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1.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(4): 599-603, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417669

RESUMO

The methanolic extract of Cycas revoluta cone (MECR) was analyzed by GC-MS and UHPLC for metabolite profiling and was evaluated for anti-colon cancer property by using in vitro assays like Cell Viability Assay, Colony Formation Assay, ROS Determination, Flowcytometry, DAPI staining assay, Tunel assay. GC-MS and HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of different phytochemicals in the extract of Cycas revoluta cone. In-vitro studies showed MECR extract showed significant anti-colon cancer activity by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis in colon cancer cell (HCT-8) line, but no such activity was seen in normal colon cell (CCD-18Co) line. The investigation confirms that MECR may be a promising candidate in colon cancer protection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Cycas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
2.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 30(10): 117, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624921

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to formulate antimicrobial, composite films of guar gum, sago starch, and whey protein isolate for the prophylaxis of the bacterial gastroenteritis. The model antibacterial agents incorporated were essential oils, namely, carvacrol, citral and their combination. The films became darker and brownish in color due to the entrapment of the oils. The surface of the oil-entrapped films was more rough and coarse compared to the control film. Confocal micrographs affirmed the uniform distribution of the oil droplets within the biopolymeric network. The highest crystallite size and lowest lattice strain were estimated in the citral-containing film. FTIR analysis demonstrated that the incorporation of citral increased the proportion of the ß-sheet structures of the whey protein isolate within the film matrix. However, the film formulation containing combination of carvacrol and citral demonstrated the lowest water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), highest tensile strength, Young's modulus and work to failure. All the oil-containing films demonstrated good antibacterial potency against the model bacterial gastroenteritis causing bacteria, namely, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. In gist, it can be concluded that the prepared antimicrobial films could be used for the prophylaxis of the bacterial gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cimenos/farmacologia , Galactanos/química , Mananas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Gomas Vegetais/química , Amido/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cycas/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Confocal , Óleos Voláteis/química , Polímeros , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Vapor , Estresse Mecânico , Resistência à Tração , Viscosidade , Difração de Raios X
3.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(6): 1610-1622, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484214

RESUMO

Full genome sequencing of organisms with large and complex genomes is intractable and cost ineffective under most research budgets. Cycads (Cycadales) represent one of the oldest lineages of the extant seed plants and, partly due to their age, have incredibly large genomes up to ~60 Gbp. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) offers an approach to find genome-wide informative markers and has proven to be effective with both model and nonmodel organisms. We tested the application of RADseq using ezRAD across all 10 genera of the Cycadales including an example data set of Cycas calcicola representing 72 samples from natural populations. Using previously available plastid and mitochondrial genomes as references, reads were mapped recovering plastid and mitochondrial genome regions and nuclear markers for all of the genera. De novo assembly generated up to 138,407 high-depth clusters and up to 1,705 phylogenetically informative loci for the genera, and 4,421 loci for the example assembly of C. calcicola. The number of loci recovered by de novo assembly was lower than previous RADseq studies, yet still sufficient for downstream analysis. However, the number of markers could be increased by relaxing our assembly parameters, especially for the C. calcicola data set. Our results demonstrate the successful application of RADseq across the Cycadales to generate a large number of markers for all genomic compartments, despite the large number of plastids present in a typical plant cell. Our modified protocol was adapted to be applied to cycads and other organisms with large genomes to yield many informative genome-wide markers.


