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1.
J Environ Manage ; 267: 110649, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364133

RESUMO

This study used a laboratory-scale system to investigate the effects of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer (CaMgP), biochar, and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) on compost maturity and gasous emissions during pig manure composting. The results showed that the addition of CaMgP, Biochar or SMS had no negative effect on the quality and maturity of compost, and all three additives could reduce the emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), dimethyl sulfide (Me2S) and dimethyl disulfide (Me2SS). Among them, the effect of adding CaMgP on NH3 emission reduction was the most obvious, reduced 42.90%. The emission reduction of CaMgP to H2S was similar to that of SMS, which decreased by 34.91% and 32.88% respectively. The emission reduction effects of the three additives on Me2S and Me2SS were obvious, all of which were over 50%. However, only adding SMS reduced the N2O emission by 37.08%.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Compostagem , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Fertilizantes , Gases , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Fosfatos , Solo , Suínos
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 312: 123572, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470829

RESUMO

Microwave vacuum pyrolysis of palm kernel shell was examined to produce engineered biochar for application as additive in agriculture application. The pyrolysis approach, performed at 750 W of microwave power, produced higher yield of porous biochar (28 wt%) with high surface area (270 cm2/g) compared to the yield obtained by conventional approach (<23 wt%). Addition of the porous biochar in mushroom substrate showed increased moisture content (99%) compared to the substrate without biochar (96%). The mushroom substrate added with biochar (150 g) was optimal in shortening formation, growth, and full colonization of the mycelium within one month. Using 2.5% of the biochar in mushroom substrate desirably maintained the optimum pH level (6.8-7) during the mycelium colonization period, leading to high mycelium growth (up to 91%) and mushroom yield (up to 280 g). The engineered biochar shows great potential as moisture retention and neutralizing agent in mushroom cultivation.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Pirólise , Carvão Vegetal , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Micro-Ondas , Vácuo
3.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126293, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234621

RESUMO

Pesticides introduced inadvertently or deliberately into environment by global agricultural practices have caused growing public concern, therefore the search of approaches for elimination of such xenobiotics should be motivated. The degradation of hydrophobic pesticides including chlorpyrifos, dicofol and cypermethrin were assayed with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments were set at realistic concentration as 5 µg L-1, and both culture medium and biologic matrix were analyzed for pollutants residues. Results showed that the first step was due to a fast adsorption, which also played an important role, accounting for more than 90% removal in average. Then mass balances proposal evidenced the biodegradation of the adsorbed pollutants, demonstrating efficient depletion as 94.7%, 87.9% and 93.1%, respectively. Additionally, the related degradation metabolites were identified using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Two compounds, namely O,O-diethyl thiophosphate and diethyl phosphate were detected as transformation products of chlorpyrifos, whereas dicofol was degraded into benzaldehyde that is first time to be reported. It also confirms the degradation capability of T. versicolor. Our results suggest that T. versicolor is a potential microorganism for bioremediation of hydrophobic pesticide contaminated environments.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Trametes/metabolismo , Adsorção , Agaricales/metabolismo , Agricultura , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas
4.
Life Sci ; 250: 117602, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240677

RESUMO

AIMS: Extrinsic ageing or photoageing relates to the onset of age-linked phenotypes such as skin hyperpigmentation due to UV exposure. UV induced upregulated production of tyrosinase enzyme, which catalyses the vital biochemical reactions of melanin synthesis is responsible for the inception of skin hyperpigmentation. We aimed to generate a validated QSAR model with a dataset consisting of 69 thio-semicarbazone derivatives to elucidate the physicochemical properties of compounds essential for tyrosinase inhibition and to identify novel lead molecules with enhanced tyrosinase inhibitory activity and bioavailability. MAIN METHODS: Lead optimization and insilico approaches were employed in this research work. QSAR model was generated and validated by exploiting Multiple Linear Regression method. Prioritization of lead-like compounds was accomplished by performing multi parameter optimization depleting molecular docking, bioavailability assessments and toxicity prediction for 69 compounds Derivatives of best lead compound were retrieved from chemical spaces. KEY FINDINGS: Molecular descriptors explicated the significance of chemical properties essential for chelation of copper ions present in the active site of tyrosinase protein target. Further, derivatives which comprise of electron donating groups in their chemical structure were predicted and analysed for tyrosinase inhibitory activity by employing insilico methodologies including chemical space exploration. SIGNIFICANCE: Our research work resulted in the generation of a validated QSAR model with higher degree of external predictive ability and significance to tyrosinase inhibitory activity. We propose 11 novel derivative compounds with enhanced tyrosinase inhibitory activity and bioavailability.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Indóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Agaricales/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Desenho de Fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Elétrons , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiossemicarbazonas/química , Raios Ultravioleta
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 457-462, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237500

