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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107936, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535116

RESUMO

This study evaluated the germination capacity of Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4) fungus after its passage through the gastrointestinal tract of domestic chickens and its interaction with Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum eggs. Twenty-two domestic chickens were divided in two groups: control group (G1) received shredded corn substrate without VC4; and treatment group (G2) received a single dose of 29 g corn substrate containing 3.3 × 106 conidia/chlamydospores (VC4). Subsequently, chicken fecal samples were collected at intervals of 0, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18 and 24 h. Petri dishes from fecal samples of the treated group (G2) were subdivided (G2a and G2b), and then replicated in 2% agar-water medium for the microbiological test. After VC4 growth, approximately 200 eggs of A. galli (G2a) and H. gallinarum (G2b) were added to each subgroup to evaluation of ovicidal activity. There was fungal viability after passage through chicken gastrointestinal tract and egg predation of 59.9% and 43.2% for A. galli and H. gallinarum, respectively. The present work demonstrates the ability of the fungus P. chlamydosporia to survive after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of domestic chickens, an extreme environment (low pH, enzymes, microbiota and mechanical action), and still germinate after being excreted with feces.


Assuntos
Ascaridíase/veterinária , Galinhas , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hypocreales/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Animais , Ascaridia/microbiologia , Ascaridíase/prevenção & controle , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/prevenção & controle , Spirurina/microbiologia
2.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 157-166, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053468

RESUMO

This study provides additional taxonomic features based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular data for Paracamallanus cyathopharynx ( Baylis, 1923 ) (Nematoda: Camallanidae). Parasites were collected from the posterior end of the intestine of cultured freshwater Sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from Kibos fish farm, Kisumu County, Kenya, from December 2017 to March 2018. Additional taxonomic features recorded for P. cyathopharynx include the occurrence of 4-5 equal length digitate processes on the caudal end of the female, 4 processes (2 smaller and 2 larger) on the male caudal end, and a description of the shape of the distal tip of the right spicule. The study provides SEM images of the exposed sclerotized buccal capsule. This gives more information on the tridents, the sclerotized plate that extends laterally from the buccal capsule, and the narrow isthmus separating the anterior buccal capsule from the posterior. The prevalence, intensity, mean intensity, and mean abundance was 52.91%, 2-38, 12.37 and 6.54, respectively. 18S rDNA fragments were amplified, sequenced, and compared to other camallanid taxa, and 18S data confirmed the identity of the newly obtained sequences (MN396556) as that of P. cyathopharynx, being identical to sequence DQ813445 from Tanzania. This represents the first geographical record of P. cyathopharynx in Kenya.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/genética , Spirurina/ultraestrutura , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/química , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Pesqueiros , Água Doce , Intestinos/parasitologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia
3.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 172-179, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073359

RESUMO

A new species of the nematode Triumphalisnema Kloss, 1962 (Oxyuridomorpha), is described from the wood beetle Proculejus hirtus Truqui from the mountain mesophilic forest in Hidalgo State, Mexico. Triumphalisnema zuuei n. sp. is distinguished from the other 4 congeners species by the presence of an expanded cervical ring, well-developed lateral alae, an obtuse cauda with a short and bifurcated caudal appendage, series of cuticular folds at ventral and dorsal body surface from excretory pore level to anal region, and ellipsoidal eggs ornamented with numerous small mushroom-like structures over the surface. The phylogenetic position of the new species is inferred based on a Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analysis of partial sequences of 18S SSU rRNA. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Triumphalisnema zuuei n. sp., the only representative of the Traklosiidae in our study, is closely related to Coynema poeyi and species of Longior, Hystrignathus, and Lepidonema, all of them members of Hystrignathidae. These relationships are supported by high support values. The present study increases to 5 the number of species assigned to Triumphalisnema, all of them parasites of Passalidae. Additionally, a taxonomic key to the species of the genus is provided.