Assuntos
Cycas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Genômica/métodos , Filogenia
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(15): 1854-1864, 2019 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is one of the most common and deadly malignancies worldwide. Despite recent medical progress, the 5-year survival rate of gastric cancer is still unsatisfactory. 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) is one of the first-line antineoplastic treatments for gastric cancer, as it can effectively induce cancer cell apoptosis. However, the effect of 5-Fu is limited due to drug resistance of the malignant tumor. Previous studies have reported that Sotetsuflavone from Cycas revoluta Thunb. can markedly suppress lung cancer cell proliferation by apoptosis, though its effect on gastric cancer remains unknown. AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of Cycas revoluta Thunb. and to determine whether it can overcome gastric cancer cell drug resistance to 5-Fu. METHODS: Cell viability was examined to determine whether the natural extract of Cycas revoluta Thunb. induced gastric cancer cell death. The half-maximal effective concentration and the half-maximal lethal concentration were calculatede. Wound-healing and transwell assays were performed to examine gastric cancer cell motility. Clonogenic assays were performed to investigate the synergistic effects of Cycas revoluta Thunb. with 5-Fu, and apoptotic bodies were detected by Hoechst staining. Western blotting was performed to examine the expression of related proteins and to investigate the molecular mechanism of Cycas revoluta Thunb.-induced cancer cell apoptosis. The expressions of proteins, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p-AKT, were detected in different combinations of treatments for 48 h, then analyzed by ECL detection. RESULTS: Gastric cancer cells were more sensitive to the natural extract of Cycas revoluta Thunb. compared to normal gastric epithelial cells, and the extract effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. The extract improved the anti-cancer effect of 5-Fu by enhancing the chemosensitization of gastric cancer cells. Extract plus 5-Fu further reduced the expression of the drug-resistance-related proteins p-AKT and mTOR after 48 h compared to 5-Fu alone. Compared to 5-Fu treatment alone, mTOR and p-AKT expression was significantly reduced by about 50% and 75%, respectively. We also found that the natural extract of Cycas revoluta Thunb. further increased 5-Fu-induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis. Expression of apoptosis-related protein X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and apoptosis inducing factor were significantly reduced and increased, respectively, in the 5-Fu-resistant gastric cancer line SGC-7901/R treated with extract plus 5-Fu, while the expression of survivin did not change. CONCLUSION: The natural extract of Cycas revoluta Thunb. effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell growth and enhanced the anti-cancer effect of 5-Fu through the AKT-mTOR pathway.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Cycas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
5.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(2 (Supplementary)): 871-874, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103985

RESUMO

The leaves of Cycas revoluta were explored for their antioxidant, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory properties to develop safe and diet based therapeutic treatment of diabetes. In optimized fractionation, 60% ethanol provided the highest extract yield of 19.35±0.05a%, TPC 95.70±1.60a mg GAE/g and TFC 55 .60 ± 1.20a mg Rutin/g extract. The antioxidant and anti α-glucosidase activities of 60% ethanolic extracts were also promising and statistically significant as compared with remaining plant extracts. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) analysis of the leaf extract revealed the presence of three apigenin derivatives, kaempferol derivative, hexadecenoic acid and citric acid. The binding energy values of molecular docking studies supported the synergistic behavior of leaf extract to inhibit α-glucosidase activity. The leaves of Cycas revoluta were proved to be apigenin rich natural pool of metabolites of antidiabetic importance to improvise food functionalities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cycas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Apigenina/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cycas/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Etanol , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
6.
J Insect Sci ; 18(5)2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285257

RESUMO

The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) is one of the most dangerous pests of major cultivated palms including coconut, oil palm, and sago. The larval stage of the weevil causes the most destruction of the palms as it completely destroys the palm cabbage. In this study, the larvae were given three different diets-coconut cabbage, oil palm cabbage, and sago stem, under laboratory conditions for food consumption and developmental time experiment. The protein profiles of the digestive systems of the larvae fed on these three diets were also determined. Although the coconut diet was the most consumed by RPW larvae compared to oil palm and sago diets, the growth rate of RPW larvae on oil palm diet was however significantly shorter than those on the coconut and sago diets: the RPW only need 1 mo and 9 d to complete the larval duration. Proteins profiling of eight 2-DE gel protein spots that range 50-20 kDa were identified by mass spectrometry sequence analysis. Based on the Matrix Science Software, the most dominant protein was cationic trypsin. However, based on the NCBI BLAST tool, aminopeptidase N was the most dominant enzyme. This finding can lead to the development of pest control strategies based on the antinutritional protease inhibitors as potential biocontrol agents. Urgent action to find effective control methods should be taken seriously as this weevil is presumed to be one of the serious pests of oil palm industry in Malaysia.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/química , Cycas/química , Proteoma , Gorgulhos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cocos/química , Dieta , Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Malásia , Gorgulhos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gorgulhos/metabolismo
7.
Toxicon ; 155: 49-50, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316979

