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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20808, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629666

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Palbociclib (PAL) is a first-in-class selective inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinases 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 and is indicated for the treatment of hormone receptor (HR)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in combination with fulvestrant (FUL) in postmenopausal women. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), a well-known Chinese folk medicine in Taiwan, possesses numerous biological capabilities, most notably an anti-tumor effect. However, the clinical use of AC as complementary medicine combined with adjuvant therapy is unexplored. In this case report, we evaluated AC combined with PAL plus FUL to reduce the tumor burden in an MBC patient. PATIENT CONCERNS: A Slovenian woman diagnosed with relapsed bone metastases of breast cancer (BC) was unable to undergo surgery and refused radiation therapy due to fear of side effects; she also feared the side effects of adjuvants. However, she was eager to live with a high quality of life. DIAGNOSIS: Stage IV, HR-positive/HER2-negative BC with relapse of bone metastases. INTERVENTIONS: After diagnosis of relapse of bone metastases, she received adjuvant with PAL plus FUL. Additionally, she chose to take AC orally (10 g/d). OUTCOMES: The pain was mostly relieved, and the side effects of adjuvant therapy reduced. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed reduction of tumor size at the fifth month of adjuvant therapy plus AC. After 14 months of adjuvant therapy plus AC, the tumors at the thoracic vertebrae T1 and T3 were found to have shrunk from 35.2 and 12.0 mm to 28.1 and 9.9 mm, respectively. Remarkably, no further metastases were observed. LESSONS: According to the circulating tumor cells (CTCs) test data, AC had better anti-tumor efficacy on active tumor cells than PAL plus FUL. Thus, AC could be an effective complementary medicine for adjuvant therapy in patients with HR-positive/HER2-negative MBC. Interestingly, continued elevation of carcinoma antigen 15-3 and lactate dehydrogenase levels but decreasing levels of alkaline phosphatase were observed, which may be indicative of the potent efficacy of treatment resulting in massive tumor cell death. The CTCs test may be a sensitive approach to monitor the progression of BC and subsequently evaluate the efficiency of therapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antrodia , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Fulvestranto/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4191-4203, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606672

RESUMO

Purpose: To characterize the nanoparticle of antroquinonol from A. cinnamomea and its ameliorative effects on the reproductive dysfunction in the diabetic male rat. Material and Methods: The chitosan-silicate nanoparticle was used as the carrier for the delivery of antroquinonol from solid-state-cultured A. cinnamomea extract (AC). The rats were fed with a high-fat diet and intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The rats were daily oral gavage by water [Diabetes (DM) and Control groups], three different doses of chitosan-silicate nanoparticle of antroquinonol from solid-state-cultured A. cinnamomea (nano-SAC, NAC): (DM+NAC1x, 4 mg/kg of body weight; DM+NAC2x, 8 mg/kg; and DM+NAC5x, 20 mg/kg), solid-state-cultured AC (DM+AC5x, 20 mg/kg), or metformin (DM+Met, 200 mg/kg) for 7 weeks. Results: The nano-SAC size was 37.68±5.91 nm, the zeta potential was 4.13±0.49 mV, encapsulation efficiency was 79.29±0.77%, and loading capacity was 32.45±0.02%. The nano-SAC can improve diabetes-induced reproductive dysfunction by regulating glucose, insulin, and oxidative enzyme and by increasing the level of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sperm count as well as sperm mobility. In testicular histopathology, the seminiferous tubules of A. cinnamomea-supplemented diabetic rats showed similar morphology with the control group. Conclusion: The nanoparticle of antroquinonol from Antrodia cinnamomea can be used as an effective strategy to improve diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Reprodução , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Jejum/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Insulina/sangue , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Estreptozocina , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia , Ubiquinona/farmacologia , Ubiquinona/uso terapêutico
3.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(6): e8694, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401928