Assuntos
Besouros/parasitologia , Spirurina/classificação , Altitude , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Florestas , Intestinos/parasitologia , Funções Verossimilhança , México , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Spirurina/anatomia & histologia , Spirurina/genética , Spirurina/ultraestrutura
4.
J Parasitol ; 105(5): 769-782, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625813

RESUMO

Truttaedacnitis truttae is a cucullanid nematode of primarily salmonine fishes. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Europe reportedly become parasitized by ingesting lampreys (Lampetra planeri) carrying infective larvae. However, our field and laboratory observations suggested that North American specimens of T. truttae have an alternative life cycle. High abundances and potential impact of T. truttae in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, in the Colorado River drainage in Grand Canyon, where there are no lampreys, prompted a study on the transmission dynamics of this nematode. Eggs of T. truttae, collected from live gravid females, were incubated in the laboratory. Snails, Physa gyrina and Lymnaea sp., were exposed to T. truttae larvae 3-4 wk later. Active larvae of T. truttae were observed penetrating the intestinal wall of exposed snails, and worm larvae were found in the visceral tissues when examined 1 wk after exposure. Larvae in snails showed little growth and development 2 wk later and corresponded to L3 larvae. Infected snails were fed to hatchery-reared juvenile rainbow trout. Developing stages were subsequently found in the mucosal lining and lumen of trout intestines. Adult male and female (gravid) worms were found in the ceca of trout examined 5-6 mo after consuming infected snails. Larvae found in pepsin/trypsin digests and mucosal scrapings from wild, naturally infected, trout corroborate laboratory findings. Screening of Physa sp. and gammarids collected from Colorado River, Grand Canyon, for natural infections with T. truttae using the ITS1 rDNA marker gave positive results. Truttaedacnitis truttae is the second species, after Truttaedacnitis clitellarius of lake sturgeon, capable of using a snail first intermediate/paratenic host and is similar to several other cucullanids in having a histotropic phase of development in the definitive fish host.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Caramujos/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Truta/parasitologia , Animais , Ceco/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitologia , Projetos Piloto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Rios , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Spirurina/anatomia & histologia
5.
J Parasitol ; 105(4): 659-668, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460831

RESUMO

The goal of parasite epidemiologists is to understand the factors that determine host infection levels. Potential infection determinants exist at many scales, including spatial and temporal environmental variation, among-host differences, and interactions between symbionts infecting the same host. All of these factors can impact levels of parasitism, but frequently only a subset is considered in any host-parasite system. We examined several potential determinants of pinworm infection in wild Australian cockroaches (Periplaneta australasiae) from multiple biological scales: (1) habitat; (2) season; (3) cockroach body size, developmental stage, and sex; and (4) interactions between 2 pinworm species (Leidynema appendiculata and Thelastoma sp.). Over 1 yr, we collected 239 cockroaches from 2 separate rooms in an Illinois greenhouse. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMMs) to evaluate simultaneously the influence of these factors on pinworm abundance, and nearly all had significant effects. Overall, the abundance of L. appendiculata was greater than Thelastoma sp., but the relative abundance of the 2 species was reversed in each room (i.e., a taxon × habitat effect). Abundance varied over 4 trapping seasons and increased with cockroach size. Adult cockroaches had more pinworms than nymphs, and there was also a significant taxon × stage effect: adult cockroaches had fewer pinworms than expected for their larger size, and this reduction was greater in Thelastoma sp. than in L. appendiculata. Cockroach sex had no effect on infection. Although females had more worms than males, this difference could be explained by the larger size of females. Finally, after controlling for all other potential determinants of infection, we found a strong negative association between Thelastoma sp. and L. appendiculata; cockroaches tended to be infected with either 1 pinworm species or the other. Our work underscores the importance of measuring potential determinants of infection from as many scales as possible. Such approaches are necessary to unravel the complexities of host-parasite interactions.


