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1.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106359, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750599

RESUMO

Most of environmental monitoring programs include measurements of the air dose rates and the radionuclides activity concentration in plants. Both these parameters depend on deposition density of radionuclides. Therefore, measurements of one parameter can (with some supplementary information) be used as an indicator for the other parameter. After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the Emergency Operation Centre (EOC) operated by the Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring centre of Fukushima and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan carried out large sampling programme over different distances from the NPP. The sampling programme was focused on the usage of the weed leaves as a proxy for the prediction of radionuclide transfer to some cultivated plants. The MAFF monitoring programme in 2011-2016 was addressed mainly to agricultural crops. In both cases, the air dose rates were measured at the sites of the sampling. The paper addresses the assessments of relationship between radionuclide activities concentrations in plants and ambient dose rates. The time-dependent relationships were quantified based on weed, buckwheat, brown rice and soybean data obtained in 2011-2016. The recommendations on optimizing emergency sampling programmes based on use of the data of ambient dose rates are also presented.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Plantas Comestíveis , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioisótopos , Radioisótopos de Césio , Japão , Centrais Nucleares , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Radioisótopos/análise
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233498, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497043

RESUMO

Distinct zonation of community assemblages among habitats is a ubiquitous feature of coral reefs. The distribution of roving herbivorous fishes (parrotfishes, surgeonfishes and rabbitfishes) is a particularly clear example, with the abundance of these fishes generally peaking in shallow-water, high-energy habitats, regardless of the biogeographic realm. Yet, our understanding of the factors which structure this habitat partitioning, especially with regards to different facets of structural complexity and nutritional resource availability, is limited. To address this issue, we used three-dimensional photogrammetry and structure-from-motion technologies to describe five components of structural complexity (rugosity, coral cover, verticality, refuge density and field-of-view) and nutritional resource availability (grazing surface area) among habitats and considered how these factors are related to herbivorous fish distributions. All complexity metrics (including coral cover) were highest on the slope and crest. Nutritional resource availability differed from this general pattern and peaked on the outer-flat. Unexpectedly, when compared to the distribution of herbivorous fishes, none of the complexity metrics had a marked influence in the models. However, grazing surface area was a strong predictor of both the abundance and biomass of herbivorous fishes. The strong relationship between grazing surface area and herbivorous fish distributions indicates that nutritional resource availability may be one of the primary factors driving the distribution of roving herbivorous fishes. The lack of a relationship between complexity and herbivorous fishes, and a strong affinity of herbivorous fishes for low-complexity, algal turf-dominated outer-flat habitats, offers some cautious optimism that herbivory may be sustained on future, low-complexity, algal turf-dominated reef configurations.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Peixes/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Antozoários , Biomassa , Comportamento Alimentar , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional , Modelos Biológicos , Dispersão Vegetal , Plantas Comestíveis , Propriedades de Superfície , Ondas de Maré
3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230936, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379775

RESUMO

Food biodiversity presents one of the most significant opportunities to enhance food and nutrition security today. The lack of data on many plants, however, limits our understanding of their potential and the possibility of building a research agenda focused on them. Our objective with this systematic review was to identify biodiverse food plants occurring in the Caatinga biome, Brazil, strategic for the promotion of food and nutrition security. We selected studies from the following databases: Web of Science, Medline/PubMed (via the National Library of Medicine), Scopus and Embrapa Agricultural Research Databases (BDPA). Eligible were original articles, published since 2008, studying food plants occurring in the Caatinga. We assessed the methodological quality of the studies we selected. We reviewed a total of fifteen studies in which 65 plants that met our inclusion criteria were mentioned. Of this amount, 17 species, including varieties, subspecies, and different parts of plants, had data on chemical composition, in addition to being mentioned as food consumed by rural communities in observational ethnobotanical studies. From the energy and protein data associated with these plants, we produced a ranking of strategic species. The plants with values higher than the average of the set were: Dioclea grandiflora Mart. ex Benth (mucunã), Hymenaea courbaril L. (jatobá), Syagrus cearensis Noblick (coco-catolé), Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul.) L.P.Queiroz (jucá), Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem. & Schult.) T.D.Penn. (quixabeira). We suggest that the scientific community concentrates research efforts on tree legumes, due to their resilience and physiological, nutritional, and culinary qualities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biodiversidade , Etnobotânica , Estado Nutricional , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Comestíveis/fisiologia , Humanos
4.
Food Chem ; 327: 127045, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464460

