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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20191153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787685

RESUMO

Bisphenol A is an endocrine interfering compound, produced and used on a large scale worldwide. Chemical and biologic methods can be used to remove it from the environment. Biological methods are considered less costly, safer and, according to green chemistry definitions, an environmentally correct method. Considering the use of a crude enzyme broth, without any downstream process, the costs could be mostly reduced. Thus, the removal of bisphenol A by Pleurotus sajor-caju crude enzyme broth was investigated. Initially, the agro-industrial wastes were characterized and, the composition of the culture medium and the bioreactor culture conditions were defined. The enzyme produced in the highest concentration was characterized and the crude broth used in the bisphenol A removal assays. The OXI45 culture medium presented the highest laccase activity (1,850.7 U L-1, 350 rpm). Greater laccase stability was observed at 20 - 40 oC and pHs 5 - 7. Vanillin and ferulic acid (considered mediator compounds) were identified in the crude broth, probably helping on the obtention of the high value of removal effectiveness (0.052 mg U-1 h-1). The results indicate the potential use of the Pleurotus sajor-caju crude enzyme broth to obtain an enzymatic formulation for application in the environmental area.


Assuntos
Pleurotus , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Lacase , Lentinula , Fenóis
2.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(1): 99-106, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776865

RESUMO

White-rot basidiomycetes such as Lentinus crinitus produce laccases with potential use in dye biodegradation. However, high productivity and enzymes with specific properties are required in order to make viable laccase production. We aimed to produce laccase from Lentinus crinitus grown in sugarcane bagasse for dye decolorization. Solid state cultivation medium had sugarcane bagasse added with a nutrient solution of 10 g/L glucose, 1 g/L KH2PO4, 0.5 g/L MgSO4, 0.001 g/L FeSO4, 0.01 g/L ZnSO4, and 0.01 g/L MnSO4. The addition of different nitrogen sources (peptone, urea, or peptone plus urea) and different nitrogen concentrations (0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 g/L) were evaluated. Enzymatic extract was used in the decolorization of azo dyes, reactive blue 220 (RB220) and reactive black 5 (RB5), and anthraquinone dye, Remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR). The greatest laccase activity (4800 U/g dry mass) occurred when the peptone and urea mixture was added to the solid state cultivation medium. When the nitrogen concentration was 1 g/L, the laccase activity increased to 6555 U/g dry mass. The laccase activity peak occurred on the 10th day, and the maximum decolorization within 24 h was observed with enzymatic extracts obtained on different cultivation days, i.e., 6th day for RB220, 10th day for RB5, and 9th day for RBBR. Manganese and lignin peroxidases were not produced when nitrogen was added to the cultivation medium. The crude enzymatic extract was more effective in the decolorization of azo dyes (RB220 and RB5), more than 90% of decolorization, than anthraquinone dye with 77% decolorization.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Compostos Azo/metabolismo , Corantes/metabolismo , Lacase/metabolismo , Lentinula/enzimologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Celulose , Cor , Meios de Cultura/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Peptonas/farmacologia , Saccharum , Ureia
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 145: 476-483, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887384

RESUMO

Fresh Lentinula edodes were dried using two process technologies-freeze drying (FD) and hot-air drying (HD). The physicochemical, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties of purified polysaccharides from dried L. edodes (LEP) were then comparatively investigated. Two neutral polysaccharides (FLEP-1 and HLEP-1) and two acidic polysaccharides (FLEP-2 and HLEP-2) were obtained by DEAE-52 cellulose column. The HD treated LEP had higher levels of uronic acid than that of the FD treated LEP. The molar ratios of monosaccharides in FLEP-1, FLEP-2, HLEP-1 and HLEP-2 were different. Moreover, HD treated LEP had more galactose and less glucose. The (1 â†’ 3)-α-glucan structure was dominant in the two neutral polysaccharides, whereas the (1 â†’ 6)-ß-glucan was dominant in the two acidic polysaccharides. Hot-air drying could thus promote the α-configuration in neutral polysaccharides while reducing the ß-configuration in acidic polysaccharides. FLEP-1, FLEP-2, HLEP-1 and HLEP-2 had potential scavenging capacity against the ABTS+, whereas freeze-dried polysaccharides exhibited a stronger scavenging ability than that of hot-air dried polysaccharide. LEP could improve immunity by inducing the secretions of NO, TNF-α and IL-6, whereas hot-air drying improved the immunomodulatory activity of LEP. Our results suggested that freeze drying and hot air drying could be appropriately used to obtain functional polysaccharides from L. edodes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Lentinula/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Dessecação , Liofilização , Ácidos Urônicos/química
4.
Chemosphere ; 235: 538-542, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276867