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Ethanol extract of Antrodia cinnamomea (EEA) has been widely studied for its health benefits including anticancer effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of EEA on HNSCC. Cell proliferation, transwell, and wound healing assays were performed. The impact of EEA on tumor growth was investigated using a xenograft model. Expressions of migration-related proteins (MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) and apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP) were determined using western blot analysis. The results indicated that EEA significantly inhibited the capacities of proliferation, invasion, and migration of HNSCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP expressions were increased in cells treated with an increasing concentration of EEA, which suggested that EEA induced apoptosis of HNSCC. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were downregulated when cells were administered EEA, while TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were not affected, which uncovered the mechanisms mediating the EEA-induced inhibition on cell invasion and migration. The animal experiment also suggested that EEA inhibited tumor growth. Our study confirmed the inhibitive effects of EEA on cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of HNSCC in vitro and in vivo, providing the basis for further study of the application of EEA as an effective candidate for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 47(2): 197-207, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933057

RESUMO

The goals of this study were to increase the production of antroquinonol (AQ) and to elucidate the response mechanism of the cell membrane during the in situ extractive fermentation (ISEF) of Antrodia camphorata S-29. Through ISEF, the concentration of AQ reached a maximum of 146.1 ± 2.8 mg/L, which was approximately (7.4 ± 0.1)-fold that of the control (coenzyme Q0-induced fermentation). Transcriptome sequencing showed that four genes (FAD2, fabG, SCD, and FAS1) related to fatty acid biosynthesis were upregulated. FAD2 and SCD may regulate the increase in oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) in the cell membrane of A. camphorata S-29, resulting in an increase in cell membrane permeability. AQ was successfully transferred to the n-tetradecane phase through the cell membrane, reducing product feedback inhibition and improving the production of AQ from A. camphorata S-29.


Assuntos
Antrodia/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Fermentação , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Antrodia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquinona/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/farmacologia
5.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 26(2): 18-22, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477137

RESUMO

Context: Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a parasitic mushroom found in the heartwood of Cinnamomum kanehirai and is used as a nutritional supplement. It has an anticancer action, both alone and synergistically with amphotericin B (AmB). Objective: The study intended to assess the efficacy of a T camphoratus ethanol extract (TCEE) combined with AmB for patients with metastatic cancer whose cancer did not respond to multiline chemotherapy or who were unwilling to receive chemotherapy. Design: The research team performed a retrospective analysis as a pilot study. Setting: The study took place at a single hospital (Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan). Participants: Participants were 9 patients at the hospital who were terminally ill with metastatic cancer. Interventions: The participants had received daily doses of 2-3 g of the TCEE in combination with a weekly dose of 20-25 mg of AmB in 500 cc of 5% glucose water, given intravenously in 4-6 h. Outcome Measures: Outcome measures included (1) a primary evaluation index measuring the efficacy of the treatment; (2) a measure of tumor burden that was estimated using the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST 1.1), (3) a secondary evaluation index measuring survival duration, and (4) safety. Results: The mean treatment time was 54.4 ± 18.3 wk. At the end of the study, 2 patients showed a continued complete response, 1 patient had a continued partial response, and 1 patient showed a stable disease. The other 5 participants had times to progression ranging from 24 to 48 wk, with a mean of 35.6 wk. The mean survival time was 57.8 ± 18.5 wk, and 5 patients were still alive at the end of the study. Conclusions: For patients whose metastatic cancer did not respond to multiline chemotherapy or who were unwilling to receive chemotherapy, the use of TCEE as an adjuvant therapy to AmB resulted in tumor suppression and a delay in time to disease progression. The preliminary results reported here can be used to guide a future, more extensive clinical study of the combination.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antrodia/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Etanol , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(7): 1611-1626, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645125

