças das Aves , Infestações por Piolhos , Ftirápteros
5.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 42(3): 207-212, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the morphological characteristics of Colpocephalum nanum (C. nanum) Piaget, 1890 using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). METHODS: For this purpose, the C. nanum specimens collected from long-legged buzzards, Buteo rufinus (B. rufinus) (Accipitriformes: Accipitridae), in Turkey were examined under LM and SM for morphological characteristics. The specimens were fixed and kept in 70% ethanol, cleared and mounted on the slides in Canada balsam. They were examined for morphological characteristics under LM. Some of the samples were put in a plate on absorbing paper and kept overnight, for ether to evaporate. These samples were mounted on aluminum stubs to study the ventral surface by placing them on their dorsal or ventral surface on double-sided adhesive tape. They were sputter-coated three times with gold, each time for approximately 7 minutes and later viewed using SEM (Zeiss SUPRA 55 VP FE-SEM and Zeiss EVO lS 10). RESULTS: Parts of the specimens were photographed, and the obtained data about morphological characteristic were evaluated in detail. CONCLUSION: The LM and SEM photos of C. nanum were compared, and information about the important criteria for diagnosis and other morphological characteristics was obtained.


Assuntos
Amblíceros/ultraestrutura , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Falconiformes , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Amblíceros/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Microscopia/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Turquia
6.
Parasitol Int ; 67(4): 528-532, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733901

RESUMO

The Great Cormorant is a widespread bird species with almost worldwide distribution. Accordingly, its general biology has been investigated thoroughly. Less well known, however, are the chewing lice that live inside the plumage of this diving bird. We examined the two known species of Great Cormorant chewing lice, Eidmanniella pellucida (Rudow, 1869) (Amblycera: Menoponidae) and Pectinopygus gyricornis (Denny, 1842) (Ischnocera: Philopteridae). Taking advantage of the autofluorescence of the cuticle, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to explore the external morphology of all developmental stages of P. gyricornis. Morphometric analyses revealed a standard increase in body size from first larval instar to the adult. In addition, all instars exhibited increasing body segment differentiation, especially in the abdomen and the head. A total of 277 individuals of Pectinopygus gyricornis and 2 individuals of Eidmanniella pellucida were collected from eleven Great Cormorants from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, in 2015.


Assuntos
Amblíceros/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Iscnóceros/fisiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Abdome/fisiologia , Amblíceros/anatomia & histologia , Amblíceros/genética , Amblíceros/ultraestrutura , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Cabeça/fisiologia , Iscnóceros/anatomia & histologia , Iscnóceros/genética , Iscnóceros/ultraestrutura , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/ultraestrutura , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Microscopia Confocal
7.
Zootaxa ; 4372(1): 1-109, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689830

RESUMO

The chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) of Mexico have been little studied and many publications include isolated records. This paper summarizes current knowledge of chewing lice recorded from Mexico resulting from an exhaustive search of the literature published from 1866 to 2017. We found 342 louse species associated with 206 bird and 28 mammal species. As a result, we provide a checklist of the chewing lice recorded from Mexico, including a host-parasite list and their geographical distribution within the country.


Assuntos
Iscnóceros , Infestações por Piolhos , Amblíceros , Animais , Doenças das Aves , México , Ftirápteros
8.
Parasitol Int ; 66(5): 699-706, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28711426

RESUMO

Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%).


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Ftirápteros/fisiologia , Amblíceros/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Iscnóceros/fisiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Zootaxa ; 4238(2): zootaxa.4238.2.5, 2017 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28264256

RESUMO

Amyrsidea Ewing, 1927 is a genus of chewing lice comprising 52 species, divided into five subgenera: Amyrsidea sensu stricto, Argimenopon Eichler, 1947, Cracimenopon Carriker, 1954, Desumenopon Carriker, 1954 and Numidimenopon Scharf & Price, 1977 (see Price et al. 2003: 86), which parasitise a wide range of hosts belonging to the avian order Galliformes (see Price et al. 2003: 321). Species of Amyrsidea can be distinguished from species of Menacanthus Neumann, 1912-the other menoponid genus with species parasitic on the same hosts-by lacking ventral spinous processes in the head (Scharf & Price 1977: 815). Revisions of all subgenera and species of Amyrsidea, including keys for their identification, were published by Scharf & Price (1977, 1983) and Scharf & Emerson (1983, 1984).


