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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3897, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753587

RESUMO

Lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) are signaling molecules produced by rhizobial bacteria that trigger the nodulation process in legumes, and by some fungi that also establish symbiotic relationships with plants, notably the arbuscular and ecto mycorrhizal fungi. Here, we show that many other fungi also produce LCOs. We tested 59 species representing most fungal phyla, and found that 53 species produce LCOs that can be detected by functional assays and/or by mass spectroscopy. LCO treatment affects spore germination, branching of hyphae, pseudohyphal growth, and transcription in non-symbiotic fungi from the Ascomycete and Basidiomycete phyla. Our findings suggest that LCO production is common among fungi, and LCOs may function as signals regulating fungal growth and development.


Assuntos
Quitina/análogos & derivados , Quitina/metabolismo , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Basidiomycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Rhizobium/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simbiose/fisiologia
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 562, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality in transplant patients is increased by infection caused mainly by rare opportunistic pathogens. The present study reports a case where Hongkongmyces snookiorum caused subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in a kidney transplant patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year old Chinese woman with chronic kidney disease 5 underwent kidney transplantation 3 years ago. Her regular medications included Tacrolimus (1 mg, two times daily), Mycophenolate Mofetil (two times 250 mg, twice daily) and Prednisone acetate tablets (5 mg daily). Eighteen months ago, her proximal right index finger was red, painful and swollen. After admission, a hard and fluctuating 1 cm × 1 cm abscess was found on the dorsal side of the right index finger. Gram and fluorescence staining of a direct smear of a syringe extraction from the abscess revealed presence of filamentous fungi. White velvet colonies (2-3 mm) were found on blood plate and Sabouraud glucose agar (SGA) after 1 week, and grey aerial hyphae were observed. After 15 days, a 26 mm gray colony was also observed on SGA. The homology between this filamentous fungus and Hongkongmyces snookiorum ILLS00125755 (Genbank Sequence ID: MH161189.1) was 99.66%. An in vitro antifungal susceptibility test showed that this filamentous fungus was sensitive to azoles such as itraconazole and voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS: We report an opportunistic fungus infection caused by Hongkongmyces snookiorum in a transplant patient. Our finding shows that prevention of subcutaneous fungal infection is necessary for kidney transplantation patients.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Feoifomicose/etiologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feoifomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Feoifomicose/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
3.
Phytochemistry ; 178: 112456, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692663

RESUMO

The gene Lr34res is one of the most long-lasting sources of quantitative fungal resistance in wheat. It is shown to be effective against leaf, stem, and stripe rusts, as well as powdery mildew and spot blotch. Recent biochemical characterizations of the encoded ABC transporter have outlined a number of allocrites, including phospholipids and abscisic acid, consistent with the established general promiscuity of ABC transporters, but ultimately leaving its mechanism of rust resistance unclear. Working with flag leaves of Triticum aestivum L. variety 'Thatcher' (Tc) and a near-isogenic line of 'Thatcher' into which the Lr34res allele was introgressed (Tc+Lr34res; RL6058), a comparative semi-targeted metabolomics analysis of flavonoid-rich extracts revealed virtually identical profiles with the exception of one metabolite accumulating in Tc+Lr34res, which was not present at comparable levels in Tc. Structural characterization of the purified metabolite revealed a phenylpropanoid diglyceride structure, 1-O-p-coumaroyl-3-O-feruloylglycerol (CFG). Additional profiling of CFG across a collection of near-isogenic lines and representative Lr34 haplotypes highlighted a broad association between the presence of Lr34res and elevated accumulations of CFG. Depletion of CFG upon infection, juxtaposed to its relatively lower anti-fungal activity, suggests CFG may serve as a storage form of the more potent anti-microbial hydroxycinnamic acids that are accessed during defense responses. Altogether these findings suggest a role for the encoded LR34res ABC transporter in modifying the accumulation of CFG, leading to increased accumulation of anti-fungal metabolites, essentially priming the wheat plant for defense.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Basidiomycota , Diglicerídeos , Resistência à Doença , Doenças das Plantas , Triticum
5.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 37(1): 77-81, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730404