RESUMO

The medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the bioactive compounds in A. cinnamomea need further investigation. The present study aimed to understand the mechanism of action of antcamphin M, an ergostanoid isolated from A. cinnamomea mycelium and to clarify its underlying mechanisms of action. RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with the indicated concentrations of antcamphin M, prior to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cell viability, production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cytokines, and chemokines, as well as the inflammation-related signaling pathways were investigated. The study revealed that antcamphin M significantly decreased the LPS-induced production of NO, PGE2, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and keratinocyte chemoattractant CXCL1 (KC), along with the levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins without significant cytotoxicity, indicating it had a better anti-inflammatory activity than that of gisenoside Rb1 and Rg1. Additionally, antcamphin M significantly inhibited the activation of MAPKs (p38, ERK, and JNK), NFκB, and components of the NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1) signaling pathways and also increased the levels of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). These findings suggest that antcamphin M possesses potent anti-inflammatory activities and could be a potential candidate for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Ergosterol/análogos & derivados , Heme Oxigenase-1/imunologia , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Antrodia/química , Quimiocina CXCL1/genética , Quimiocina CXCL1/imunologia , Dinoprostona/imunologia , Ergosterol/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Inflamassomos/genética , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Óxido Nítrico/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581697

RESUMO

The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of sulphurenic acid (SA), a pure compound from Antrodia camphorata, on diabetes and hyperlipidemia in an animal model study and to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism. Diabetes was induced by daily 55 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ) solution over five days. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups and orally gavaged with SA (at three dosages) or glibenclamide (Glib), fenofibrate (Feno) or vehicle for 3 weeks. Our findings showed that STZ-induced diabetic mice had significantly increased fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), plasma triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) levels (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.05, respectively) but decreased blood insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels compared to those of the control group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Administration of SA to STZ-induced diabetic mice may lower blood glucose but it increased the insulin levels with restoration of the size of the islets of Langerhans cells, implying that SA protected against STZ-induced diabetic states within the pancreas. At the molecular level, SA treatment exerts an increase in skeletal muscle expression levels of membrane glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phospho-Akt to increase the membrane glucose uptake, but the mRNA levels of PEPCK and G6Pase are decreased to inhibit hepatic glucose production, thus leading to its hypoglycemic effect. Moreover, SA may cause hypolipidemic effects not only by enhancing hepatic expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) with increased fatty acid oxidation but also by reducing lipogenic fatty acid synthase (FAS) as well as reducing mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)1C and SREBP2 to lower blood TG and TC levels. Our findings demonstrated that SA displayed a protective effect against type 1 diabetes and a hyperlipidemic state in STZ-induced diabetic mice.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Triterpenos/química
8.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(6): 1271-1287, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488035

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in initiating immune responses; however, DCs also induce Th2-related allergic sensitivities. Thus, DCs become a target for therapeutic design in allergic diseases. In this study, we aim to investigate the anti-allergic effect of pure compounds from a medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea (Ac) on DC-induced allergic responses. We identified a benzenoid compound 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-l,3-benzodioxole (DMB) which may modulate Th2 polarization in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) and in a murine food allergy model. DMB effectively reduced the Th2 adjuvant cholera toxin (CT)-induced BMDC maturation and cytokine production. In studying the mechanism, DMB blocked the molecular processes involved in Th2 induction, including cAMP activation, IL-33 production, and IRF4/Tim4 upregulation, in CT-activated BMDCs. Furthermore, DMB treatment attenuated the symptoms, clinical scores, and Th2 responses of CT-induced ovalbumin (OVA)-specific food allergy in mice at sensitization stage. These results indicated that DMB could suppress DC function for Th2 polarization and mitigate allergic responses. Thus, DMB may have potential to be a novel agent for preventing or treating food allergy.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos , Antrodia/química , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/uso terapêutico , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Células Th2/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/imunologia
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(10)2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561410