Assuntos
Amblíceros , Animais , Doenças das Aves , Galinhas , Infestações por Piolhos , Ftirápteros , Arábia Saudita
10.
Evolution ; 71(2): 421-431, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27925167

RESUMO

Body size is one of the most fundamental characteristics of all organisms. It influences physiology, morphology, behavior, and even interspecific interactions such as those between parasites and their hosts. Host body size influences the magnitude and variability of parasite size according to Harrison's rule (HR: positive relationship between host and parasite body sizes) and Poulin's Increasing Variance Hypothesis (PIVH: positive relationship between host body size and the variability of parasite body size). We analyzed parasite-host body size allometry for 581 species of avian lice (∼15% of known diversity) and their hosts. We applied phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) methods to account for phylogenetic nonindependence controlling for host and parasite phylogenies separately and variance heterogeneity. We tested HR and PIVH for the major families of avian lice (Ricinidae, Menoponidae, Philopteridae), and for distinct ecological guilds within Philopteridae. Our data indicate that most families and guilds of avian lice follow both HR and PIVH; however, ricinids did not follow PIVH and the "body lice" guild of philopterid lice did not follow HR or PIVH. We discuss mathematical and ecological factors that may be responsible for these patterns, and we discuss the potential pervasiveness of these relationships among all parasites on Earth.


Assuntos
Amblíceros/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Aves/parasitologia , Tamanho Corporal , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Iscnóceros/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Feminino , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Masculino
11.
Zootaxa ; 4154(2): 179-89, 2016 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27615833

RESUMO

Two species of the chewing louse genus Ricinus are redescribed and illustrated: Ricinus dalgleishi Nelson, 1972 from Helmitheros vermivorum (Gmelin, 1789), a new host-louse association, and Ricinus tanagraephilus Eichler, 1956 from Euphonia laniirostris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837. Also, new host-louse associations are recorded for Ricinus vireoensis Nelson, 1972 from Vireo pallens Salvin, 1863, and for females of an unidentified species of Ricinus sp. from Corythopis delalandi (Lesson, 1831), which are described and illustrated.


Assuntos
Amblíceros/anatomia & histologia , Amblíceros/classificação , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Amblíceros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Passeriformes/parasitologia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4085(2): 233-47, 2016 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27394300

RESUMO

The new species Myrsidea alexanderi is described and illustrated ex Pheugopedius maculipectus (Troglodytidae) from Honduras. Redescriptions and illustrations are given for both sexes of Myrsidea chiapensis ex Calocitta formosa from Costa Rica, and the male of M. dissimilis ex Progne chalybea from Brazil. Also, seven other previously known species or subspecies of the louse genus Myrsidea are recorded and discussed from passerine birds of the Neotropical Region, as follows: Myrsidea antiqua, Myrsidea balteri, Myrsidea diffusa, Myrsidea nesomimi borealis, Myrsidea paleno, Myrsidea psittaci and Myrsidea serini. Our data increase knowledge of intraspecific morphological variability within these species, and also of their host and geographical distribution. New host-louse associations are: Agelaioides badius for M. psittaci; Basileuterus culicivorus and Myiothlypis leucoblephara for M. paleno; Mimus saturninus for M. nesomimi borealis; and Icterus dominicensis and Molothrus rufoaxillaris for Myrsidea sp.


Assuntos
Amblíceros/classificação , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Amblíceros/anatomia & histologia , Amblíceros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil , Costa Rica , Ecossistema , Feminino , Honduras , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Passeriformes/parasitologia
13.
Zootaxa ; 4126(3): 397-410, 2016 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27395595

RESUMO

Myrsidea ivanliteraki new species, M. novaeseelandiae new species, and M. hihi new species are described and illustrated from New Zealand birds, with Gymnorhina tibicen, Anthornis melanura and Notiomystis cincta as type hosts respectively. Also, Myrsidea vincula is redescribed and illustrated from one sample ex Strepera fuliginosa from Australia. Keys for the identification of females and males of the five species of Myrsidea recorded from New Zealand are also given.