RESUMO

Gastrodia elata is a kind of precious traditional Chinese medicine. In the process of cultivation of G. elata, due to the influence of continuous cropping obstacles and other factors, the fungus materials and land that have been planted with G. elata are often abandoned, resulting in a great waste of resources. Based on the planting characteristics of G. elata and Phallus impudicus and the previous research experience in ecological agriculture, this paper analyzed the ecological adaptability characteristics of G. elata and P. impudicus, and summarized the key techniques of the G. elata-P. impudicus sequential planting pattern. Keeping track of the planting area, fungus-growing materials consumption and market sales of G. elata-P. impudicus sequential planting pattern, the ecological benefits of G. elata-P. impudicus sequential planting pattern from the aspects of utilization rate of fungus-growing materials were analyzed, the value of land resources per unit area, ecological environmental protection, labor cost and economic benefits were consi-dered. The technical principle of G. elata-P. impudicus sequential planting pattern was expounded according to their ecological habit, the season of harvest and planting, the difference of composition of fungus-growing materials, and the microbial ecology. The sequential planting pattern of G. elata-P. impudicus not only realized the double production of medicinal materials and edible fungi, reduced the waste of old fungus-growing materials, but also transformed the energy from nutrition-supplied fungi to edible and medicinal fungi, which guaranteed the ecological recycling and utilization of G. elata in the process of cultivation.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Gastrodia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 463-471, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237501

RESUMO

Gastrodia elata is a heterotrophic plant that needed to be symbiotic with Armillaria. The obstacle of continuous cropping in G. elata is serious during the G. elata cultivation, and the mechanism of obstacle in G. elata continuous cropping had not been solved. The planting of G. elata-Phallus impudicus is a new sequential planting pattern adopted in Guizhou province, but the effect of the cultivation on soil microbial community structure is still unclear. In this study, we collected four soil samples for the research including the soil without planted G. elata as control(CK), rhizosphere soil samples tightly adhering to the G. elata surface(GE), rhizosphere soil samples tightly adhering to Armillaria which was symbiotic with G. elata(AGE), the rhizosphere soil of P. impudicus planting after G. elata cultivation(PI). In order to explore the mechanism, the research study on the soil of G. elata-P. impudicus by using ITS and 16 S rDNA high-throughput sequencing technologies to detect soil microbial community structure including fungi and bacteria in the soil of CK, AGE, GE and PI. OTU clustering and PCA analysis of soil samples showed that the soil microbial diversity was relatively similar in AGE and GE. And the soil microbial in PI and CK clustered together. The results showed that AGE and GE had similar soil microbial diversity, as well as PI and CK. Compared with CK, the soil microbial diversity and abundance in AGE and GE were significantly increased. But the microbial diversity and abundance decreased in PI compared with AGE and GE. The annotation indicated that the abundance of Basidiomycota, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi decreased, and that of Ascomycota, Zygomycota and Proteobacteria increased in AGE and GE compared with CK. In contrast to AGE and GE, PI was the opposite. The abundance of Basidiomycota, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi increased in PI compared with AGE and GE. The abundance of microorganisms in the soil of PI and CK was similar. In addition, the co-culture of Armillaria and P. impudicus indicated that P. impudicus had obvious antagonistic effects on the growth of Armillaria. Therefore, it is speculated that the mechanism of G. elata-P. impudicus planting pattern related to the change of soil microbial. And we supposed that P. impudicus might inhibit the growth of Armillaria and change the soil microbial community structure and the abundance of soil microbial. And the soil microbial community structure was restored to a state close to that of uncultivated G. elata. Thus, the structure of soil microbial community planting G. elata could be restored by P. impudicus planting.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gastrodia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Fungos/classificação , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Rizosfera
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 472-477, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237502