RESUMO

Lentinus crinitus is an important basidiomycete consumed by ethnic groups from the Amazon, commonly found in decomposing trees with high lignolytic and antioxidant activities. Lithium is a mood stabilizer, antiepileptic, antipsychotic, and antidepressant used in clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate L. crinitus mycelial biomass bioaccumulated with lithium in liquid cultivation medium. The malt extract medium was added from zero to 100 mg L-1 lithium from two lithium sources (Li2CO3 and LiCl). The maximum mycelial biomass production was 7218.89 mg L-1 in the culture medium added with 5 mg L-1 lithium from LiCl. The highest lithium concentration in the mycelial biomass was of 574.72 µg g-1 produced in the culture medium with 25 mg L-1 lithium from Li2CO3. Pearson's correlation showed that Li2CO3 reduces the mycelial biomass and increases lithium bioaccumulation. The maximum translocated lithium from cultivation medium to mycelial biomass was up to 19 or 28% with LiCl or Li2CO3, respectively. Therefore, although Li2CO3 presents greater inhibition on the mycelial biomass production, it promoted greater lithium bioaccumulation in L. crinitus mycelial biomass and resulted in greater yield of lithium translocation. The equivalent daily dose of lithium for psychiatric treatment, without bioavailability studies, could be reached with 97.4 g lithium-enriched mycelial biomass and, based in the literature, for reduction of violence and criminality rates the amount could be reached with 0.24-0.58 mg. Thus, the development of lithium-enriched mycelial biomass could be an alternative functional food.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional , Lentinula/metabolismo , Lítio/metabolismo , Basidiomycota , Biomassa , Meios de Cultura , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Radioisótopos
5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 3139689, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198490

RESUMO

Fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) are a class of small proteins that have been extensively studied for their immunomodulatory activities. In this study, two novel FIPs from Lentinus tigrinus were identified and named Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2. The bioactive characteristics of Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2 were compared to a well-known FIP (LZ-8 from Ganoderma lucidum) to investigate the effect of Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2 expression on concanavalin A- (Con A-) induced liver oxidative injury. Both Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2 protected the livers from Con A-induced necrosis, as evidenced by decreased serum aminotransferase levels (AST, ALT) and relieved liver histology. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) and oxidative stress (SOD, MDA) were shown to be reduced by expressing Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2. In addition, the hepatoprotective effect of Fip-lti1, Fip-lti2, and LZ-8 correlated with ameliorating the imbalance of Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/IL-4). The observed liver protection of Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2 was mechanistically explored. Treatments with Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2 regulated GATA3/T-bet expression, activated the decreased Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway, and countered the upregulated NLRP3/ASC/NF-κBp65 signaling in Con A-stimulated liver injury. Nrf2 activation was shown to be involved in the mechanisms underlying the protection of Fip-lti by RNA interference. In conclusion, we identified two new fungal proteins (Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2) that can protect the liver from Con A-induced liver oxidative injury through the Nrf2/NF-κB/NLRP3/IL-1ß pathway.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Concanavalina A/toxicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Lentinula/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitógenos/toxicidade
6.
J Environ Manage ; 244: 235-246, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125874