RESUMO

In this study, the inhibitory potentials of food originated 34 phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds were screened against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, urease, and tyrosinase enzymes. All compounds included in this study exhibited high antioxidant activity with an ignorable cytotoxic activity. In general, they also showed poor anti-urease and anti-tyrosinase activities. Compounds in aglycone form (quercetin, myricetin, chrysin, and luteolin) showed strong anticholinesterase activities. No relation was observed between the tested bioactivities except from the case that aglycone compounds exhibited a strong positive relationship between antioxidant activities and anticholinesterase activity. Interestingly, there was a relation between the molecular weights of aglycone compounds and their anticholinesterase activities. The study showed that flavonoids with molecular mass of 250-320 g/mol have high potential of anticholinesterase activities and are valuable for future experiments on animals and humans. Potential inhibitory effects of these molecules on target proteins were investigated using docking and molecular dynamics calculations.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Flavonoides/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo
5.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 61(1): 22-30, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336715

RESUMO

An identification method for testing contamination in products was assessed using various vegetables and fruits (70 types in total). DNA was extracted from plant fragments which are 1 to several millimeters long and the plastid rpl16-rpl14 linker sequence (approximately 550 base pairs) was amplified by PCR. The DNA nucleotide sequence was determined, and homology and SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) analyses were carried out. Consequently, the test plants were difficult to distinguish between closely related species, but could be divided into 38 groups at the genus level or the species level. Although problems such as the accuracy of discrimination among some closely related plants and DNA stability under an acidic condition remain to be resolved, this method is considered to be expected to identify plant fragments mixed in products or raw materials.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/análise , Frutas/química , Plantas Comestíveis/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Verduras/química , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(5): 292, 2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306205

RESUMO

This study evaluated the level of metals in edible plants, their chemical forms in the soil, and the associated health risk in Enyigba lead-zinc mining vicinity in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Soil sample, Telfairia occidentalis and Amaranthus hybridus were collected from mining sites (Ishiagu-Enyigba and Elinwobvu-Enyigba) and non-mining site (Ekawoke-control) and analyzed using standard protocols. The results showed that a high percentage of Cd, Pb, Fe, and Zn were associated with non-residual fraction, while Cu, Cr, and Ni were bounded with residual fraction. The order of mobility and bioavailability of the metals was as follows: Pb > Cd > Fe > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu. Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) indicated moderate to strong pollution of the mining sites with Cd Cu, Pb, and Zn. The most significant contributor to hazard index (HI) was ingestion of edible plants; followed by ingestion, dermal-contact, and then inhalation of soil particles. HI values for Cd (1.32), Cr (1.05), and Pb (1.97-2.04) for children in the sites exceeded United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) safe limit (HI > 1). Total cancer risk (TCR) for adults and children via soil inhalation or soil ingestion were below USEPA safe limit (TCR < 1.0 × 10-4). TCR for adults and children via consumption of T. occidentalis or A. hybridus exceeded USEPA safe limit (TCR > 1.0 × 10-4). These results strongly indicated associated noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health risk of these metals from the soil and the edible plants around Enyigba mining sites vicinity to humans especially children, this calls for concern.


Assuntos
Fazendas , Metais Pesados , Plantas Comestíveis , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Chumbo , Mineração , Nigéria , Solo , Zinco
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0226180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302305

RESUMO

Heavy metal accumulation in edible plants grown in contaminated soils poses a major environmental risk to humans and grazing animals. This study focused on the concentration and speciation of Zn in different edible plants grown in soils contaminated with smelter wastes (Spelter, WV, USA) containing high levels of the metals Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd. Their accumulation was examined in different parts (roots, stem, and leaves) of plants and as a function of growth stage (dry seed, sprouting seed, cotyledon, and leaves) in the root vegetables radish, the leafy vegetable spinach and the legume clover. Although the accumulation of metals varied significantly with plant species, the average metal concentrations were [Zn] > [Pb] > [Cu] > [Cd]. Metal uptake studies were complemented with bulk and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at Zn K-edge and micro X-ray fluorescence (µXRF) measurements to evaluate the speciation and distribution of Zn in these plant species. Dynamic interplay between the histidine and malate complexation of Zn was observed in all plant species. XRF mapping of spinach leaves at micron spatial resolution demonstrated the accumulation of Zn in vacuoles and leaf tips. Radish root showed accumulation of Zn in root hairs, likely as ZnS nanoparticles. At locations of high Zn concentration in spinach leaves, µXANES suggests Zn complexation with histidine, as opposed to malate in the bulk leaf. These findings shed new light on the dynamic nature of Zn speciation in plants.