Assuntos
Carga Parasitária , Periplaneta/parasitologia , Spirurina/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Umidade , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ninfa/parasitologia , Periplaneta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Spirurina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura
6.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2909-2918, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418111

RESUMO

Helminth parasites have been a popular research topic due to their global prevalence and adverse effects on livestock and game species. The Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), a popular game bird in the USA, is one species subject to helminth infection and has been experiencing a decline of > 4% annually over recent decades. In the Rolling Plains Ecoregion of Texas, the eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and caecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) helminths are found to be highly prevalent in bobwhite. While there have been increasing studies on the prevalence, pathology, and phylogeny of the eyeworm and caecal worm, there is still a need to investigate the bobwhite immune response to infection. This study utilizes previously sequenced bobwhite cytokines and toll-like receptors to develop and optimize qPCR primers and measure gene expression in bobwhite intramuscularly challenged with eyeworm and caecal worm glycoproteins. For the challenge experiments, separate treatments of eyeworm and caecal worm glycoproteins were administered to bobwhite on day 1 and day 21. Measurements of primary and secondary immune responses were taken at day 7 and day 28, respectively. Using the successfully optimized qPCR primers for TLR7, IL1ß, IL6, IFNα, IFNγ, IL10, and ß-actin, the gene expression analysis from the challenge experiments revealed that there was a measurable immune reaction in bobwhite in response to the intramuscular challenge of eyeworm and caecal worm glycoproteins.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/imunologia , Colinus/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Spirurina/imunologia , Thelazioidea/imunologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Ceco/parasitologia , Colinus/parasitologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Texas/epidemiologia
7.
J Parasitol ; 105(2): 263-270, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945987

RESUMO

Dichelyne ( Cucullanellus) dichelyneformis ( Szidat, 1950 ) Petter, 1974 , was collected in the intestine of the rock cod, Eleginops maclovinus, in the Bay of Corral, Chile, and redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopy. The correct arrangement of caudal papillae and post deirids, the shape of gubernaculum, and the morphology and number of denticles surrounding the oral opening are described for the first time. These characteristics along with the excretory pore position, size of spicules, and presence of a nodular thickening near the distal end of the spicules differentiate D. ( C.) dichelyneformis from the other congeners reported in South America and in the Antarctic. The new congeneric species found in E. maclovinus differs from D. ( C.) dichelyneformis based on the larger males, larger and more numerous denticles with a smooth surface, weakly developed sclerotized plates in esophastome, excretory pore and deirids posterior to nerve ring, shorter gubernaculum and spicules with no thickening on their distal region, lower spicules/body length ratio (10.4-15.1%), and a papilla-like phasmids closer to pairs 8 and 10.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Spirurina/classificação , Animais , Baías , Chile , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Spirurina/anatomia & histologia , Spirurina/isolamento & purificação , Spirurina/ultraestrutura
8.
Parasitology ; 146(2): 206-212, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978775

RESUMO

Periodicity in nematode egg excretion may be of evolutionary origin as it can favour dispersal of the eggs in the environment. We investigated whether egg excretion by Heterakis gallinarum shows a repeatable pattern of periodicity. The faecal egg concentration and total number of eggs excreted within 4-h intervals were significantly affected by the sampling time within 1 day, but remained unaffected by the sampling day or interaction effects. By contrast, the total number of eggs excreted within 24 h did not differ among the 4 days of the study, collectively indicating repeatable egg excretion patterns. Both host feces and parasite egg excretion increased from night to late afternoon, followed by a decrease in the evening, resulting in higher egg excretion during daytime than the dark period. Feces excretion and worm fecundity showed overlapping diurnal rhythms with similarly timed phases, suggesting the existence of synchronicity between the host feces and nematode egg excretion patterns. We conclude that egg excretion by H. gallinarum is synchronized with host feces excretion and is higher during the daytime than during the dark period. This overlaps with the maximum activity of the day-active host and allows a maximal dispersal of the eggs in the environment.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Defecação/fisiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Óvulo/fisiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia
9.
Braz J Biol ; 79(1): 38-44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694563