Assuntos
Amblíceros/classificação , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Amblíceros/anatomia & histologia , Amblíceros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Tamanho do Órgão , Passeriformes/parasitologia
14.
Int J Parasitol ; 46(4): 221-7, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26896575

RESUMO

Phoresy is a behaviour where one organism hitches a ride on another more mobile organism. This is a common dispersal mechanism amongst relatively immobile species that specialise on patchy resources. Parasites specialise on patchily distributed resources: their hosts. Although host individuals are isolated in space and time, parasites must transmit between hosts or they will die with their hosts. Lice are permanent obligate ectoparasites that complete their entire life cycle on their host. They typically transmit when hosts come into direct contact; however, lice are also capable of transmitting phoretically. Yet, phoresy is rare amongst some groups of lice. Fundamental morphological differences have traditionally been used to explain the phoretic differences amongst different suborders of lice; however, these hypotheses do not fully explain observed patterns. We propose that a more fundamental natural history trait may better explain variation in phoresy. Species able to disperse under their own power should be less likely to engage in phoresy than more immobile species. Here we experimentally tested the relationship between independent louse mobility and phoresy using a system with four species of lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera and Amblycera) that all parasitize a single host species, the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia). We quantified the relative ability of all four species of lice to move independently off the host, and we quantified their ability to attach to, and remain attached to, hippoboscid flies (Pseudolynchia canariensis). Our results show that the most mobile louse species is the least phoretic, and the most phoretic species is quite immobile off the host. Our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that phoretic dispersal should be rare amongst species of lice that are capable of independent dispersal; however other factors such as interspecific competition may also play a role.


Assuntos
Amblíceros/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Dípteros/parasitologia , Iscnóceros/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Columbidae/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/transmissão , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária
15.
Br Poult Sci ; 57(1): 44-50, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26642864

RESUMO

The epidemiology of chicken lice species such as Menacanthus stramineus, M. cornutus and M. pallidulus were studied during an observational, analytical and sectional survey, to determine predisposing factors for their occurrence in laying hen farms in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 431 houses on 43 farms were visited in 2012. M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M. pallidulus occurred in 20.9%, 11.6% and 11.6% of farms, respectively. The frequencies of occurrence of M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M.pallidulus in poultry houses were 10.4%, 8.8% and 3.7%, respectively. The epidemiological determinants for the occurrence of these species were investigated using Poisson or logistic regression models. The region of the farm, the recent use of acaricides and the presence of birds, such as saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola), feral pigeon (Columba livia) and Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) around the farms were related to the epidemiology of M. cornutus. Infestation by M. stramineus was associated with age of birds, number of birds per cage and the presence of Guira cuckoo and Chopi blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi) near the poultry houses. The occurrence of M. pallidulus was influenced by the type of facilities, presence of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and free-range domestic hens around the farm. The use of wire mesh nets in the houses and of forced moulting did not influence lice infestation.


Assuntos
Amblíceros/fisiologia , Galinhas , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
J Med Entomol ; 52(5): 970-8, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26336209

RESUMO

The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated with either of the test formulations, which led to significantly higher ovipositional avoidance when compared with female lice on control hair tufts. Additionally, both formulations were determined to be competent infestation deterrents in a competitive avoidance test in the presence of a known attractant (head louse feces extract). In in vivo assessments using a previously validated poultry model, Elimax shampoo was determined to be an efficacious deterrent against poultry chewing lice within Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp.


Assuntos
Amblíceros , Preparações para Cabelo , Inseticidas , Infestações por Piolhos/prevenção & controle , Pediculus , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia
17.
J Med Entomol ; 52(5): 850-7, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26336250

RESUMO

We examined Swainson's warblers (Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon, 1834), Aves: Parulidae) for lice fauna during 2 yr at three study sites in Arkansas, USA. A total of 66 individuals were examined; eight birds (10.6%) were parasitized with 16 lice of two new species belonging to two genera Myrsidea Waterson, 1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae) and Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera: Philopteridae). Parasitological parameter data are given on the prevalence of lice on Swainson's warblers. Species descriptions and illustrations are provided for Myrsidea bensoni sp. nov. and Brueelia limnothlypiae sp. nov.; including a key for females of the genus Myrsidea that parasitize Parulidae (Passeriformes).