RESUMO

The phenomenon that waste of fungus-growing materials in the planting process of Gastrodia elata is very common. It has been proved by practice that the used fungus-growing materials planted with G. elata can be used to plant Phallus impudicus. But the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we compared the different infested-capacity of Armillaria gallica and Phallus impudicus by morphological anatomy of the used fungus-growing materials. We also compared the differences on the two fungi consumed the main contents of fungus-growing materials, cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose, by using nitric acid-95% ethanol method, sulfuric acid method and tetrabromide method respectively, so that to explore the mechanism of A. gallica and P. impudicus recycle the fungus-growing materials, and to provide scientific basis for recycling the used fungus-growing materials of G. elata. The results showed that A. gallica had a strong ability to invade some parts outside the vascular cambium, but it had a weak ability to invade some parts inside the vascular cambium, while P. impudicus had a strong ability to invade the same parts. The contents of lignin and cellulose, which from inside and outside the vascular cambium of fungus-growing materials were significantly different. In the parts of outside the vascular cambium of fungus-growing materials, A. gallica degraded more lignin and cellulose, while P. impudicus degraded more hemicellulose. In the parts of inside the vascular cambium of fungus-growing materials, A. gallica degraded more cellulose, while P. impudicus degraded more hemicellulose. The present results suggested that A. gallica and P. impudicus made differential utilization of the carbon source in the fungus-growing materials to realize that P. impudicus recycle the used fungus-growing materials of G. elata. A. gallica used lignin and cellulose as the main carbon source, while P. impudicus used hemicellulose as the main carbon source.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Armillaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Celulose/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229925, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251434

RESUMO

Basidiomycete fungi are a rich source of natural products with a diverse array of potentially exploitable bioactivities. Two dimeric sesquiterpenes, bovistol B (1) and D (2), and one monomeric sesquiterpene, strossmayerin (7), were isolated from the culture filtrate of the basidiomycete fungus Coprinopsis strossmayeri. The structures were determined through a combination of MS and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. Likely monomeric precursors, identified on the basis of HRMS analysis, allow a plausible biosynthetic pathway to be proposed for the biosynthesis of 1 and 2, involving the dimerisation of the monomer through a hetero-Diels-Alder mechanism. A gene cluster, including a putative sesquiterpene 1-11 cyclase, was identified through phylogenetic and RNA-seq analysis, and is proposed to be responsible for the biosynthesis of 1 and 2.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Basidiomycota/química , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Sesquiterpenos/química , Agaricales/ultraestrutura , Basidiomycota/ultraestrutura , Produtos Biológicos/química , Filtração , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
9.
Planta Med ; 86(8): 571-578, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325508

RESUMO

Hericium erinaceus is a very popular edible and medicinal mushroom used for the treatment of enervation and gastrointestinal diseases in Eastern Asia. Chemical investigation on the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus led to the isolation of 4 new (1:  - 4: ) and 10 known meroterpenoids (5:  - 14: ). The structures of new compounds were determined via analysis of NMR and MS data in combination with chemical derivatization. The inhibitory activities of 1:  - 14: against α-glucosidase were evaluated using p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside, sucrose, or maltose as substrate. Compounds 6, 9, 11:  - 13: were demonstrated to show the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. This work confirms the potential of H. erinaceus in the treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Basidiomycota , Carpóforos , alfa-Glucosidases
10.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126585, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278187