RESUMO

This work aimed to assessing Strongyluris sp. cysts distribution pattern in the several inner organs from pallial system of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. Also we verified if there is a relationship between the mollusk size and the number of specimens from parasites collected from two touristic villages in Ilha Grande (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro state): Vila Dois Rios (VDR) and Vila do Abraão (ABR). The samples were obtained through a field work conducted bimonthly during 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011, at both locations. Height and width were measured from shells collected, and the all specimens were classified in different classes: class 1 - <4.0 cm, class 2 - 4.1-9.0 cm and class 3 - < 9.0 cm. After the specimens were dissected in order to find and count the number cysts in the pallial system. In specimens from both locations, the pulmonary and secondary veins showed a high number of cysts. No significance difference was found both in the abundance of cysts among the specimens in ABR (p=0.138) and VDR (p=0.181). Achatina fulica showed different intensities of cyst infection based on the size classes: the class-3 specimens, at both locations, showed the greatest cyst average (ABR Anova F= 3.8; p=0.02); (VDR T of Student T= -2.04; p=0.04). The results suggested that the highest number of cysts in the vascularized area in pallial system of A. fulica was a consequence of a greater hemolymph circulation in that area, delivering more nutrients for larvae development. We think that bigger individuals host a higher number of cysts, as they usually present a larger biomass and a larger area of the pallial system, allowing an efficient parasite colonization. Other possible explanation could be the long exposure of the molluscs of class 3 to the parasites, which allowed a longer time to the larvae to allocate themselves.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Caramujos/parasitologia , Animais , Ascaridídios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Espécies Introduzidas , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Spirurina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spirurina/fisiologia
10.
Acta Parasitol ; 63(4): 715-720, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367756

RESUMO

Cosmocerca bengalensis sp. nov. (Ascaridida, Cosmocercidae) recovered from the rectum of an Indian bullfrog, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin, 1803), collected from Hetampur town in Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to C. acanthurum, C. banyulensis, C. cruzi, C. japonica, C. kalesari, C. microhylae, C. novaeguineae, C. ornata, C. paraguayensis, C. parva, C. podicipinus and C. travassosi in having 5 pairs of plectanes supporting preanal papillae but differs from these species by general morphometry, absence of somatic papillae in females, absence of gubernaculum and having only one pair of adanal papillae in males and one pair postanal papillae in females except C. microhylae. Present parasites differ from C. microhylae by absence of gubernaculum and general morphometry. Cosmocerca bengalensis sp. nov. represents the thirtheith species assigned to the genus, seventh from Oriental region and fifth species from India.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Spirurina/classificação , Animais , Feminino , Índia , Masculino , Reto/parasitologia , Spirurina/anatomia & histologia , Spirurina/isolamento & purificação
11.
Acta Parasitol ; 63(4): 814-818, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367757

RESUMO

A new species of nematode, Orientatractis longicaudata n. sp. is described from the intestine of Indotestudo elongata (Blyth) (Testudinidae) from Zoo of Tianjin, Tianjin, China. The new species can be easily distinguished from its congers by having longer tail, by the length of gubernaculum and left spicule, and by the numbers of caudal papillae. This is first species of Orientatractis Petter, 1966 reported in China. A key to the species of Orientatractis is provided.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/classificação , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , China , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Spirurina/isolamento & purificação , Spirurina/ultraestrutura
12.
Acta Parasitol ; 63(4): 802-807, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367767