RESUMO

Cycad-associated neurodegenerative disease is more strongly correlated with the gymnosperm's major neurotoxin cycasin (methylazoxymethanol glucoside) than with the minor neurotoxin ß-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA).


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos/toxicidade , Acetato de Metilazoximetanol/análogos & derivados , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/induzido quimicamente , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cycas/química , Humanos , Acetato de Metilazoximetanol/toxicidade , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade
8.
Curr Biol ; 28(17): 2806-2812.e1, 2018 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122529

RESUMO

Cycads, unlike modern wind-pollinated conifers and Ginkgo, are unusual in that they are an ancient group of gymnosperms pollinated by insects [1-3]. Although it is well documented that cycads were diverse and abundant during the mid-Mesozoic, little is known about their biogeography and pollination before the rise of angiosperms. Direct fossil evidence illuminating the evolutionary history of cycads is extremely rare [4, 5]. Here we report a specialized beetle-mediated pollination mode from the mid-Cretaceous of Myanmar, wherein a new boganiid beetle, Cretoparacucujus cycadophilus, with specialized pollen-feeding adaptations in its mouthparts and legs, was associated with many pollen grains of Cycadopites. Phylogenetic analyses indicate Cretoparacucujus as a sister group to the extant Australian Paracucujus, which pollinate the cycad Macrozamia riedlei. Our discovery, along with the current disjunct distribution of related beetle-herbivore (tribe Paracucujini) and cycad-host (tribe Encephalarteae) pairs in South Africa and Australia, indicate a probable ancient origin of beetle pollination of cycads at least in the Early Jurassic, long before angiosperm dominance and the radiation of flowering-plant pollinators later in the Cretaceous.


Assuntos
Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Cycas/fisiologia , Fósseis , Pólen/classificação , Polinização , Âmbar , Animais , Besouros/classificação , Besouros/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mianmar , Filogenia
9.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 235, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sotetsuflavone is isolated from Cycas revoluta Thunb., which has biological activity against tumors. However, the anti-proliferative effects of sotetsuflavone on A549 cells and its mechanism are not fully elucidated. METHODS: This study investigated the mechanisms of growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells induced by sotetsuflavone and evaluated whether sotetsuflavone can be safely utilized by humans as therapeutic agent. RESULTS: We found that sotetsuflavone had significant antiproliferative activity against A549 cells. At the same time, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content increased while the mitochondrial membrane potential and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax decreased. Cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cytochrome C and Bax expression increased, and Cyclin D1, CDK4, cleaved caspase-8 and Bcl-2 expression decreased. Interestingly, we demonstrated that sotetsuflavone could effectively inhibit the G0/G1 cycle progression, and then induce the endogenous apoptosis pathway. Our results show that sotetsuflavone could inhibit the growth of A549 cells by up-regulating intracellular ROS levels and causing the mitochondrial membrane potential to collapse, inducing G0/G1 phase arrest and endogenous apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: In short, we confirm that sotetsuflavone had an inhibitory effect on A549 cells and discovered that it causes apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells. Sotetsuflavone may be used as a novel candidate for anti-tumor therapy in patients with lung cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonas/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/química , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cycas/química , Flavonas/química , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química
10.
J Microbiol ; 56(5): 337-345, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721831