RESUMO

Laccase mediated bio-delignification has shown promising results for the removal of lignin from bio-wastes and for providing a sustainable future for using of lignocellulosic materials in different industries. This study reports an extracellular laccase from Lentinus tigrinus with delignification capability. The production of laccase was enhanced through a solid-state fermentation on the pistachio shell bio-waste to 172.0 U mg-1 (8.2-fold) by one-factor-at-a-time optimizing of fermentation conditions. Laccase was purified using a new synthetic affinity resin yielding a specific activity of 543.6 U mg-1 and a 23.9-fold purification. The purified laccase was then immobilized covalently on the large pore magnetic SBA-15. Compared to free enzyme, immobilized enzyme maintained more stable at pH 2.0-11.0 and 25-55 °C, and against organic solvents, surfactants, metal ions, and inhibitors. The activity of both forms of the enzyme was increased with Cu2+, Ca+2, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and ethyl acetate. A 0.72 V redox potential caused enzyme specificity to various substrates. 80% of lignin content of the bio-waste was removed by 50 U mL-1 of immobilized enzyme after 8 h fermentation and delignification efficiency was greatly increased by applying higher enzyme dosages, surfactants, and organic solvents. In addition, residual activity was more than 50% after 20 cycles of delignification. The results of delignification were confirmed by GC-MS, SEM, and composition analysis of pistachio shells. This study illustrated the notable promise of the enzyme for biotechnological and environmental applications.


Assuntos
Lentinula , Pistacia , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Lacase , Lignina
7.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 121, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lentinula edodes is one of the most popular edible mushroom species in the world and contains useful medicinal components, such as lentinan. The light-induced formation of brown film on the vegetative mycelial tissues of L. edodes is an important process for ensuring the quantity and quality of this edible mushroom. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this critical developmental process in L. edodes, we characterized the morphological phenotypic changes in a strain, Chamaram, associated with abnormal brown film formation and compared its genome-wide transcriptional features. RESULTS: In the present study, we performed genome-wide transcriptome analyses of different vegetative mycelium growth phenotypes, namely, early white, normal brown, and defective dark yellow partial brown films phenotypes which were exposed to different light conditions. The analysis revealed the identification of clusters of genes specific to the light-induced brown film phenotypes. These genes were significantly associated with light sensing via photoreceptors such as FMN- and FAD-bindings, signal transduction by kinases and GPCRs, melanogenesis via activation of tyrosinases, and cell wall degradation by glucanases, chitinases, and laccases, which suggests these processes are involved in the formation of mycelial browning in L. edodes. Interestingly, hydrophobin genes such as SC1 and SC3 exhibited divergent expression levels in the normal and abnormal brown mycelial films, indicating the ability of these genes to act in fruiting body initiation and formation of dikaryotic mycelia. Furthermore, we identified the up-regulation of glycoside hydrolase domain-containing genes in the normal brown film but not in the abnormal film phenotype, suggesting that cell wall degradation in the normal brown film phenotype is crucial in the developmental processes related to the initiation and formation of fruiting bodies. CONCLUSIONS: This study systematically analysed the expression patterns of light-induced browning-related genes in L. edodes. Our findings provide information for further investigations of browning formation mechanisms in L. edodes and a foundation for future L. edodes breeding.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lentinula/genética , Lentinula/metabolismo , Micélio/genética , Micélio/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Lentinula/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Micélio/efeitos da radiação , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/efeitos da radiação
8.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 68(2): 182-187, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516831