RESUMO

The episodes of febrile neutropenia are severe cases that require an exhaustive etiological study and a quick start of antimicrobial agents. Within the possible microorganisms, fungal origins are also found, and depending on its tissue invasion, they can reach a high mortality rate. A case of a pediatric patient who suffered from acute myeloid leukemia is reported, and after his induction chemotherapy, the patient showed an episode of febrile neutropenia, which matches a rhinosinusal infection caused by Exserohilum rostratum, a filamentous fungi that is uncommonly associated with pathological cases. An antifungal therapy and an early surgical treatment were started, which lead to a positive response, without complications to the patient. After the monitoring and receiving secondary prophylaxis during the episodes of neutropenia, the patient hasn't presented new injuries nor rhinosinusal damage.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Ascomicetos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Micoses , Sinusite , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Micoses/complicações , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/etiologia , Sinusite/complicações , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0218636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639969

RESUMO

Microbial colonization of bone is an important mechanism of postmortem skeletal degradation. However, the types and distributions of bone and tooth colonizing microbes are not well characterized. It is unknown if microbial communities vary in abundance or composition between bone element types, which could help explain differences in human DNA preservation. The goals of the present study were to (1) identify the types of microbes capable of colonizing different human bone types and (2) relate microbial abundances, diversity, and community composition to bone type and human DNA preservation. DNA extracts from 165 bone and tooth samples from three skeletonized individuals were assessed for bacterial loading and microbial community composition and structure. Random forest models were applied to predict operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with human DNA concentration. Dominant bacterial bone colonizers were from the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. Eukaryotic bone colonizers were from Ascomycota, Apicomplexa, Annelida, Basidiomycota, and Ciliophora. Bacterial loading was not a significant predictor of human DNA concentration in two out of three individuals. Random forest models were minimally successful in identifying microbes related to human DNA concentration, which were complicated by high variability in community structure between individuals and body regions. This work expands on our understanding of the types of microbes capable of colonizing the postmortem human skeleton and potentially contributing to human skeletal DNA degradation.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/microbiologia , Microbiota , Antropologia , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Autopsia , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Dente/microbiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235565, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614894

RESUMO

Powdery mildew is an important foliar disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) caused by the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). The understanding of the resistance mechanism is essential for future resistance breeding. In particular, the identification of race-nonspecific resistance genes is important because of their regarded durability and broad-spectrum activity. We assessed the severity of powdery mildew infection on detached seedling leaves of 267 barley accessions using two poly-virulent isolates and performed a genome-wide association study exploiting 201 of these accessions. Two-hundred and fourteen markers, located on six barley chromosomes are associated with potential race-nonspecific Bgh resistance or susceptibility. Initial steps for the functional validation of four promising candidates were performed based on phenotype and transcription data. Specific candidate alleles were analyzed via transient gene silencing as well as transient overexpression. Microarray data of the four selected candidates indicate differential regulation of the transcription in response to Bgh infection. Based on our results, all four candidate genes seem to be involved in the responses to powdery mildew attack. In particular, the transient overexpression of specific alleles of two candidate genes, a potential arabinogalactan protein and the barley homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana's Light-Response Bric-a-Brac/-Tramtrack/-Broad Complex/-POxvirus and Zinc finger (AtLRB1) or AtLRB2, were top candidates of novel powdery mildew susceptibility genes.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Hordeum/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Alelos , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Análise por Conglomerados , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mucoproteínas/genética , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Virulência/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0229192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701945

RESUMO

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a widely used forage grass which shares a symbiosis with the endophytic fungus Epichloë coenophiala. The endophyte produces an alkaloid toxin that provides herbivory, heat and drought resistance to the grass, but can cause fescue toxicosis in grazing livestock. Fescue toxicosis can lead to reduced weight gain and milk yields resulting in significant losses to the livestock industry. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial and fungal communities associated with fescue toxicosis tolerance. In this trial, 149 Angus cows across two farms were continuously exposed to toxic, endophyte-infected, fescue for a total of 13 weeks. Of those 149 cows, 40 were classified into either high (HT) or low (LT) tolerance groups according to their growth performance (weight gain). 20 HT and 20 LT cattle balanced by farm were selected for amplicon sequencing to compare the fecal microbiota of the two tolerance groups. This study reveals significantly (q<0.05) different bacterial and fungal microbiota between HT and LT cattle, and indicates that fungal phylotypes may be important for an animal's response to fescue toxicosis: We found that fungal phylotypes affiliating to the Neocallimastigaceae, which are known to be important fiber-degrading fungi, were consistently more abundant in the HT cattle. Whereas fungal phylotypes related to the genus Thelebolus were more abundant in the LT cattle. This study also found more pronounced shifts in the microbiota in animals receiving higher amounts of the toxin. We identified fungal phylotypes which were consistently more abundant either in HT or LT cattle and may thus be associated with the respective animal's response to fescue toxicosis. Our results thus suggest that some fungal phylotypes might be involved in mitigating fescue toxicosis.