RESUMO

As an ancient seed plant, cycads are one of the few gymnosperms that develop a root symbiosis with cyanobacteria, which has allowed cycads to cope with harsh geologic and climatic conditions during the evolutionary process. However, the endophytic microbes in cycad roots remain poorly identified. In this study, using next-generation sequencing techniques, we investigated the microbial diversity and composition of both the coralloid and regular roots of Cycas bifida (Dyer) K.D. Hill. Highly diverse endophytic communities were observed in both the coralloid and regular roots. Of the associated bacteria, the top five families were the Nostocaceae, Sinobacteraceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, Bacillaceae, and Hyphomicrobiaceae. The Nectriaceae, Trichocomaceae, and Incertae sedis were the predominant fungal families in all root samples. A significant difference in the endophytic bacterial community was detected between coralloid roots and regular roots, but no difference was observed between the fungal communities in the two root types. Cyanobacteria were more dominant in coralloid roots than in regular roots. The divergence of cycad root structures and the modified physiological processes may have contributed to the abundance of cyanobionts in coralloid roots. Consequently, the colonization of cyanobacteria inhibits the assemblage of other endophytes. Our results contribute to an understanding of the species diversity and composition of the cycad-endophyte microbiome and provide an abbreviated list of potential ecological roles of the core microbes present.


Assuntos
Cycadopsida/microbiologia , Cycas/microbiologia , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Cianobactérias/classificação , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Endófitos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Genoma Microbiano , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo , Simbiose
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 127: 87-97, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783022

RESUMO

The gymnosperm genus Cycas is the sole member of Cycadaceae, and is the largest genus of extant cycads. There are about 115 accepted Cycas species mainly distributed in the paleotropics. Based on morphology, the genus has been divided into six sections and eight subsections, but this taxonomy has not yet been tested in a molecular phylogenetic framework. Although the monophyly of Cycas is broadly accepted, the intrageneric relationships inferred from previous molecular phylogenetic analyses are unclear due to insufficient sampling or uninformative DNA sequence data. In this study, we reconstructed a phylogeny of Cycas using four chloroplast intergenic spacers and seven low-copy nuclear genes and sampling 90% of extant Cycas species. The maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenies suggest: (1) matrices of either concatenated cpDNA markers or of concatenated nDNA lack sufficient informative sites to resolve the phylogeny alone, however, the phylogeny from the combined cpDNA-nDNA dataset suggests the genus can be roughly divided into 13 clades and six sections that are in agreement with the current classification of the genus; (2) although with partial support, a clade combining sections Panzhihuaenses + Asiorientales is resolved as the earliest diverging branch; (3) section Stangerioides is not monophyletic because the species resolve as a grade; (4) section Indosinenses is not monophyletic as it includes Cycas macrocarpa and C. pranburiensis from section Cycas; (5) section Cycas is the most derived group and its subgroups correspond with geography.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , Cycas/classificação , Cycas/genética , Loci Gênicos , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 180: 13-20, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29103489

RESUMO

Sago (Cycas circinalis) seed shells are agricultural waste materials discarded after taking the pith. In the present study Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are isolated from the sago seed shells by acid hydrolysis. The hydrolysis was performed with 64% (w/w) sulphuric acid. The resulting CNCs were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, DLS, Zeta (ζ) potential and TGA. FTIR spectrum of CNCs shows similar frequencies as that of α-cellulose, but with reduced intensity. XRD diffraction pattern shows co-existence of cellulose I and cellulose II with crystallinity index of 72% for cellulose II, 69% for cellulose I and crystallite size dimension of 9.4nm for cellulose I. SEM analysis clearly reveals the considerable size reduction during acid hydrolysis. TEM analysis shows that the isolated CNCs contain networked structures and almost spherical shaped particles having 10-15nm in size. Morphological examination through AFM also shows that isolated CNCs are in nano dimensions, having the size ∼50nm. DLS analysis gives an average size of 50nm and zeta (ζ) potential measured has a value of -37.8mV. DLS and AFM analyses support each other. TGA reveals lower thermal stability for CNCs.