RESUMO

This pioneering study aimed to determine the activity concentrations of 210Po, 210Pb and uranium (234U, 235U, 238U) radionuclides in fruit bodies of wild bolete Boletus bainiugan Dentinger and to estimate its edible safety, which may give scientific evidence for the consumption of this species. The analyses were performed using alpha spectrometer after digestion, exchange resins separation and deposition. Measurement data were analysed and interpolation maps reflecting 210Po, 210Pb and uranium (234U, 235U, 238U) geographical distribution in Yunnan province (China) were presented. In addition, from the perspective of food safety, the possible related effective radiation dose to mushrooms consumers were estimated. The results indicated that 210Po, 210Pb and uranium (234U, 235U, 238U) radionuclides contents in B. bainiugan were significantly different with respect to geographical distribution, and their possible intake in a part of the region was considerably higher. A very interesting observation was done according to the values of 235U/238U activity ratio indicating the occurrence of uranium faction from the global fallout of nuclear weapon tests.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/metabolismo , Urânio/metabolismo , Agaricales , China , Frutas/química , Chumbo/análise , Radioisótopos de Chumbo/metabolismo , Polônio/metabolismo , Radioisótopos/análise , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Urânio/análise
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110538, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244118

RESUMO

The use of phytoremediation was an efficient strategy for the restoration of mine slag and the addition of modifier was favorable for improving the phytoremediation efficiency. Herein, spent mushroom compost (SMC) was added in manganese (Mn) slag to reveal the phytoremediation potential of Paulownia fortunei seedlings. The transportation, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Mn in P. fortunei, the diurnal variation of photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities in P. fortunei leaves were measured to reveal the effect of SMC (mass ratios of 10%, M+) on the phytoremediation of Mn slag. Results showed that the addition of SMC increased the accumulation content of Mn by 408.54% due to the increased biomass of P. fortunei seedlings. After SMC amendment, the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pn) increased and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities decreased significantly (p < 0.05), which was beneficial to the tolerance of leaves to Mn stress. SMC amendment maintained the cell structural integrity of P. fortunei seedlings observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Additionally, SMC amendment decreased the damage level of Mn to the cell of P. fortunei seedlings by using function groups (-CH3 and -COOH) to bond Mn in the cell walls and vacuoles. SMC amendment reduced the Mn toxicity to P. fortunei seedlings and improved the phytoremediation capacity.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Compostagem , Lamiales/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Fotossíntese , Plântula/metabolismo
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1457-1462, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155116

RESUMO

A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming Bacillus strain, 17-SMS-01T, isolated from spent mushroom substrate in the Fangshan District, Beijing, PR China, was initially identified as a Bacillus cereus group species based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strain 17-SMS-01T had the highest sequence similarities to Bacillus wiedmannii FSL W8-0169T (99.9 %), Bacillus albus N35-10-2T (99.9 %), Bacillus luti TD41T (99.9 %) and Bacillus proteolyticus TD42T (99.9 %). However, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values between strain 17-SMS-01T and the most closely related species were less than the previously proposed cut-off values of 96 % (ANI) and 70 % (DDH) for differentiating species within the genus, suggesting that this strain represents a novel Bacillus group species. The fatty acid profile of strain 17-SMS-01T, which showed a predominance of iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0, supported the allocation of the strain to the genus Bacillus. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 (100%). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl glycerol, an unidentified aminophospholiped and unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 35.0 mol%. The results of physiological and biochemical tests also allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strain 17-SMS-01T from the most closely related recognized species. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, strain 17-SMS-01T represents a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus fungorum sp. nov. is proposed. Type strain of the novel species is 17-SMS-01T (=MCCC 1K03483T=KCTC 33949T).


Assuntos
Agaricales , Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
13.
Microbiol Res ; 236: 126436, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179388

RESUMO

Trichoderma longibrachiatum EF5 is an endophytic fungal antagonist of rice. It is used for the control of soil-borne fungal pathogens-Sclerotium rolfsii and Macrophomina phaseolina. We demonstrate that T. longibrachiatum EF5 inhibits the growth of these pathogens on direct interaction as well as via the production of the microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs). The mVOCs reduced mycelial growth and inhibited the production of sclerotia by altering the mycelial structure. We profiled 138 mVOCs, when T. longibrachiatum EF5 interacted with the two pathogens. During these interactions, several compounds are up- or downregulated by T. longibrachiatum EF5, including longifolene, caryophyllene,1-Butanol 2-methyl, cedrene, and cuprenene. These compounds are involved in the biosynthetic pathways of the sesquiterpenoid and alkane, and the degradation pathway of trimethylamine. We provide an insight into the multiple modes by which T. longibrachiatum EF5 exerts antagonistic actions, such as hyperparasitism, competitions, and antibiosis via mVOCs. In contrast to their antimicrobial properties, these metabolites could also promote plant growth.