RESUMO

The application of solid-state fermentation offers an alternative to conventional, submerged approaches for a variety of bioconversion processes, including animal feeds, biofuels and fungal bioproducts. Optimizing solid-state fermentation under low moisture conditions could significantly impact the proportion of dry biomass that could be processed and improve the commercial viability of this approach, because of reduced input costs and higher yields of final products. Pleurotus erygnii that appeared to show tolerance to low moisture conditions was grown on saturated and desaturated wheat straw. Pleurotus erygnii showed insignificant fibre degradation although showed significantly lower biomass decomposition on desaturated wheat straw. Fibre decomposition by the fungus on wheat straw containing wheat bran showed marginally higher decomposition when saturated although there was no difference in biomass decomposition. The levels of delignification achieved were similar under different saturation conditions. It would appear that the fungus effectively decomposed fibre under low moisture conditions often resulting in lower biomass losses. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: In this study, a white rot fungus, Pleurotus erygnii, effectively decomposed fibre under low moisture conditions when grown on wheat straw at similar levels under higher moisture conditions. However, the addition of wheat bran to wheat straw created a heterogeneous system that appeared to allow P. erygnii to thrive under much lower moisture conditions although lower levels of fibre decomposition was obtained. These factors could influence the preparation of solid-state fermentation.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Biomassa , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos , Coriolaceae/metabolismo , Fermentação , Ganoderma/metabolismo , Lentinula/metabolismo
9.
Genome Biol Evol ; 10(12): 3250-3261, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398645

RESUMO

Lentinus tigrinus is a species of wood-decaying fungi (Polyporales) that has an agaricoid form (a gilled mushroom) and a secotioid form (puffball-like, with enclosed spore-bearing structures). Previous studies suggested that the secotioid form is conferred by a recessive allele of a single locus. We sequenced the genomes of one agaricoid (Aga) strain and one secotioid (Sec) strain (39.53-39.88 Mb, with 15,581-15,380 genes, respectively). We mated the Sec and Aga monokaryons, genotyped the progeny, and performed bulked segregant analysis (BSA). We also fruited three Sec/Sec and three Aga/Aga dikaryons, and sampled transcriptomes at four developmental stages. Using BSA, we identified 105 top candidate genes with nonsynonymous SNPs that cosegregate with fruiting body phenotype. Transcriptome analyses of Sec/Sec versus Aga/Aga dikaryons identified 907 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) along four developmental stages. On the basis of BSA and DEGs, the top 25 candidate genes related to fruiting body development span 1.5 Mb (4% of the genome), possibly on a single chromosome, although the precise locus that controls the secotioid phenotype is unresolved. The top candidates include genes encoding a cytochrome P450 and an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, which may play a role in development, based on studies in other fungi.


Assuntos
Carpóforos/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Lentinula/genética , Evolução Biológica , Carpóforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lentinula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lentinula/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 20(8): 791-796, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317954

RESUMO

Lentinus tuber-regium is a sclerotium-forming basidiomycetous mushroom. It has increasingly aroused people's attention for its medicinal effects. In this study, we investigated the applicability of the Agrobacterium tume-faciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) method in L. tuber-regium. A. tumefaciens strain GV 3101 harboring the vector pPEH was used to transform the mycelium of L. tuber-regium strain ACCC50657. The genes for hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hph) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) gene promoter of Pleurotus ostreatus were employed as the selection marker and reporter gene, respectively. The optimal cocultivation temperature and time for transformation were 3 days and 4 days at 25°C and 20°C, respectively. Southern blot analysis showed the variation in the copy number and position of hph, which indicated random integration of hph. Polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence microscopy indicated that the P. ostreatus gpd promoter can drive the fused hph-egfp gene expression in L. tuber-regium. This is the first report that the ATMT method was successfully applied to L. tuber-regium. This reliable and efficient transformation method could be a powerful tool for strain genetic improvement and gene function study in L. tuber-regium.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Lentinula/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Lentinula/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transformação Genética
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 90(4): 3463-3473, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947669