RESUMO

Introduction: Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) is an extremely rare medicinal fungus native to forested regions of Taiwan. It possesses numerous biological activities, especially anti-tumor effects shown in various in vitro cancer cells and in vivo animal models. However, there are few clinical reports about AC as a treatment for cancer patients. This report attempts to demonstrate the therapeutic effect of dish-cultured AC (DAC) on a small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patient taken orally for an extended duration. Patient concerns: An 88-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension visited the outpatient department with the symptoms of dyspnea and a cough for two weeks. After a diagnosis of SCLC, the patient declined both chemotherapy and radiotherapy because of the side effects and only accepted supportive care without additional therapy. Diagnosis: Limited-stage SCLC (T4N2M1a, stage IV) after the chest radiograph, computed tomography-guided biopsy, and pathological diagnosis. Interventions: The patient was prescribed DAC with an increasing dosage, from 5 g/d up to 10 g/d DAC, for six months, without radiation or chemotherapy treatment. Outcomes: DAC caused the tumor to shrink substantially. Surprisingly, the patient survived for 32 months without relapse after six months of DAC treatment. Laboratory examinations indicated that the patient's health had improved significantly, reverting to near normal levels. Notably, he had a good quality of life with a high Barthel index score. Unfortunately, this patient died of septic shock caused by acute cholangitis. Conclusion: DAC may exert an anti-cancer effect, which can lead to tumor regression. This is supposed to be achieved by the combined DAC's immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenic, anti-metastatic, anti-proliferative, and pro-apoptotic effects mediated through multiple signaling pathways. We propose that DAC can be used as a complementary medicine to prolong the life expectancy and improve the life quality of SCLC patients.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(20): 8351-8361, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392378

RESUMO

This study describes the application of in situ extractive fermentation (ISEF) to increase the yields of antroquinonol (AQ) and antrodin C (AC) from Antrodia camphorata S-29. In initial screening experiments, nine solvents were tested to identify the most suitable extractant for the in situ extraction of AQ and AC. These solvents included n-tetradecane, n-dodecane, n-decane, heavy paraffin, light paraffin, oleyl alcohol, oleic acid, butyl oleate, and isopropyl myristate. Of these, oleic acid was the most suitable solvent for the in situ extraction of AQ and AC. The use of oleic acid as an in situ extractant significantly improved AQ and AC productions, which were approximately 5-fold and 8-fold that of the control, respectively. The recovered oleic acid was treated with a silica gel solid-phase extraction column, which was able to rapidly adsorb the bioactive metabolites. The separated solvent hardly contained fermentation products and could be directly reused in ISEF. AQ and AC were obtained with purities of over 75% by silica gel column chromatography. The recoveries of AQ and AC reached 70.7 ± 0.8% and 81.5 ± 1.2%, respectively.


Assuntos
Antrodia/metabolismo , Maleimidas/isolamento & purificação , Maleimidas/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Biotecnologia/métodos , Fermentação , Solventes/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/isolamento & purificação , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(19): 7843-7867, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407039

RESUMO

Antrodia camphorata, also known as A. cinnamomea, is a precious medicinal basidiomycete fungus endemic to Taiwan. This article summarizes the recent advances in research on the multifarious pharmacological effects of A. camphorata. The mushroom exhibits anticancer activity toward a large variety of cancers including breast, cervical, ovarian, prostate, bladder, colorectal, pancreatic, liver, and lung cancers; melanoma; leukemia; lymphoma; neuroblastoma; and glioblastoma. Other activities encompass antiinflammatory, antiatopic dermatitis, anticachexia, immunoregulatory, antiobesity, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet, antioxidative, antiphotodamaging, hepatoprotective, renoprotective, neuroprotective, testis protecting, antiasthmatic, osteogenic, osteoprotective, antiviral, antibacterial, and wound healing activities. This review aims to provide a reference for further development and utilization of this highly prized mushroom.