Assuntos
Celulose/análogos & derivados , Cycas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Sementes/química
13.
Phytochemistry ; 144: 271-281, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102875

RESUMO

The isolation of α-amino-ß-methylaminopropionic acid from seeds of Cycas circinalis (now C. micronesica Hill) resulted from a purposeful attempt to establish the cause of the profound neurological disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism/dementia, that existed in high frequency amongst the inhabitants of the western Pacific island of Guam (Guam ALS/PD). In the 50 years since its discovery the amino acid has been a stimulus, and sometimes a subject of mockery, for generations of scientists in a remarkably diverse range of subject areas. The number of citations of the original paper has risen in the five decades from a few to 120 within the decade 2007-2016 and continues at a high rate into the next decade. The reasons for this remarkable outcome are discussed and examples from the literature are used to illustrate the wide range of scientific interest that the original paper generated.


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/induzido quimicamente , Demência/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/induzido quimicamente , Diamino Aminoácidos/química , Diamino Aminoácidos/isolamento & purificação , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Cycas/química , Demência/patologia , Guam , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/patologia , Sementes/química
14.
Phytochemistry ; 144: 253-270, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059579

RESUMO

The non-encoded diaminomonocarboxylic acids, 3-N-methyl-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid (syn: α-amino-ß-methylaminopropionic acid, MeDAP; ß-N-methylaminoalanine, BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutanoic acid (2,4-DAB), are distributed widely in cyanobacterial species in free and bound forms. Both amino acids are neurotoxic in whole animal and cell-based bioassays. The biosynthetic pathway to 2,4-DAB is well documented in bacteria and in one higher plant species, but has not been confirmed in cyanobacteria. The biosynthetic pathway to BMAA is unknown. This review considers possible metabolic routes, by analogy with reactions used in other species, by which these amino acids might be biosynthesised by cyanobacteria, which are a widespread potential environmental source of these neurotoxins. Where possible, the gene expression that might be implicated in these biosyntheses is discussed.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Neurotoxinas/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Aminobutiratos/química , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/isolamento & purificação , Cianobactérias/química , Cycas/química , Cycas/metabolismo , Diaminas/química , Diaminas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Neurotoxinas/química , Propionatos/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Soluções
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598725

RESUMO

The compound BMAA (ß-N-methylamino-L-alanine) has been postulated to play a significant role in four serious neurological human diseases: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia Complex (ALS/PDC) found on Guam, and ALS, Parkinsonism, and dementia that occur globally. ALS/PDC with symptoms of all three diseases first came to the attention of the scientific community during and after World War II. It was initially associated with cycad flour used for food because BMAA is a product of symbiotic cycad root-dwelling cyanobacteria. Human consumption of flying foxes that fed on cycad seeds was later suggested as a source of BMAA on Guam and a cause of ALS/PDC. Subsequently, the hypothesis was expanded to include a causative role for BMAA in other neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD) through exposures attributed to proximity to freshwaters and/or consumption of seafood due to its purported production by most species of cyanobacteria. The hypothesis that BMAA is the critical factor in the genesis of these neurodegenerative diseases received considerable attention in the medical, scientific, and public arenas. This review examines the history of ALS/PDC and the BMAA-human disease hypotheses; similarities and differences between ALS/PDC and the other diseases with similar symptomologies; the relationship of ALS/PDC to other similar diseases, studies of BMAA-mediated effects in lab animals, inconsistencies and data gaps in the hypothesis; and other compounds and agents that were suggested as the cause of ALS/PDC on Guam. The review concludes that the hypothesis of a causal BMAA neurodegenerative disease relationship is not supported by existing data.