Assuntos
Agaricales/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibiose , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Interações Microbianas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
14.
J Environ Radioact ; 217: 106236, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217236

RESUMO

The article presents results of a study on the radioactivity and exposure from a highly toxic alpha-radiation emitter polonium 210Po, and beta emitter lead 210Pb in several species of Boletaceae mushrooms and stir-fried mushroom meals from China. Edible mushrooms can efficiently concentrate some elements in flesh but little is known on highly toxic alpha- and beta emitters. In this study, the absolute values of radioactivity (Bq·kg-1 dry weight) for 210Po were in the range 2.0 ± 2.0 to 308 ± 9 in fresh species and 22.1 ± 1.2 to 142 ± 4 in a ready to eat meals, and for 210Pb were 3.6 ± 0.5 to 51.8 ± 2.9 and 3.0 ± 0.14 to 9.6 ± 0.5, respectively. The studied batches of a corresponding species of mushrooms - raw and cooked - were not equivalent regarding the homogeneity of the composition. However the raw mushrooms (ingredient for any cooking), showed greater radioactivity in relation to stir-fried meals, and that can imply on a partial loss of nuclides. A daily portion of 100 g of stir-fried mushrooms could provide 210Po and 210Pb radiation in the range 0.2-2.1 µSv and 0.02-0.06 µSv, respectively. Assessed, the cumulative doses of exposure to 210Po were 1.4-14 µSv in a week period and 75-722 µSv at annual timescale, and of 210Pb amounted at 0.15-0.46 µSv and 8.3-24 µSv, respectively. The 210Po can be possibly considered as a major source of ionizing radiation activity for persons with high mushroom meals consumption in SW Asia, while the number of available data is limited.


Assuntos
Agaricales , China , Culinária , Radioisótopos de Chumbo , Polônio , Monitoramento de Radiação
16.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(2): 305-306, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170457

RESUMO

Chinese herbal tea has a long history in China, and is one of the most consumed beverage products as of now. However, whether herbal tea can really promote health and be considered as a functional food is still a question. The objective of this work was to assess the beneficial effect of herbal tea on health using Drosophila as the model. Adding commercially available herbal tea to food could increase average life span of fruit flies for more than 50%. Further tests showed that the effect of herbal tea was not dependent on specific single ingredient. The present results suggest that Chinese herbal tea may have beneficial effects to human health.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Chás de Ervas , Animais , Bebidas , China , Drosophila , Humanos , Chá
17.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110161, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090848

RESUMO

This paper reports the mobility and total balance of chlorotoluron (CTL), flufenacet (FNC) and bromide ion (Br-) throughout a sandy soil profile after the application of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and green compost (GC). Obtaining mobility dataset is crucial to simulate the herbicides' fate under amended soil scenarios by application pesticide leaching models with regulatory application (FOCUS models). The application of organic residues is nowadays increased to improve the crop yields and there is a gap in the simulations of this kind of amended scenarios. A two-year field experiment involving unamended soil (S) and SMS- or GC-amended soil plots was conducted. CTL, FNC, and Br- were annually applied and their residual concentrations were determined in soil profiles (0-100 cm) regularly sampled. In all the treatments the order of mobility is followed as FNC < CTL < Br-. SMS and GC increased herbicide retention in the top 10 cm by the higher organic carbon (OC) content than the unamended soil, and their ability to increase the soil's water-holding capacity and to decrease water percolation. Simultaneously dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content facilitated herbicide transport being it favoured by the initial soil moisture content and the rainfall shortly after the chemicals' initial application. Over the first year, residual amounts (<2.6%) of Br-, CTL and FNC were leached down to 90-100 cm depth in the three treatments. However, over the second year low CTL and FNC amounts (<1.0%) reached the bottom layer only in S + SMS although high Br- concentrations did so in the three treatments (<20%). According to the total balance of Br-, CTL, and FNC in the soil profiles other processes (degradation, mineralisation, bound residues formation, and/or crop uptake) different from leaching below 1 m depth might play a key role in their dissipation especially in the amended soil profiles. SMS and GC are likely to be used as organic amendments to preserve the soil and water quality but in the case of SMS, its higher DOC content could imply a higher potential risk for groundwater contamination than GC.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Compostagem , Herbicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Solo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229067, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084160