Assuntos
Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras/metabolismo , Zinco/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Raphanus/química , Raphanus/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/química , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Trifolium/química , Trifolium/metabolismo , Verduras/química , Zinco/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 320: 126646, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229398

RESUMO

Wild edible plants are recently recognized as an important source of acquiring macro and micro nutrients beneficial for human health. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials, polyphenolic profile, - as well as the ascorbic acid, proximate and mineral compositions of five selected Bangladeshi wild plants. The studied samples were rich in ash, fiber, protein, vitamin C and low in fat. The undertaken plant samples were found to have good amounts of total phenolic, total flavonoid, and antioxidant capacities, documented by DPPH, FRAP, and TEAC assays. They also exhibited varying spectrum of polyphenols estimated by HPLC. Significant inhibition of α-amylase activity by plant extracts was also observed. Evaluation by principal component analysis revealed clear separation among the wild plant varieties. The study findings would enrich the food composition table of Bangladesh and allow the population to consume more wild plants and increase their production.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Polifenóis/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Bangladesh , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 924, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066741

RESUMO

There is little evidence for the role of plant foods in the dispersal of early modern humans into new habitats globally. Researchers have hypothesised that early movements of human populations through Island Southeast Asia and into Sahul were driven by the lure of high-calorie, low-handling-cost foods, and that the use of plant foods requiring processing was not common in Sahul until the Holocene. Here we present the analysis of charred plant food remains from Madjedbebe rockshelter in northern Australia, dated to between 65 kya and 53 kya. We demonstrate that Australia's earliest known human population exploited a range of plant foods, including those requiring processing. Our finds predate existing evidence for such subsistence practices in Sahul by at least 23ky. These results suggest that dietary breadth underpinned the success of early modern human populations in this region, with the expenditure of labour on the processing of plants guaranteeing reliable access to nutrients in new environments.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Comportamento Alimentar , Migração Humana/história , Plantas Comestíveis , Austrália , Manipulação de Alimentos/história , Fósseis , História Antiga , Humanos
10.
Food Chem ; 315: 126291, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018082

RESUMO

Unripe grapes (UGs) from thinning are an unexploited source of phenols useful as functional ingredient. However, phenols may negative affect sensory quality of food. Chemical and sensory properties of UG phenols in plant-based foods were not investigated before. With this aim, an extract from UGs, obtained by a green extraction technique, was used to fortify three plant-based food models: carbohydrates/acidic pH/sweet - beetroot purée, proteins/neutral pH/sweet - pea purée and starch/neutral pH - potato purée. Functional and sensory properties of phenol-enriched foods varied as a function of their composition and original taste. The amount of UG phenols recovered from potato purée was higher than that recovered from beetroot and pea purée, while the antioxidant activity detected in beetroot purée was higher than that in potato and pea purée. Significant variations of sourness, saltiness, bitterness and astringency were induced by UG phenols added to food models. Beetroot purée resulted more appropriate to counteract the negative sensations induced by UG phenols.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Verduras/química , Vitis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Paladar
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 78, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899536

RESUMO

Food scarcity is one of global issues that our world faces today. A significant portion of the world's population has no access to adequate food, and it is stated that approximately 830 million people suffer from chronic famine. This predicament is estimated to grow even further. Many attempts have been made to solve the food problem. Some examples are using new resources which have not been used for dietary purposes up to this point, planting new areas to produce food products, and increasing the potential harvest per an area unit. One of the solution proposals, which has come up recently within this scope, is the term of "edible landscaping", which means the use of edible plants in the landscaping works, and thus maximizing the potential for food security. However, edible landscaping poses a considerable risk. Heavy metal accumulation in plants grown in urban centers can reach to high levels, and consuming these plants will allow these heavy metals a direct access into the human body and wreak havoc to the public health. But since this subject has not been sufficiently studied yet, the extent of such a risk is not accurately determined yet. This study aims to determine the changes of Ni, Co and Mn concentrations depending on traffic density in the leaves, branches, barks and fruits of cherry, plum, mulberry and apple trees growing in areas with dense traffic, low-density traffic and no-traffic zones in Kastamonu province. The results showed that the concentrations of Ni and Co elements increased in many organelles depending on traffic density, and that the heavy metal concentrations in fruits could be very high. This situation indicates that fruit and vegetables grown in industrial zones and urban centers, where heavy metal pollution may be high, can be harmful to the public health if consumed as crops.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Poluentes do Solo/análise
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 319: 108509, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945714