Assuntos
Epichloe/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lolium/microbiologia , Animais , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Bovinos , Análise Discriminante , Alcaloides de Claviceps/análise , Alcaloides de Claviceps/toxicidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neocallimastigales/isolamento & purificação , Neocallimastigales/metabolismo , Simbiose , Toxinas Biológicas/análise , Toxinas Biológicas/toxicidade
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 314: 123716, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650262

RESUMO

ß-Glucans as emerging biopolymer are widely produced by microorganisms in fermentation processes using commercial sugars which make process non-economic. Lignocellulosic substances are inexpensive carbon sources, which could be exploited for sustainable production of ß-glucans. In this study, a lignocellulosic material, namely sugarcane straw (SCS) was utilized for the production of extracellular ß-glucan by Lasiodiplodia theobromae CCT3966. SCS was subjected to acid and subsequent alkaline pretreatment, followed by enzymatic saccharification using cellulase enzyme. Quantity of 48.65 g/L glucose was released after enzymatic hydrolysis. ß-Glucan production was performed by cultivation of fungal strain in SCS hydrolysate at 28 °C and initial culture pH 7. Highest ß-glucan yield and productivity of 0.047 gg-1 and 0.014 gL-1h-1, respectively was obtained at 72 h fermentation time. Kinetic study of ß-glucan production revealed experimental biosynthesis of ß-glucan from SCS hydrolysate followed the trend generated by Logistic and Luedeking-Piret models. Chemical structure of biopolymer produced showed ß-glucan constitution.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Celulase , Saccharum , beta-Glucanas , Biopolímeros , Fermentação , Hidrólise
10.
Plant Dis ; 104(9): 2462-2468, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609053

RESUMO

Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of blackleg of canola (Brassica napus), can be managed with pyraclostrobin and other strobilurin fungicides. Their frequent application, however, poses a risk for the development of insensitivity in fungal populations. A collection of L. maculans single-spore isolates recovered from infected canola stubble in Alberta, Canada, in 2016 was evaluated for its pyraclostrobin sensitivity. In conventional growth plate assays, the concentration of pyraclostrobin required to inhibit fungal growth by 50% (EC50) was determined to be 0.28 mg/liter in a subset of 38 isolates. This EC50 was four times greater than the mean EC50 (0.07 mg/liter) of baseline isolates collected in 2011. Two hundred sixty-three isolates were screened further with two discriminatory doses of 0.28 and 3.5 mg/liter of pyraclostrobin, resulting in growth inhibition values ranging from 16 to 82% and 41 to 100%, respectively. In microtiter plate assays with the same isolates, the mean EC50 was determined to be 0.0049 mg/liter, almost 3.3 times greater than the mean EC50 (0.0015 mg/liter) of the baseline isolates. The sensitivity of the isolates was also evaluated in microtiter plate assays with discriminatory doses of 0.006 and 0.075 mg/liter of pyraclostrobin, resulting in inhibition values ranging from 20 to 88% and 49 to 100%, respectively. This is the first report of isolates of L. maculans with increased insensitivity to pyraclostrobin in Canada, suggesting the need for improved fungicide stewardship.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Doenças das Plantas , Alberta , Estrobilurinas
11.
Plant Dis ; 104(9): 2418-2425, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631199

RESUMO

The incidence of peach powdery mildew (PPM) on fruit was monitored in commercial peach orchards to i) describe the disease progress in relation to several environmental parameters and ii) establish an operating threshold to initiate a fungicide spray program based on accumulated degree-day (ADD) data. A beta-regression model for disease incidence showed a substantial contribution of the random effects orchard and year, whereas relevant fixed effects corresponded to ADD, wetness duration, and ADD considering vapor pressure deficit and rain. When beta-regression models were fitted for each orchard and year considering only ADD, disease onset was observed at 242 ± 13 ADD and symptoms did not develop further after 484 ± 42 ADD. An operating threshold to initiate fungicide applications was established at 220 ADD, coinciding with a PPM incidence in fruit around 0.05. A validation was further conducted by comparing PPM incidence in i) a standard, calendar-based program, ii) a program with applications initiated at 220 ADD, and iii) a nontreated control. A statistically relevant reduction in disease incidence in fruit was obtained with both fungicide programs, from 0.244 recorded in the control to 0.073 with the 220-ADD alert program, and 0.049 with the standard program. The 220-ADD alert program resulted in 33% reduction in fungicide applications.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fungicidas Industriais , Prunus persica , Doenças das Plantas , Espanha
12.
Plant Dis ; 104(9): 2498-2508, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631200