RESUMO

An insufficiently known nematode species Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) jialaris Luo, Guo, Fang et Huang, 2004 (Cucullanidae), originally described from the red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck et Schlegel) (Sparidae) in the Taiwan Strait, off China, is redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examinations of specimens collected from the intestine of three species of sparid fishes, Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker), Evynnis tumifrons (Temminck et Schlegel) and P. major, in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. The present redescription provides exact data on the cephalic structure, character of cephalic papillae and amphids, location of the excretory pore, deirids and phasmids, and the number and distribution of caudal papillae in the male; the presence of the dorsal postdeirid in this species is reported for the first time. The SEM study revealed that the anterior cloacal lip has a median lobe-like elevation bearing two minute papillae, whereas the posterior cloacal lip is somewhat depressed, with a median longitudinal rod-like elevation probably serving to direct the movement of spicules. The size of eggs is reported for the first time. Dichelyne (C.) jialaris differs from the morphologically similar D. (C.) pleuronectidis (Yamaguti, 1935) mainly in the shape of the oesophagus. The present finding of D. (C.) jialaris represents the first record of this nematode from fishes in Japanese waters and A. schlegelii and E. tumifrons are its new host records.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Dourada/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Baías , Feminino , Japão , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Spirurina/classificação , Spirurina/ultraestrutura
13.
Acta Parasitol ; 63(4): 669-677, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367770

RESUMO

Falcaustra tintlwini sp. nov. (Ascaridida, Kathlaniidae) from the large intestine of Batagur trivittata (Testudines, Geoemydidae) is described and illustrated. Falcaustra tintlwini represents the 20th Oriental species assigned to the genus and is distinguished from other Oriental species by the distribution pattern of the caudal papillae (6 precloacal, 12 postcloacal, and 1 median), length of spicules (0.43-0.50 mm) and absence of a pseudosucker.


Assuntos
Intestino Grosso/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/classificação , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mianmar , Rios , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Spirurina/anatomia & histologia , Spirurina/isolamento & purificação
14.
Int J Parasitol ; 48(13): 1003-1016, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240707

RESUMO

Worm expulsion is known to occur in mammalian hosts exposed to mono-species helminth infections, whilst this phenomenon is poorly described in avian hosts. Mono-species infections, however, are rather rare under natural circumstances. Therefore, we quantified the extent and duration of worm expulsion by chickens experimentally infected with both Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum, and investigated the accompanying humoral and cell-mediated host immune responses in association with population dynamics of the worms. Results demonstrated the strong co-expulsion of the two ascarid species in three phases. The expulsion patterns were characterized by non-linear alterations separated by species-specific time thresholds. Ascaridia galli burden decreased at a daily expulsion rate (e) of 4.3 worms up to a threshold of 30.5 days p.i., followed by a much lower second expulsion rate (e = 0.46), which resulted in almost, but not entirely, complete expulsion. Heterakis gallinarum was able to induce reinfection within the experimental period (9 weeks). First generation H. gallinarum worms were expelled at a daily rate of e = 0.8 worms until 36.4 days p.i., and thereafter almost no expulsion occurred. Data on both humoral and tissue-specific cellular immune responses collectively indicated that antibody production in chickens with multispecies ascarid infections is triggered by Th2 polarisation. Local Th2 immune responses and mucin-regulating genes are associated with the regulation of worm expulsion. In conclusion, the chicken host is able to eliminate the vast majority of both A. galli and H. gallinarum in three distinct phases. Worm expulsion was strongly associated with the developmental stages of the worms, where the elimination of juvenile stages was specifically targeted. A very small percentage of worms was nevertheless able to survive, reach maturity and induce reinfection if given sufficient time to complete their life cycle. Both humoral and local immune responses were associated with worm expulsion.


Assuntos
Ascaridia/imunologia , Ascaridíase/veterinária , Galinhas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Ascaridíase/imunologia , Ascaridíase/parasitologia , Ceco/imunologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Íleo/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Jejuno/imunologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Infecções por Spirurida/imunologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Parasitol ; 104(5): 496-504, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906216