RESUMO

The role of plant-based foods in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance has been inadequately studied. In this investigation, resistant organisms from vegetables, fruits and spices imported into Canada were identified and characterized. A total of 143 products imported from primarily Asian and African countries were purchased from international markets in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Samples were selectively cultured for bacterial species where resistance is known to be emerging. The proportions of samples positive for each organism were as follows: E. coli (n = 13, 9.1%), Salmonella spp. (n = 2, 1.4%), ESBL producing Enterobacter spp. (n = 2, 1.4%) and K. pneumoniae (n = 2, 1.4%), S. aureus (n = 7, 4.9%) and Enterococcus spp. (n = 66, 46.2%). Antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth micro-dilution and agar-dilution. Based on the susceptibility of each organism, isolates were screened for resistance genes (ß-lactamases and plasmid mediated quinolones resistance determinants) by PCR. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were identified from 6/143 (4.2%) and 2/143 (1.4%) of samples respectively. The qnrB, qnrS and aac(6')-Ib-cr plasmid mediated quinolone resistance determinants were identified in 2/143 (1.4%) of samples tested. None of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were resistant to meropenem or colistin. Similarly, all Enterococcus isolates remained susceptible to ampicillin, penicillin and vancomycin. Finding multi-drug resistant bacteria which are frequently isolated from human infections is concerning, although the contribution of the global food trade to the dissemination of resistance remains cryptic. These results suggest that imported plant-based foods may be an underappreciated source of clinically relevant resistant organisms. Further study is required to address these gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology of resistance, and the magnitude of the risk posed to human health by these organisms.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Comestíveis/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Canadá , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/genética , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Especiarias/microbiologia , Verduras/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
14.
Microbiol Immunol ; 64(2): 133-142, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625616

RESUMO

Dysregulation of immune responses to environmental antigens by the intestine leads to the chronic inflammatory disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies have thus sought to identify a dietary component that can inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) signaling to ameliorate IBD. This study assessed if the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from kimchi, suppresses the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in peritoneal macrophages induced by LPS. Leuconostoc lactis EJ-1, an isolate from LAB, reduced the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1ß in peritoneal macrophages induced by LPS. The study further tested whether EJ-1 alleviates colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice. TNBS significantly increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) expression, macroscopic colitis scores, and colon shortening. Oral administration of L. lactis EJ-1 resulted in an inhibited in TNBS-induced loss in body weight, colon shortening, MPO activity, and NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression; it also led to a marked reduction in cyclooxygenase-2 expression. L. lactis EJ-1 also inhibited the TNBS-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6; however, it induced the expression of IL-10. The M2 macrophage markers arginase I, IL-10, and CD206 were elevated by EJ-1. Collectively, these results suggest that EJ-1 inhibits the NF-κB signaling and polarizes M1- to M2-macrophage transition, which help in ameliorating colitis.


Assuntos
Colite/terapia , Leuconostoc , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Plantas Comestíveis/microbiologia , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Leuconostoc/imunologia , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico/efeitos adversos
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112274, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589969

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The fruit of Astrocaryum aculeatum G.Mey. (tucumã) is highly consumed by riverside communities in the Amazonian region. These communities have recently been shown to have increased longevity and reduced prevalence of age-related morbidity. Tucumã, which is locally used in their diet and traditional medicine may contribute to these features. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of A. aculeatum extract against phytohemagglutinin-induced inflammation in cell cultures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability and cytotoxicity assays, gene expression of interleukins IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and thiols were employed, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with phytohemagglutinin to mimic inflammation. RESULTS: The extract of A. aculeatum fruit inhibited macrophage proliferation (P < 0.05), arrested the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase (P < 0.001), increased antioxidant defenses (P < 0.01), reduced oxidative stress (P < 0.01), and modulated genes related to the inflammatory response (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that A. aculeatum fruit has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities. These beneficial effects of tucumã on cells are also likely to be seen in vivo, thereby suggesting that its extract is a suitable therapeutic adjuvant in the prevention or treatment of inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arecaceae/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Etnofarmacologia , Frutas/química , Inflamação/imunologia , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Fito-Hemaglutininas/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Células RAW 264.7 , América do Sul
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 228: 115350, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635721