RESUMO

Fungal diseases are considered a major threat to plant growth and productivity. However, some beneficial fungi growing in the same environment protect plants from various pathogens, either by secreting antifungal metabolites or by stimulating the host immune defense mechanism. Date palms are susceptible to several fungal pathogens. Nevertheless, information on the pathogenic fungal distribution in date palm fields across different seasons is limited, especially that from Qatar. Therefore, the current study's aim was to evaluate the pathogenic and beneficial fungal diversity and distribution, including the endophytic fungi from the date palm tissues and root-associated soil fungi, during different seasons, for the identification of indigenous biocontrol agents. Our results showed that the highest number of fungal species was isolated in fall and spring, and pathogenic fungi were isolated mainly in spring. This is the first report that in Qatar, Neodeightonia phoenicum and Thielaviopsis punctulata cause date palm root rot disease, Fusarium brachygibbosum and Fusarium equiseti cause date palm wilting, and N. phoenicum causes diplodia disease in date palm offshoots. The combinations of the fungi that did not frequently occur together in date palm rhizosphere soil were investigated to identify indigenous biocontrol agents. Based on the results, we determined that Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma longibrachiatum are effective antagonistic fungi against T. punctulata, N. phoenicum, F. brachygibbosum, and Fusarium solani, qualifying them as potential biocontrol agents. Antagonistic activity of endophytic fungi against the pathogens was tested; except for Ulocladium chartarum, no endophytic fungi showed antagonistic activity against the tested pathogens.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fusarium , Phoeniceae , Doenças das Plantas , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Plant Dis ; 104(9): 2377-2390, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692624

RESUMO

Common hop, Humulus lupulus, is a commercially important crop in the United States, with an increasing number of hop yards being established in the Northeast. In 2018, a new fungal disease was observed at two research hop yards in Connecticut. This new pathogen affected all hop cultivars being grown and caused leaf spots and browning of cones. The causal organism was isolated and Koch's postulates were performed to confirm pathogenicity. The disease symptoms were similar to the previously described Phoma wilt; however, morphological and phylogenetic analyses placed the causal organism as a new species of Diaporthe. We propose the name Diaporthe humulicola. The disease increased under hot, humid conditions (around 24°C and 90% relative humidity), which prevail during the summer in the northeastern United States as well as other parts of the country. An in vitro preliminary assessment of fungicide sensitivity revealed that pyraclostrobin and boscalid inhibited D. humulicola growth in culture and should be further assessed for field efficacy against this new disease of hop. The proper identification and monitoring of this pathogen will be important to inform hop growers of this new threat.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Humulus , Connecticut , New England , Filogenia
14.
Plant Dis ; 104(9): 2346-2353, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697656

RESUMO

Bull's eye rot (BER) is a major economic postharvest disease of apple and pear that can be caused by four Neofabraea species: N. perennans, N. alba, N. malicorticis, and N. kienholzii. In Central Washington, BER is predominantly caused by N. perennans. The fungus infects fruit preharvest, and because of the dry growing season in the region, infections remain latent with symptoms expressed only after 3 to 4 months of storage, when BER incidences as high as 20% can been seen, especially in rainy seasons and on susceptible cultivars. To ensure early and efficient infection detections before BER symptoms become visible at point-of-care locations, a portable diagnostic tool based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed using the ß-tubulin gene. The LAMP assay was optimized and tested for specificity and sensitivity using DNA extracted from pure cultures of N. perennans and seven other fungal species. The results showed that the selected LAMP primer set was specific to N. perennans and highly sensitive as it detected DNA concentrations as low as 0.001 ng/µl after only 10 min. The assay was validated for N. perennans detection on artificially inoculated apples using a portable thermocycler, Genie II, without the need for DNA extraction. The LAMP assay detected N. perennans on apples inoculated with spore suspensions 3 weeks prior to harvest at concentrations of 103 spores/ml or higher. The assay was further validated using commercial Piñata apples from organic and conventional orchards, demonstrating the ability of this technique to amplify N. perennans from asymptomatic fruit in a commercial setting 3 months before commercial maturity. The LAMP assay developed for N. perennans detection can be easily expanded to detect the other BER causal species. LAMP has potential to be used in orchards and at point-of-care facilities to better inform on BER management at different fruit growth stages, and it has potential to be utilized to better understand the epidemiology of Neofabraea spp.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Malus , Pyrus , Frutas , Washington
15.
Plant Dis ; 104(8): 2051-2053, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520650