Assuntos
Antrodia/classificação , Antrodia/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Antrodia/genética , Taiwan
12.
Mycologia ; 111(5): 871-883, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433734

RESUMO

Most known brown rot-producing species of Polyporales belong to the so-called "Antrodia clade" that largely consists of poroid species. In this study, we use three genetic markers to revise Antrodia s. str., the core group of this clade. We show that a corticioid species with a smooth hymenophore, Phlebia griseoflavescens, belongs to Antrodia s. str. Accordingly, we revise the generic concept of Antrodia s. str. to accommodate this species and two recently described poroid taxa, A. tenerifensis and A. multiformis. In addition, we describe two new poroid species within Antrodia s. str., A. latebrosa from Africa and A. peregrina from East Asia, and provide new documentation for the Southeast Asian species A. parvula based on recent collections from the type location.


Assuntos
Antrodia/classificação , Antrodia/genética , Antrodia/citologia , Antrodia/isolamento & purificação , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Microbiologia Ambiental , Microscopia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Phytother Res ; 33(9): 2288-2297, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359520

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease, and the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis and progression of PD has been confirmed. The polysaccharides and triterpenoids of antrodia camphorata (a polyporous fungus) harbor diverse and powerful pharmacological effects. In this study, 6-hydroxydopamine was used to construct a PD mouse model. After antrodia camphorata polysaccharide (ACP) intervention, neurobehavioral changes were detected, neurotransmitter changes in striatum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, the alterations of striatal NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing three (NLRP3) were examined by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of NLRP3, IL-1ß, Caspase-1, and proCaspase-1 were detected by western blot. To be specific, the items of neurobehavioral test included open field activity, rotary test, pole test, gait analysis, and swimming test. As a result, 6-hydroxydopamine could lead to PD-like lesions, including tremor, stiffness, attenuated spontaneous activity, and bradykinesia in mice, and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the striatum was decreased. After ACP intervention, the neuroethology of mice was significantly improved, as demonstrated by the elevated levels of dopamine in the striatum and the decreased expression of dopamine in the striatum in NLRP3 inflammasome. NLRP3 inflammasome played an important role in neuroinflammation in PD mice. ACP could reduce the activation of NLRP3 and expression of related inflammatory factors.


Assuntos
Antrodia/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Polissacarídeos
14.
Biomolecules ; 9(8)2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349708

RESUMO

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) regimen remains the backbone of the first-line agent to treat colon cancer, but often these patients develop resistance. Cancer stem cells (CSC's) are considered as one of the key contributors in the development of drug resistance and tumor recurrence. We aimed to provide preclinical evidence for Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), as a potential in suppressing colon cancer CSC's to overcome 5-FU drug-resistant. In-vitro assays including cell viability, colony formation, AC + 5-FU drug combination index and tumor sphere generation were applied to determine the inhibitory effect of AC. Mouse xenograft models also incorporated to evaluate in vivo effect of AC. AC treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation, colony formation and tumor sphere generation. AC also inhibited the expression of oncogenic markers (NF-κB, and C-myc), EMT/metastasis markers (vimentin and MMP3) and stemness associated markers (ß-catenin, SOX-2 and Nanog). Sequential treatment of AC and 5-FU synergized and reduces colon cancer viability both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, AC mediated anti-tumor effect was associated with an increased level of tumor suppressor microRNAs especially, miR142-3p. AC can be a potent synergistic adjuvant, down-regulates cancer stemness genes and enhances the antitumor ability of 5-FU by stimulating apoptosis-associated genes, suppressing inflammation and metastasis genes through miR142-3p in colon cancer.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , MicroRNAs/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Camundongos , Regulação para Cima , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4725-4738, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304955