RESUMO

The digestibility properties and structural changes of retrograded starch (RS3) induced by ultrasonic treatment (UT) were investigated. The digestion profiles showed that UT increased the slowly digestible starch (SDS) or resistant starch (RS) of RS3 as an effective green process, corresponding to a change in hydrolysis kinetic parameters (equilibrium starch hydrolysis percentage and kinetic constant). SEM analysis showed that ultrasound led to breakage of RS3 particles followed by cracking, reorientation and crystallization. Differences in amylose content, granule size, and ζ-potential were found for native RS3 and ultrasound-treated RS3 (UT-RS3). UT decreased the relative crystallinity and gelatinization enthalpy but enhanced short-range order of RS3 based on the results of XRD, DSC, and FT-IR, respectively. Surprisingly, diffractive peaks at 13°and 20° (V-type crystalline structure) and a new exothermic peak were also observed for UT-RS3. The outcome was believed to open new pathways for regulating the digestibility properties of RS3 by UT and development of low glycemic response food.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Amido/química , Amido/metabolismo , Amilose/química , Digestão , Liofilização/métodos , Hidrólise , Cinética , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Zea mays/metabolismo
17.
Chemosphere ; 245: 125616, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864055

RESUMO

The influence of pesticides on the metabolism of edible plants has not been fully investigated. Moreover, once introduced into the environment, pesticides are degraded to many compounds with undefined bioactivity. In presented work, under experimental conditions, model edible plant (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus) was exposed to herbicide stress by application of a herbicide (mesotrione, 2-(4-methanesulfonyl-2-nitrobenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione, MES) or its degradation products (amino-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoic acid, AMBA; 4-(methylsulfonyl)-2-nitrobenzoic acid MNBA; cyclohexane-1,3-dione, CHD). Metabolic profiles of plants were employed to estimate the plant's defence response to MES and its metabolites. The intensity of herbicide stress was determined by measuring the changes in chlorophyll and catecholamines concentration formed in the shikimic acid pathway. Non-target analysis was conducted by LC-MS/MS, determination of catecholamines by LC-FL, chlorophyll by spectrophotometry. The highest phytotoxicity is characterized by MES (2000%-fold increase in the content of herbicide stress marker (normetanephrine) compared to a blank), followed by CHD (500%) combined with 15% increase in chlorophyll concentration. AMBA and MNBA as stress factors caused the increase in the content of catecholamines in the plant (86-160%). Simultaneously, an increase in chlorophyll content was observed (26-50%). Such diversity of the organism's defence response, also visible on metabolic profiles, can be associated with the chemical structure of compounds that are stress factors. MES and CHD, in contrast to AMBA and MNBA, have cyclohexano-1,3-moiety in their structure, which seems to be responsible for herbicidal properties.


Assuntos
Cicloexanonas/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Raphanus/metabolismo , Ácido Chiquímico/metabolismo , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Cicloexanonas/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816933