RESUMO

Psilocybin, a substance mainly found in mushrooms of the genus psilocybe, has been historically used for ritualistic, recreational and, more recently, medicinal purposes. The scientific literature suggests low toxicity, low risk of addiction, overdose, or other causes of injury commonly caused by substances of abuse, with growing interest in the use of this substance for conditions such as treatment-resistant depression. However, the presence of negative outcomes linked to psilocybin use is not clear yet. The objective of this study is to investigate the negative effects of psilocybin consumption, according to the users' own perception through self-reports extracted from an online platform. 346 reports were analyzed with the assistance of the IRAMUTEQ textual analysis software, adopting the procedures of Descending Hierarchical Classification, Correspondence Factor Analysis and Specificities Analysis. The text segments were grouped in 4 main clusters, describing thinking distortions, emergencies, perceptual alterations and the administration of the substance. Bad trips were more frequent in female users, being associated with thinking distortions. The use of multiple doses of psilocybin in the same session or its combination with other substances was linked to the occurrence of long-term negative outcomes, while the use of mushrooms in single high doses was linked to medical emergencies. These results can be useful for a better understanding of the effects of psilocybin use, guiding harm-reduction initiatives.


Assuntos
Psilocibina/química , Agaricales/química , Feminino , Alucinógenos/química , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Software
19.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126181, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109697

RESUMO

The variation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and influential factors in pig manure composting were investigated by conducting simulated composting tests using four different supplement materials (wheat straw, corn straw, poplar sawdust and spent mushroom). The results show that the relative abundance of total ARGs increased by 0.19-1.61 logs after composting, and tetX, sulI, sulII, dfrA1 and aadA were the major contributors. The variations of ARG profiles and bacterial communities throughout the composting were clearly divided into mesophilic-thermophilic and cooling-maturation stages in all tests, while different supplement materials did not exert a noticeable influence. Network analysis demonstrated the diversity of bacterial hosts for ARGs, the existence of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria, and the weak correlations between ARGs and physicochemical factors in the composting piles. Of note, integron intI1 and Mycobacterium (a potential pathogen) were positively correlated with eight and four ARGs, respectively, that displayed increased abundance after composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Agaricales , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Integrons , Esterco/análise , Suínos , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126242, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088620

RESUMO

Evaluated has been bioconcentration potential by fungi and risk to human consumers from exposure to natural long-lived radioactive uranium (234U, 238U) and thorium (230Th, 232Th) sequestered in stems, caps and the whole fruiting bodies by mushrooms of the genus Leccinum and Leccinellum. Edible species in the study were collected from boreal forests in the northern regions of Poland and investigated: red-capped scaber (Leccinum aurantiacum), orange oak bolete (Leccinum aurantiacum var. quercinum), foxy bolete (Leccinum vulpinum), slate bolete (Leccinum aurantiacum var. duriusculum) and hazel bolete (Leccinellum pseudoscabrum). The study showed the species accumulated uranium (234U, 238U) and thorium (230Th, 232Th) form soil to some degree but the calculated values of the bioconcentration factor were below 1. The evaluation showed that Leccinum and Leccinellum mushrooms can contribute to annual effective radiation dose maximally at about 0.9 µSv. Hence, consumption of these mushrooms might increase the annual effective ionizing radiation dose received by a human, while the exposure is considered low from the toxicological point of view even if eaten at elevated amounts.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Tório/análise , Urânio/análise , Basidiomycota , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Polônia , Doses de Radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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