RESUMO

Antrodia camphorata is a well-known traditional Chinese mushroom used as a functional food and nutraceutical in Taiwan and China. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects and mechanism(s) of the ethyl acetate crude extract of A. camphorata (EtOAc-AC) and its active constituent ergostatrien-7,9(11),22-trien-3ß-ol (EK100) in an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) murine model. Treating mice with induced AIS injury by using EtOAc-AC (0.3-0.6 g kg-1, p.o.) and EK100 (60 and 120 mg kg-1, p.o.) 2 h after AIS induction significantly increased the tracking distance and reduced brain infarction. Both EtOAc-AC and EK-100 reduced the expression levels of p65NF-κB and caspase 3 near the peri-infarct cortex and promoted the expression of neurogenesis-associated protein doublecortin (DCX) near the hippocampus, accompanied by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibition and ß-catenin upregulation. Signaling pathway analysis revealed that the advantageous effects of EtOAc-AC and EK-100 involved triggering the activation of PI3K/Akt and inhibition of GSK-3. Our findings suggest that EtOAc-AC and its active constituent EK100 display anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. Both EtOAc-AC and EK100 reduce ischemic brain injury by decreasing p65NF-κB and caspase 3 expression, and they promote neurogenesis (DCX) and neuroprotection (Bcl2) by activating the PI3k/Akt-associated GSK3 inhibition and ß-catenin activation.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Ergosterol/análogos & derivados , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Cateninas/genética , Cateninas/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Ergosterol/administração & dosagem , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 216: 204-212, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047058

RESUMO

Sulfated polysaccharides (SPSs) are polysaccharides (PSs) with high sulfate functionalization and possess bioactivities. This study aimed to increase the sulfate content of SPSs in Antrodia cinnamomea through sulfate feeding. Feeding A. cinnamomea with sodium thiosulfate was found to increase yields of PSs and SPSs in A. cinnamomea. The SPSs thus obtained (ST-SPS) were further isolated, showing enhanced sulfate content of 2.5 mmol/g. Sodium thiosulfate induced changes in molecular weight from 320 kDa to 1342 kDa, and area percentage of low-molecular-weight ST-SPS (< 20 kDa) was decreased. Functional studies revealed that sodium thiosulfate increased the ST-SPS anticancer efficacy in cancer cells via inhibition of EGFR/AKT signaling. Moreover, the ST-SPS enhanced synergistically cisplatin-, gefitinib- and 5 FU-induced cytotoxic effects in lung cancer H1975 cells and colon cancer CT26 cells. This study is the first to demonstrate that sodium thiosulfate induced changes in properties of A. cinnamomea with the anticancer mechanisms of ST-SPS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antrodia/química , Antrodia/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/farmacologia , Tiossulfatos/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/biossíntese , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/química , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/isolamento & purificação , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925792

RESUMO

Antrodia camphorata (AC) is a rare and unique mushroom that is difficult to cultivate. Previous studies have demonstrated the bioactivity of the compound Ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3ß-ol (EK100) from AC in submerged culture. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of EK100 on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) and orally administered EK100 for six weeks at 0 (Vehicle), 10 (EK100-1X), and 20 (EK100-2X) mg/kg/day. The six-week Ek100 supplementation significantly increased grip strength (P = 0.0051) in trend analysis. Anti-fatigue activity was evaluated using 15-min. acute exercise testing and measuring the levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min. swimming exercise. Our results indicate that AC supplementation leads to a dose-dependent decrease in serum lactate, ammonia, BUN, and CK activity after exercise and significantly increases serum glucose and glycogen content in liver tissues. Biochemical and histopathological data demonstrated that long term daily administration of EK100 for over six weeks (subacute toxicity) was safe. EK100's anti-fatigue properties appear to be through the preservation of energy storage, increasing blood glucose and liver glycogen content, and decreasing the serum levels of lactate, ammonia, BUN, and CK. EK100 could potentially be used to improve exercise physiological adaptation, promote health, and as a potential ergogenic aid in combination with different nutrient strategies.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Ergosterol/farmacologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Administração Oral , Amônia/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Ergosterol/química , Ergosterol/toxicidade , Membro Anterior/fisiologia , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos dos fármacos , Natação , Testes de Toxicidade
18.
Phytochemistry ; 161: 97-106, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822625