RESUMO

Nematodes are common in the parasite communities of North American freshwater fishes, and the majority of them belong to 1 conventional order, Spirurida Chitwood, 1933. Within the Spirurida, the superfamilies Habronematoidea Chitwood and Wehr, 1932 and Thelazioidea Sobolev, 1949 have undergone considerable diversification. The dominant families of these 2 superfamilies, Cystidicolidae Skrjabin 1946 and Rhabdochonidae Railliet, 1916, respectively, are particularly common, widely distributed, and diverse, especially in North America, yet their phylogenetic relationships remain largely unexplored. In this study, we use near complete sequences of the 18S rRNA genes ( SSU rDNA) from species in 6 genera ( Capillospirura Skrjabin, 1924, Cystidicola Fischer, 1798, Salmonema Moravec, Santos and Brasil-Sato, 2008, Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916, Spinitectus Fourment, 1883, and a putative new cystidicolid in mooneyes, Hiodontidae), along with a species of Hedruris Nitzsch, 1812 from newts as a surrogate for the fish parasite Hedruris tiara VanCleave and Mueller, 1932, to explore their phylogenetic relationships. These sequences, together with available sequences from a range of other nematodes, including fish nematodes in other groups (Camallanoidea and 'Seuratoidea'), were analyzed using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood. The results from both analyses indicate, for the first time, support for the close relationships of the sturgeon parasite Capillospirura with Ascarophis van Beneden, 1871 and Cystidicola; the relationship of the cystidicolid from Hiodontidae with Salmonema of salmonid fishes; the monophyly of the 2 dominant spiruridan genera of fishes, Rhabdochona and Spinitectus; and for previous relationships among Nearctic Spinitectus spp. The results also indicate a closer relationship of Rhabdochona and Spinitectus than is suggested by their conventional classification and reject the monophyly of Habronematoidea, Thelazioidea, and Cystidicolidae. Hedruridae appears to be an early branching lineage of spirurins. Finally, the pattern of association between the fish parasites in this study and their hosts indicates, with few exceptions, ecologically driven diversification events involving host shifting not related to the phylogenetic relationships of their hosts.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Spirurina/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Ribossômico/química , Feminino , Peixes , Água Doce , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Salamandridae/parasitologia , Spirurina/anatomia & histologia , Spirurina/genética , Thelazioidea/classificação , Thelazioidea/genética
16.
Parasitol Res ; 117(9): 2757-2766, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926182

RESUMO

Nematodes of the genus Physaloptera are common in rodents, including in species of the Family Cricetidae. There is no report of nematodes parasitizing Cerradomys goytaca, so this is the first one. For this study, 16 rodents were captured in the city of Quissamã, in the northern of Rio de Janeiro State. The rodents were necropsied, and the digestive tracts were analyzed under a stereomicroscope for the presence of parasites. The nematodes were fixed in hot AFA, clarified in Amann's lactophenol, mounted on slides with coverslip, and observed under an optical microscope. Part of the nematodes was fixed in Karnovisk solution for scanning electron microscopy. Nematodes presented evident sexual dimorphism. Oral openings had two semicircular pseudolabia, with an external lateral tooth and an internal lateral tripartite tooth on each pseudolabium. Males had a ventral spiral curved posterior ends with the presence of a caudal alae with 21 papillae with four pairs of pedunculated papillae arranged laterally, three pre-cloacal sessile papillae arranged rectilinearly and five pairs of post-cloacal sessile papillae. There was also a pair of phasmids located between the fourth and fifth pairs of post-cloacal papillae as well as two spicules that were sub-equal in size but of distinct shapes. The females have five uterine branches. The morphological and morphometrical analyses of the nematodes collected from C. goytaca were compared with other species, and the results indicated that this is a new species of the genus Physaloptera, Physaloptera goytaca n. sp.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Caracteres Sexuais , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Spirurina/anatomia & histologia , Spirurina/classificação , Spirurina/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Parasitol ; 104(3): 289-291, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373074