RESUMO

Lentinus crinitus is a white-rot fungus that produces laccase, an enzyme used for dye decolorization. Enzyme production depends on cultivation conditions, mainly agro-industrial by-products. We aimed to produce laccase from Lentinus crinitus with agro-industrial by-products for dye decolorization. Culture medium had coffee husk (CH) or citric pulp pellet (CP) and different nitrogen sources (urea, yeast extract, ammonium sulfate and sodium nitrate) at concentrations of 0, 0.7, 1.4, 2.8, 5.6 and 11.2 g/L. Enzymatic extract was used in the decolorization of remazol brilliant blue R. CH medium promoted greater laccase production than CP in all evaluated conditions. Urea provided the greatest laccase production for CH (37280 U/L) as well as for CP (34107 U/L). In CH medium, laccase activity was suppressed when carbon-to-nitrogen ratio changed from 4.5 to 1.56, but the other nitrogen concentrations did not affect laccase activity. For CP medium, reduction in carbon-to-nitrogen ratio from 6 to 1.76 increased laccase activity in 17%. The peak of laccase activity in CH medium occurred on the 11th day (41246 U/L) and in CP medium on the 12th day (32660 U/L). The maximum decolorization within 24 h was observed with CP enzymatic extract (74%) and with CH extract (76%).


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Corantes/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Lacase/farmacologia , Lentinula/química
12.
J Cell Biochem ; 119(7): 6146-6153, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29637615

RESUMO

Ischemic heart disease often results in myocardial infarction and is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Improvement in the function of infarcted myocardium is a main purpose of cardiac regenerative medicine. One possible way to reach this goal is via stem cell therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types but display limited cardiomyogenic differentiation potential. Members of the T-box family of transcription factors including Tbx20 play important roles in heart development and cardiomyocyte homeostasis. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the potential of Tbx20 to enhance the cardiomyogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived MSCs (ADMSCs). Human ADMSCs were transduced with a bicistronic lentiviral vector encoding Tbx20 (murine) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and analyzed 7 and 14 days post transduction. Transduction of human ADMSCs with this lentiviral vector increased the expression of the cardiomyogenic differentiation markers ACTN1, TNNI3, ACTC1, NKX2.5, TBX20 (human), and GATA4 as revealed by RT-qPCR. Consistently, immunocytological results showed elevated expression of α-actinin and cardiac troponin I in these cells in comparison to the cells transduced with control lentiviral particles coding for eGFP alone. Accordingly, forced expression of Tbx20 exerts cardiomyogenic effects on human ADMSCs by increasing the expression of cardiomyogenic differentiation markers at the RNA and protein level.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Lentinula/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética
13.
Molecules ; 23(4)2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29597242

RESUMO

Four novel lentinoids (1-4), along with the known compounds striguellone A (5), isopanepoxydone (6) and panepoxydone (7), were isolated as part of our studies on Lentinus strigellus. The structures of 1-4 have been established by 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS analysis. Compounds (1-3) and (5-7) were tested against Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These compounds showed inhibition diameters ranging from 7.5-9.5 mm, however, when the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined, only compound 1 showed a significant activity of 200 µg/mL. Intermediates for the biosynthesis of the oxygenated cyclohexenyl derivatives isolated from lentinoid fungi (genera Lentinus and Panus) are proposed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lentinula/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
14.
Protein Pept Lett ; 25(2): 180-186, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The paper and pulp industry is a capital and resource-intensive industry that contributes to ecosystem toxicity and affects human beings. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to appraise the potential of xylanases, laccases and manganese peroxidase for the bio-bleaching of paper pulp and to highlight the role of these enzymes as a promising substitute for chlorine-based chemical methods in the bleaching process. METHODS: The ligninolytic enzymes including xylanase, laccase and manganese peroxidase isolated from white rot fungi were used for pre-bleaching and bleaching of oven-dried wheat straw pulp. RESULTS: During the sequential enzymatic treatment of oven-dried pulp the brightness was improved and kappa number was reduced by 3.1% and 3.1 points respectively after xylanase treatment, 0.3% and 0.4 points after laccase treatment and 3% and 0.2 points after MnP treatment. During separate treatment of pulp samples with individual enzymes, brightness and kappa number improved by 8% and 3 points respectively after xylanase treatment, by 5% and 1.7 points after laccase treatment and 5% and 1.8 points after treatment with MnP. During subsequent treatment with 4% sodium hypochlorite, the brightness was further improved by 27.9 % for xylanase treated pulp and 29% for the laccase and MnP treated pulp. The xylanase was found most efficient in comparison to laccase and MnP in reduction of kappa number and improvement of brightness. CONCLUSION: These results clearly indicate the role of laccase, MnP and xylanase from white rot fungi as effective bio-bleaching agents. Therefore, these enzymes can facilitate the bleaching process without threat to environment.