RESUMO

Carpesium divaricatum Sieb. and Zucc. has long been used both as traditional medicine and seasonal food. The most extensively studied specialized metabolites synthesized by the plant are sesquiterpene lactones of germacrane-type. Low-molecular and volatile terpenoids produced by C. divaricatum, however, have never been explored. In this work, compositions of essential oils distilled from roots and shoots of C. divaricatum plants, cultivated either in the open field or in the glasshouse have been studied by GC-MS-FID supported by NMR spectroscopy. The analyses led to the identification of 145 compounds in all, 112 of which were localized in aerial parts and 80 in roots of the plants grown in the open field. Moreover, remarkable differences in composition of oils produced by aerial and underground parts of C. divaricatum have been observed. The major volatiles found in the shoots were: α-pinene (40%), nerol (4%) and neryl-isobutyrate (3%), whereas predominant components of the root oil were 10-isobutyryloxy-8,9-epoxythymyl-isobutyrate (29%), thymyl-isobutyrate (6%) and 9-isobutyryloxythymyl-isobutyrate (6%). In the analyzed oils, seventeen thymol derivatives were identified. Among them eight compounds were specific for roots. Roots of the plants cultivated in the glasshouse were, in general, a poor source of essential oil in comparison with those of the plants grown in the open field. Chemophenetic relationships with other taxa of the Inuleae-Inulineae were also briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Terpenos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Especificidade de Órgãos , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Timol/análise
19.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 65, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ecological migration serves as an important measure for poverty eradication as well as for the protection, inheritance, and utilization of traditional ecological knowledge. This study investigated and cataloged the traditional forage plant resources and recorded the associated traditional knowledge of immigrant villages in Hongsibu District of Ningxia, China. The diversity of traditional forage plant resources and the changes in associated traditional ecological knowledge were compared among ecological immigrant villages from different emigration areas, with a hope of providing a reference for forage development, the conservation of wild forage plant resources, and the development of regional animal husbandry. METHODS: From March 2018 to May 2019, a field investigation was conducted in six villages in Ningxia. Through the snowball technique, a total of 315 immigrants were interviewed using various methods, including semistructured interviews and key person interviews, which included opportunities for free listing. The changes in the utilization of traditional forage plants were compared between the ecological migrants and the original inhabitants, and the causes underlying the changes were analyzed. In addition, the major forage plant species in the research area were investigated and evaluated. RESULTS: (1) The six investigated villages reported 224 traditional forage plant species that belong to 42 families and 150 genera. Compared with their original living areas, the number of traditional forage plant species used in the immigrant villages decreased with the increase in the relocation distance. (2) The utilization of traditional forage plants varied among the immigrants who moved to Hongsibu District from forest areas, loess hilly areas, and semiarid desertified areas. The smaller the difference was in ecological environment between the immigration and emigration areas, the more the traditional forage plant knowledge had been retained. (3) The diversity and associated knowledge of traditional forage plants retained by ecological migrants are closely correlated to gender, age, education level, and occupation. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the diversity of traditional forage plants and associated knowledge retained after migration vary among ecological immigrants from different areas; generally, the immigrants that relocated from a closer place retained more ecological knowledge. In the immigrant villages with significantly different natural resources and a long distance from the migrants' original locations, the diversity of traditional forage plants decreased, and the traditional knowledge about forage plants showed signs of being forgotten and abandoned by the younger generation. Therefore, measures are urgently needed to document and protect the forage plant resources and preserve the traditional knowledge of ecological immigrants.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Etnobotânica , Conhecimento , Plantas Comestíveis/classificação , Adulto , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 60, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wild edible and medicinal plants were an important component of traditional diets and continue to contribute to food security, nutrition, and health in many communities globally. For example, the preparation and consumption of soup made of medicinal plants for promoting health and preventing disease are a key component of the traditional diets of the Hakka socio-linguistic group of China's West Fujian Province. As environmental and socio-economic factors drive the shift away from traditional diets, there is a need for ethnobotanical documentation of the diversity of wild edible and medicinal plants as well as associated knowledge and practices. METHOD: Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in Hakka communities in West Fujian Province between 2017 and 2018 to document plants used in medicinal soups as well as associated traditional ecological knowledge, practices, and conservation status. Surveys included semi-structural interviews, key informant interviews, participatory rural appraisal, and focus group discussions. Quantitative indices, including cultural food significance index (CFSI) and relative frequency of citation (RFC), were calculated to evaluate the importance of documented plants to Hakka communities. The species with the highest CFSI and RFC values were ranked by informants and further evaluated according to their individual properties and growth environment. RESULTS: A total of 42 medicinal plant species, belonging to 25 families and 41 genera, were documented for making soup by the Hakka. The Asteraceae botanical family was the most prevalent, and their root or the entire plant is used for soup making. Informants incorporate different ingredients in soups for their flavors as well as medicinal properties on the basis of the local ethnonutrition system. The most prevalent medicinal uses of the documented plants for making soups were used for clearing inner heat (58.1% of the species), treating inflammation (37.2%), and counteracting cold in the body (20.9%). Informants perceived that the medicinal properties of soup-making plants are influenced by the time of harvest, the local environment, and the climate. CONCLUSION: Efforts are needed to preserve the ecological knowledge associated with traditional diets towards supporting both environmental and human well-being in rapidly developing communities experiencing the nutrition transition and biodiversity loss.


Assuntos
Dieta , Plantas Comestíveis/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , China , Grupos Étnicos , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Conhecimento
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