RESUMO

Gizzard helminths were examined in 100 (50 adult, 50 juvenile) female northern pintails ( Anas acuta). Sixty-three individual helminths, representing 5 species ( Amidostomum acutum, Echinuria uncinata, Epomidiostomum uncinatum, Streptocara crassicauda, and Gastrotaenia cygni) were found. Twenty-seven northern pintails were infected with 1-3 helminth species and averaged 1.4 species. Overall, A. acutum and G. cygni were the most prevalent and abundant species (20%, n = 31 and 10%, n = 25, respectively), followed by S. crassicauda (5%, n = 5), E. uncinata (1%, n = 1), and E. uncinatum (1%, n = 1). Intensity of infection for A. acutum, E. uncinata, E. uncinatum, S. crassicauda, and G. cygni was 1.6 ± 0.3 [SE], 1.0 ± 0, 1.0 ± 0, 1.0 ± 0, and 2.5 ± 0.6, respectively. Our findings represent new information about gizzard helminth infections in northern pintails wintering along the Texas coast.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Patos/parasitologia , Moela das Aves/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Migração Animal , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Spirurina/isolamento & purificação , Texas/epidemiologia , Trichostrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação
18.
J Helminthol ; 92(4): 403-409, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780914

RESUMO

Fish consumption plays an important role in the human diet. Hoplias malabaricus, trahira, is a freshwater fish widely appreciated in several Brazilian states and it is frequently infected by Contracaecum multipapillatum third-instar larvae (L3). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the C. multipapillatum L3 crude extract (CECM). BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally (ip) with 10 or 50 µg CECM associated with 2 mg of aluminium hydroxide on days 0, 14 and 48. The determination of specific IgG and IgE antibody levels was done after immunization, and the late immunity was evaluated by the intradermal reaction in the ear pavilion. Epicutaneous sensitization was performed in the dorsal region, with antigenic exposure via a Finn-type chamber, containing 100 µg of chicken ovum albumin (OVA) or 100 µg CECM. After the exposures, the specific antibody levels were determined. In the ip immunization, there was a gradual increase in IgG antibody levels, independent of CECM concentration. In relation to IgE production, it was transitory, and immunization with 10 µg was more efficient than that of 50 µg. The same result was observed in the cellular hypersensitivity reaction. In the case of antigen exposure by the epicutaneous route, it was verified that only CECM was able to induce detectable levels of specific IgG and IgE antibodies. In the present study it was demonstrated that both intraperitoneal immunization and epicutaneous contact with C. multipapillatum larval antigens are potentially capable of inducing allergic sensitization in mice.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Infecções por Spirurida/imunologia , Spirurina/imunologia , Animais , Brasil , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Humanos , Imunização , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Spirurina/fisiologia
19.
J Helminthol ; 92(5): 618-629, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974282

RESUMO

Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) zygodontomis, a nematode parasite of the small intestine of the rodent Necromys lasiurus, from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, was analysed by light and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, phylogenies were inferred from the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase I gene (MT-CO1). Details of the helminth surface, such as the oral aperture, cephalic papillae, papillae in the posterior region of the body and longitudinal cuticular elements represented by spine-like projections and fans are presented, adding new taxonomic details. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on the MT-CO1, demonstrated that P. (P.) zygodontomis and Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) jaegerskioldi form a unique evolutionary unit in accordance with the subgenus Paucipectines and corroborated their occurrence in cricetid and didelphid hosts.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sigmodontinae/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/classificação , Spirurina/isolamento & purificação , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Brasil , Análise por Conglomerados , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Spirurina/anatomia & histologia , Spirurina/genética
20.
J Avian Med Surg ; 31(3): 250-255, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28891698

RESUMO

Infection with Serratospiculum species was identified in a captive peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland. Pathologic and parasitologic examination results revealed generalized severe granulomatous airsacculitis, with intralesional adults, larvae, and eggs of Serratospiculum species. Subsequently, an individual coprological analysis of the remaining 15 falcons (peregrine falcons and gyrfalcons [Falco rusticolus]) from the same owner was performed. Eggs of Serratospiculum species (4 birds) and Capillaria species (11 birds), and oocysts of Caryospora species (1 bird) were detected. Treatment with ivermection (2 mg/kg SC) was effective, as none of the falcons excreted Serratospiculum species eggs 10 days after one dose. To our knowledge, this is the first report of infection with Serratospiculum species in captive falcons in Europe.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Falconiformes/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/complicações , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeriidae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enoplida/complicações , Infecções por Enoplida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Spirurida/complicações , Infecções por Spirurida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
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