RESUMO

Grapevines (Vitis spp.) host viruses belonging to 17 families. Virus-associated diseases are a constant challenge to grape production. Genetic resources for breeding virus-resistant grape cultivars are scarce. 'Norton' is a hybrid grape of North American Vitis aestivalis and is resistant to powdery mildew and downy mildew. In this study, we assessed resistance of 'Norton' to grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV), which is prevalent in native, wild Vitaceae and in vineyards in the Midwest region of the U.S. We did not detect GVCV in 'Norton' as either the scion or the rootstock up to 3 years after it was grafted with a GVCV-infected 'Chardonel' grapevine. Upon sequencing of small RNAs, we were able to assemble the GVCV genome from virus small RNAs in GVCV-infected 'Chardonel' scion or rootstock, but not from grafted 'Norton' scion and rootstock. This study unveils a new trait of 'Norton' that can be used in breeding GVCV-resistant grape cultivars, and to investigate genetic mechanisms of 'Norton' resistance to GVCV.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Badnavirus , Oomicetos , Vitis/virologia , Doenças das Plantas , Estados Unidos
16.
Plant Dis ; 104(8): 2074-2081, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525450

RESUMO

Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, is a major fungal disease worldwide. Cultivation of scab-resistant cultivars would reduce the chemical footprint of apple production. However, new apple cultivars carrying durable resistances should be developed to prevent or at least slow the breakdown of resistance against races of V. inaequalis. One way to achieve durable resistance is to pyramid multiple scab resistance genes in a cultivar. The choice of the resistance genes to be combined in the pyramids should take into account the frequency of resistance breakdown and the geographical distribution of apple scab isolates able to cause such breakdowns. In order to acquire this information and to make it available to apple breeders, the VINQUEST project (www.vinquest.ch) was initiated in 2009. Ten years after launching this project, 24 partners from 14 countries regularly contribute data. From 2009 to 2018, nearly 9,000 data points have been collected. This information has been used to identify the most promising apple scab resistance genes for developing cultivars with durable resistance, which to date are: Rvi5, Rvi11, Rvi12, Rvi14, and Rvi15. As expected, Rvi1, together with Rvi3 and Rvi8, were often overcome, and have little value for scab resistance breeding. Rvi10 may also belong to this group. On the other hand, Rvi2, Rvi4, Rvi6, Rvi7, Rvi9, and Rvi13 are still useful for breeding, but their use is recommended only in extended pyramids of ≥3 resistance genes.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Malus/genética , Cruzamento , Genes de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas
17.
Plant Dis ; 104(8): 2086-2094, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544002

RESUMO

Plant disease is a major threat to crop production, and fungicide application is one of the most effective methods to control plant disease. With emerging issues related to toxic residues and pathogen resistance, new fungicides with novel modes of action are urgently needed. SYP-14288 is a novel fungicide that could efficiently promote respiration and inhibit ATP biosynthesis in target organisms, but its bioactivity against various plant pathogens and exact mode of action are still unknown. In this study, we found that SYP-14288 is highly effective against 31 important plant pathogens belonging to a range of taxonomic groups. In addition, SYP-14288 has demonstrated excellent activity against all life stages of the important fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and is especially effective during the pathogen's high energy consumption stages. SYP-14288 showed good preventative control efficacy against pepper blight and rice blast in the greenhouse and field, respectively. In an untargeted metabolomics assay designed to determine the exact mode of action of SYP-14288, significant changes occurred in 25 metabolites, with the accumulation of seven fatty acid metabolites and a decrease in 18 starch and sugar metabolites (e.g., from the tricarboxylic acid cycle). This suggests that SYP-14288 is an uncoupling agent similar to 2,4-dinitrophenol, which can allow for accumulation of various fatty acids after destroying oxidative phosphorylation coupling, thereby inhibiting the growth of the phytopathogen. These results indicate that the novel uncoupler SYP-14288 is a promising agrochemical in plant disease management.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fungicidas Industriais , Oryza , Metabolômica , Doenças das Plantas
18.
Plant Dis ; 104(8): 2233-2241, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552282