Assuntos
Clareadores/química , Lacase/metabolismo , Papel , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Xilosidases/metabolismo , Catálise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lentinula , Oxirredução , Phanerochaete , Polyporus , Hipoclorito de Sódio/química , Temperatura , Triticum/química
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 107(Pt A): 322-331, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28867230

RESUMO

A water-soluble heteroglycan (PS-I) isolated from the aqueous extract of a wild edible mushroom Lentinus sajor-caju showed average molecular weight ∼1.79×105Da. The structure of the polysaccharide was determined using chemical and 1D/2D NMR experiments. Acid hydrolysis indicated the presence of d-glucose, d-galactose, d-mannose, and l-fucose in a molar ratio of nearly 4:4:1:1 respectively. The presence of terminal Fucp, terminal Galp, (1→3)-Glcp, (1→6)-Galp, (1→6)-Glcp, (1→4,6)-Galp, and (1→2,4)-Manp moieties were established from methylation analysis. The chemical and NMR analyses indicated that the PS-I was a heteroglycan composed of a repeating unit with backbone chain of three (1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl residues, two (1→6)-ß-d-glucopyranosyl residues, one (1→4)-α-d-mannopyranosyl residue, and two (1→3)-ß-d-glucopyranosyl residues where one (1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl residue was branched at O-4 position with terminal α-l-fucopyranosyl residue and (1→4)-α-d-mannopyranosyl residue was branched at O-2 position with terminal α-d-galactopyranosyl residue and the structure was proposed as; The PS-I is a moderate antioxidant compound which showed DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging property, reducing power, and ferrous ion chelating ability.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Lentinula/química , Estrutura Molecular , Polissacarídeos/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Carboidratos , Carpóforos/química , Fucose/química , Galactose/química , Glucose/química , Hidrólise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Manose/química , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade
16.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 18(13): 1095-1109, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971768

RESUMO

Mushrooms have been used as traditional medicine from last few decades. Mushrooms as higher Basidiomycetes contain secondary metabolites in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Medicinal mushrooms possess medicinal properties such as anti-tumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and anti-diabetic effects. Phase-I, II, and III clinical trials were studied on various biologically active compounds isolated from medicinal mushrooms and are used adequately to treat various diseases including cancer. The present review focuses on various edible, medicinal and poisonous species of mushrooms belong to genera; Auricularia, Cantherallus, Ganoderma, Pleurotus, Lentinus, Trametes (Coriolus), Tremella and Amanita along with their chemical composition, biologically active compounds isolated and their pharmacological potential.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lentinula/química , Lentinula/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
17.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 44(10): 896-899, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066688

RESUMO

Cyclophosphamide(CY)was intraperitoneally administered once a week to C57BL/10mice that had received Rous sarcoma virus(RSV)-induced S1018B10 syngeneic tumor transplantation and in whom tumor diameter exceeded 4.5 mm. Survival was prolonged in a group of mice that also received a mixture of LEM and MAK orally. When splenic cells were cultured under mitomycin C-treated S1018B10 stimulation and the S1018B10-directed cell killing ability was examined, the effector cells were found to be F4/80 - DC/Mф cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the proportion of F4/80- DC/Mф cells in the splenic cell culture of the CY+LEM+MAK treatment group was higher than that in the untreated group. The ratio of F4/80+ CD8a+ cells in the CY+LEM+MAK treatment group was lower than that in the untreated group.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Lentinula/química , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sarcoma/patologia
18.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 42(5): 1961-1972, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response during infection. There are limited therapeutic options for sepsis patients. Interleukin (IL)-33 has been reported recently with a beneficial effect in mouse sepsis. METHODS: In this study, we initiated a clinical study to measure serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-33 in sepsis patients. Next, we employed cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to study the role of IL-33 during sepsis. To further dissect the molecular mechanism, we used in vivo knockout models and in vitro knockdown murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to investigate the cross-talk between IL-33 and IL-17 signaling, and to identify the potential downstream mediators. RESULTS: IL-33 and IL-17 were upregulated in both clinical and experimental sepsis. In CLP, IL-33 (-/-) mice showed higher mortality rate, and IL-33 treatment improved the survival rate. Elevated proinflammatory cytokines in sepsis were related to IL-17 from γδT cells. IL-33 treatment suppressed production of these cytokines by targeting IL-17 signaling both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, IL-33 was shown to inhibit the IL-17 pathway via activating suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3. CONCLUSION: Collectively, the results suggest that IL-33 plays a negative regulatory role in sepsis progression by inhibiting IL-17 pathway through activating SOCS3. This finding would inspire a new therapeutic strategy for treating sepsis.