RESUMO

Antrodia cinnamomea, an endemic fungus species of Taiwan, has long been used as a luxurious dietary supplement to enhance liver functions and as a remedy for various cancers. Antroquinonol (AQ), identified from the mycelium of A. cinnamomea, is currently in phase II clinical trials in the USA and Taiwan for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. In the previous studies, we have demonstrated that AQ and 4-acetylantroquinonol B (4-AAQB) utilize orsellinic acid, via polyketide pathway, as the ring precursor, and their biosynthetic sequences are similar to those of coenzyme Q. In order to test 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA), synthesized via shikimate pathway, is the ring precursor of AQ analogs, the strategy of metabolic labeling with stable isotopes was applied in this study. Here we have confirmed that 4-HBA serves as the ring precursor for AQ but not a precursor of 4-AAQB. Experimental results indicated that A. cinnamomea preferentially utilizes endogenous 4-HBA via shikimate pathway for AQ biosynthesis. Exogenous tyrosine and phenylalanine can be utilized for AQ biosynthesis when shikimate pathway is blocked by glyphosate. The benzoquinone ring of 4-AAQB is synthesized only via polyketide pathway, but that of AQ is synthesized via both polyketide pathway and shikimate pathway. The precursor-products relationships diagram of AQ and 4-AAQB in A. cinnamomea are proposed based on the experimental findings.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Parabenos/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Antrodia/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Parabenos/química , Ubiquinona/biossíntese , Ubiquinona/química
19.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 39(4): 541-554, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810393

RESUMO

Edible and medicinal mushrooms have usually been considered as a sustainable source of unique bioactive metabolites, which are valued as promising provisions for human health. Antrodia cinnamomea is a unique edible and medicinal fungus widespread in Taiwan, which has attracted much attention in recent years for its high value in both scientific research and commercial applications owing to its potent therapeutic effects, especially for its hepatic protection and anticancer activity. Due to the scarcity of the fruiting bodies, the cultivation of A. cinnamomea by submerged fermentation appears to be a promising substitute which possesses some unique advantages, such as short culture time period and its high feasibility for scale-up production. However, the amount of fungal bioactive metabolites derived from the cultured mycelia of A. cinnamomea grown by submerged fermentation is much less than those obtained from the wild fruiting bodies. Hence, there is an urgent need to bridge such a discrepancy on bioactive metabolites between the wild fruiting bodies and the cultured mycelia. The objective of this article is to review recent advances and the future development of the mycelial submerged fermentation of A. cinnamomea in terms of enhancement for the production of fungal bioactive components by the optimization of culture conditions and the regulation of fungal metabolism. This review provides valuable information for further biotechnological applications of A. cinnamomea as well as other mushrooms being the source of bioactive ingredients by submerged fermentation.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Biotecnologia , Agaricales/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Fermentação , Carpóforos/química , Humanos , Micélio/química
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 112: 108684, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798138

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus together with the oxidative stress affects the process of spermatogenesis and leads to male infertility. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) is a mushroom found unique in Taiwan and commonly used for the treatment of several types of cancers and inflammatory disorders. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-oxidative and the ameliorative effects of Antrodia cinnamomea ethanol extract (ACEE) on reproduction dysfunction in male diabetic rats. The diabetic condition was induced by administrating the combination of streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (NA) (230 mg/kg). Three different doses of ACEE were tested (385, 770, 1540 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. The results indicated that the ACEE improved STZ-NA induced hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. In addition to this, ACEE reduced the degree of lipid peroxidation, recovered the abnormal structure of the seminiferous tubules, and improved sperm parameters. Moreover, the DNA damages and mitochondrial membrane potential were improved in sperm. Our study confirmed that the ACEE has anti-inflammatory and ameliorative effects to prevent diabetes-induced male reproductive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Antrodia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodução/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia
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