RESUMO

Extensive mortality of Metrosideros polymorpha (`ohi`a) trees has been associated with Ceratocystis spp. on Hawai`i Island and was named rapid `ohi`a death (ROD). Both C. lukuohia and C. huliohia have been associated with ROD, although C. lukuohia appears to be the more important pathogen. Crown observations and dissections of forest trees either wound-inoculated with, or naturally infected by, C. lukuohia were conducted to confirm pathogenicity and document patterns of host colonization. In pathogenicity trials, one of three and two of three trees inoculated with the fungus in February and August, respectively, exhibited crown wilt symptoms at 92 and 69 days after inoculation. Extensive, radial, black staining of the sapwood was found in main stems, while no crown wilt or xylem staining was found in control trees. Xylem staining, necrotic phloem, and fungus presence was noted in six trees inoculated in May to June and harvested 37 to 42 days later, and these observations were compared with those in two naturally infected trees felled in early August. Contiguous xylem staining was found in the main stems and into crowns of all diseased trees, while discontinuous streaks of xylem staining extended into the main forks and side branches. Necrotic phloem associated with xylem staining occurred on the lower stems of inoculated trees. Aside from the necrotic phloem and radial staining of the sapwood, symptom development in `ohi`a infected with C. lukuohia is similar to other systemic wilt diseases on hardwood trees. We propose Ceratocystis wilt of `ohi`a as the official name of the disease.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Floema , Árvores , Virulência , Xilema
19.
Plant Dis ; 104(8): 2269-2274, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568630

RESUMO

Cadophora luteo-olivacea is the most prevalent Cadophora species associated with Petri disease and esca of grapevine. Accurate, early, and specific detection and quantification of C. luteo-olivacea are essential to alert growers and nurseries to the presence of the pathogens in soil and to prevent the spread of this pathogen through grapevine planting material. The aim of this study was to develop molecular tools to detect and quantify C. luteo-olivacea inoculum from environmental samples. Species specific primers based on the ß-tubulin gene and a TaqMan probe for droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were first developed to detect and quantify purified DNA of the target fungus. Specificity tests showed that the primers were able to amplify the C. luteo-olivacea DNA (20 isolates) while none of the 29 nontarget fungal species (58 isolates) tested were amplified. The ddPCR was shown to be more sensitive compared with qPCR in the detection and quantification of C. luteo-olivacea at very low concentrations and was further selected to accurately detect and quantify the fungus from environmental samples. Twenty-five of the 94 grafting plants (26.6%) analyzed by ddPCR tested positive to C. luteo-olivacea DNA (>3 copies/µl). C. luteo-olivacea was barely detected from vineyard soils. The procedure employed in this study revealed the presence of the pathogen in symptomless vines, which makes implementation of this technique suitable for certification schemes of C. luteo-olivacea-free grapevine planting material.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Vitis , Primers do DNA , Fazendas , Solo
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008386, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542003

RESUMO

Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a chronic worldwide subcutaneous mycosis, caused by several dimorphic, pigmented dematiaceous fungi. It is difficult to treat patients with the disease, mainly because of its recalcitrant nature. The correct activation of host immune response is critical to avoid fungal persistence in the tissue and disease chronification. CD4+ T cells are crucial for the development of protective immunity to F. pedrosoi infection. Here, we investigated T helper cell response dynamics during experimental CBM. Following footpad injection with F. pedrosoi hyphae and conidia, T cells were skewed towards a Th17 and Th1 phenotype. The Th17 population was the main Th cell subset found in the infected area during the early stages of experimental murine CBM, followed by Th1 predominance in the later stages, coinciding with the remission phase of the disease in this experimental model. Depletion of CD25+ cells, which leads to a reduction of Treg cells in the draining lymph node, resulted in decline in fungal burden after 14 days of infection. However, fungal cells were not cleared in the later stages of the disease, prolonging CBM clinical features in those animals. IL-17A and IFN-γ neutralization hindered fungal cell elimination in the course of the disease. Similarly, in dectin-2 KO animals, Th17 contraction in the course of experimental CBM was accompanied by fungal burden decrease in the first 14 days of infection, although it did not affect disease resolution. In this study, we gained insight into T helper subsets' dynamics following footpad injections of F. pedrosoi propagules and uncovered their contribution to disease resolution. The Th17 population proved to be important in eliminating fungal cells in the early stages of infection. The Th1 population, in turn, closely assisted by Treg cells, proved to be relevant not only in the elimination of fungal cells at the beginning of infection but also essential for their complete elimination in later stages of the disease in a mouse experimental model of CBM.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/imunologia , Cromoblastomicose/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Cromoblastomicose/microbiologia , Cromoblastomicose/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hifas , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Esporos Fúngicos
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