Assuntos
Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Sepse/diagnóstico , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas/metabolismo , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CXCL1/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interleucina-17/análise , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Interleucina-33/análise , Interleucina-33/genética , Interleucina-6/análise , Lentinula/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Sepse/mortalidade , Sepse/patologia , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/deficiência , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
19.
J Biol Inorg Chem ; 22(7): 1029-1037, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28698982

RESUMO

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper metalloenzymes that can enhance polysaccharide depolymerization through an oxidative mechanism, making them interesting for the production of biofuel from cellulose. However, the details of this activation are unknown; in particular, the nature of the intermediate that attacks the glycoside C-H bond in the polysaccharide is not known, and a number of different species have been suggested. The homolytic bond-dissociation energy (BDE) has often been used as a descriptor for the bond-activation power, especially for inorganic model complexes. We have employed quantum-chemical cluster calculations to estimate the BDE for a number of possible LPMO intermediates to bridge the gap between model complexes and the actual LPMO active site. The calculated BDEs suggest that the reactive intermediate is either a Cu(II)-oxyl, a Cu(III)-oxyl, or a Cu(III)-hydroxide, which indicate that O-O bond breaking occurs before the C-H activation step.


Assuntos
Lentinula/enzimologia , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Cobre/química , Cobre/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Lentinula/química , Lentinula/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/química , Modelos Moleculares , Polissacarídeos/química , Prótons , Termodinâmica
20.
Pharm Biol ; 55(1): 1792-1799, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28532227

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. (Polyporaceae) is an interesting source of diverse bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVE: This is the first study of the anticancer activity and underlying mechanism of peptides extracted from Lentinus squarrosuls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peptides were isolated from the aqueous extract of L. squarrosulus by employing solid ammonium sulphate precipitation. They were further purified by ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethanol (DEAE)-cellulose and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G25. Anticancer activity was investigated in human lung cancer H460, H292 and H23 cells cultured with 0-40 µg/mL of peptide extracts for 24 h. Cell viability and mode of cell death were evaluated by MTT and nuclear staining assay, respectively. Western blotting was used to investigate the alteration of apoptosis-regulating proteins in lung cancer cells treated with peptide extracts (0-20 µg/mL) for 24 h. RESULTS: The cytotoxicity of partially-purified peptide extracts from L. squarrosulus was indicated with IC50 of ∼26.84 ± 2.84, 2.80 ± 2.14 and 18.84 ± 0.30 µg/mL in lung cancer H460, H292 and H23 cells, respectively. The extracts at 20 µg/mL induced apoptosis through the reduction of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein (∼0.5-fold reduction) and up-regulation of BAX (∼4.5-fold induction), a pro-apoptotic protein. Furthermore, L. squarrosulus peptide extracts (20 µg/mL) also decreased the cellular level of death receptor inhibitor c-FLIP (∼0.6-fold reduction). CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: This study provides the novel anticancer activity and mechanism of L. squarrosulus peptide extracts, which encourage further investigation and development of the extracts for anticancer use.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Lentinula/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
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