Assuntos
Amblíceros/anatomia & histologia , Amblíceros/fisiologia , Iscnóceros/anatomia & histologia , Iscnóceros/fisiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Aves Canoras/parasitologia , Amblíceros/classificação , Amblíceros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Arkansas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Iscnóceros/classificação , Iscnóceros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Masculino , Ninfa/anatomia & histologia , Ninfa/classificação , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Prevalência
18.
J Parasitol ; 101(3): 304-13, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25738214

RESUMO

The chewing louse fauna of pigeons and doves in Japan is reviewed based on published records and new collections. An updated checklist of the chewing lice of Japanese pigeons and doves is provided, and 3 new species are described: Columbicola asukae n. sp. and Coloceras nakamurai n. sp., both from Columba janthina Temminck, 1830 (Japanese wood pigeon), and Columbicola lemoinei n. sp. from Treron formosae permagnus Stejneger, 1887, and Treron formosae medioximus (Bangs, 1901) (whistling green-pigeons). This checklist includes data on the first records of Coloceras chinense (Kellogg and Chapman, 1902), Coloceras piriformis ( Tendeiro, 1969 ), and Columbicola guimaraesi Tendeiro, 1965, in Japan. New host records of Hohorstiella sp. from Columba janthina and Treron formosae permagnus, and Coloceras sp. from Treron sieboldii sieboldii (Temminck, 1835) (white-bellied green-pigeon) are provided.


Assuntos
Amblíceros/classificação , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Columbidae/parasitologia , Iscnóceros/classificação , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Masculino
19.
J Parasitol ; 101(2): 252-4, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25279583

RESUMO

Focusing upon chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) parasitizing blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla ) in the Azores (Portugal), we found a lower number of louse species in the Azores compared to mainland Europe. Only chewing lice host specific to blackcaps were found in the Azores. Louse prevalences were much higher in blackcaps from the Azores compared to those of various mainland populations. Chewing lice are permanent parasites of birds, and for such parasites the parasite island syndrome could be characterized by higher parasite prevalence on the islands compared to the mainland.


Assuntos
Amblíceros , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Iscnóceros , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Animais , Açores/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Prevalência , Síndrome
20.
Int J Parasitol ; 45(1): 63-73, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25311782

RESUMO

Parasites with wide host spectra provide opportunities to study the ecological parameters of speciation, as well as the process of the evolution of host specificity. The speciose and cosmopolitan louse genus Menacanthus comprises both multi-host and specialised species, allowing exploration of the ecological and historical factors affecting the evolution of parasites using a comparative approach. We used phylogenetic analysis to reconstruct evolutionary relationships in 14 species of Menacanthus based on the sequences of one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene. The results allowed us to validate species identification based on morphology, as well as to explore host distribution by assumed generalist and specialist species. Our analyses confirmed a narrow host use for several species, however in some cases, the supposed host specialists had a wider host spectrum than anticipated. In one case a host generalist (Menacanthus eurysternus) was clustered terminally on a clade almost exclusively containing host specialists. Such a clade topology indicates that the process of host specialisation may not be irreversible in parasite evolution. Finally, we compared patterns of population genetic structure, geographic distribution and host spectra between two selected species, M. eurysternus and Menacanthus camelinus, using haplotype networks. Menacanthus camelinus showed limited geographical distribution in combination with monoxenous host use, whereas M. eurysternus showed a global distribution and lack of host specificity. It is suggested that frequent host switching maintains gene flow between M. eurysternus populations on unrelated hosts in local populations. However, gene flow between geographically distant localities was restricted, suggesting that geography rather than host-specificity is the main factor defining the global genetic diversity of M. eurysternus.


Assuntos
Amblíceros/classificação , Amblíceros/genética , Evolução Biológica , Filogeografia , Adaptação Biológica , Amblíceros/fisiologia , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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