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos/toxicidade , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cycas/toxicidade , Farinha/toxicidade , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/etiologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/fisiopatologia
16.
Zootaxa ; 4267(1): 1-63, 2017 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28610390

RESUMO

The genus Cycadophila Xu, Tang & Skelley (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) associated with Cycas L. (Cycadacaeae) in Asia is reviewed. Strobilophila, new subgenus, with five species is described: Cycadophila (Strobilophila) assamensis new species, C. (S.) hiepi new species, C. (S.) kwaiensis new species, C. (S.) tansachai new species and C. (S.) yangi new species, all associated with Cycas. For the nominate subgenus Cycadophila eight new species are described, Cycadophila (Cycadophila) abyssa new species, C. (C.) collina new species,C. (C.) samara new species, C. (C.) convexa new species, C. (C.) cyclochasma new species, C. (C.) eurynota new species, C. (C.) papua new species, and C. (C.) torquata new species and four new generic combinations are proposed: C. (C.) vittata (Arrow) new combination, C. (C.) discimaculata (Mader) new combination, C. (C.) intermedia (Chûjô) new combination, and C. (C.) lata (Grouvelle) new combination. Only the first three listed species of the nominate subgenus have known associations with Cycas. Species are distinguished on the basis of morphology and/or by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The larva of subgenus Strobilophila is described based on individuals collected together with adults and matched with analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Keys to subgenera and species of known adults and larvae are provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Ásia , Cycas , Larva , RNA Ribossômico 16S
17.
Plant Signal Behav ; 12(6): e1334030, 2017 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28569588

RESUMO

Contemporary reviews of leaf responses to sunflecks indicate gymnosperms exhibit slower photosynthetic inductions times than angiosperms, but the gymnosperms were represented exclusively by conifers. I recently reported that the gymnosperm Cycas micronesica exhibited photosynthetic induction times in conformity with some of the most rapid angiosperms and opined that representatives from non-conifer gymnosperms must be added to the published conifer database before gymnosperm-wide conclusions can be formulated. Guiding principles for this urgently needed research will maximize relevance and improve accuracy of conclusions.


Assuntos
Pesquisa , Luz Solar , Árvores/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cycas/fisiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 7: 46329, 2017 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402331

RESUMO

To improve the performance of growth traits and survival in common carp, CyCa nucleocytoplasmic hybrid fish (C) was used as parental fish for hybridization with Russian scattered mirror carp (R). Performances in morphological characters, growth traits and survival rate were compared among the purebreds (CC &RR) and crossbreds (RC &CR) at different time period in solitary and communal rearing system, respectively. The results demonstrated that both RC and CR crossbreds inherited the grey skin color type from the mirror carp, and got the full-scale pattern from the CyCa nucleocytoplasmic hybrid fish, which suggested that the grey color dominated to red color and full-scale dominated to scattered scale. With respect to yield, the RC crossbreds perform quite great compared to the RR and CC purebreds because they have quite high growth and survival rate. In contrast to RC crossbreds, the CR crossbreds performed poorly in growth traits, together with that crosses where scattered mirror carp was used as mother (RC and RR) achieved the greatest performance for all growth traits, suggested that the maternal influence also displayed an important role in growth traits. These results indicated that the RC crossbreds will be a potential carp variety for commercial production.


Assuntos
Carpas , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Cycas , Hibridização Genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Vigor Híbrido , Masculino , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
19.
J Am Anim Hosp Assoc ; 53(3): 159-166, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28291394

RESUMO

The goal of this study is to report clinical information, diagnostic findings, and treatment modalities; assess variables that may help distinguish survivors from nonsurvivors; and review the outcome of cycad palm toxicosis in dogs. Fourteen client-owned dogs with confirmed cycad palm ingestion were identified by reviewing the medical record database at Gulf Coast Veterinary Specialists. Information on signalment, time of ingestion to presentation, clinical signs, physical examination findings, initial and peak/nadir laboratory abnormalities, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, treatment modalities, liver histopathology, and clinical outcome was retrieved. Of the 14 dogs, nine (64%) died as a direct result of cycad palm intoxication, and three survivors had persistently elevated liver enzymes, signifying residual liver damage. Despite decontamination, patients continued to display evidence of illness, indicating rapid absorption of toxins. When evaluating initial and peak/nadir laboratory values, nadir serum albumin levels and nadir platelet counts were significantly lower in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (1.25 g/dL [0.4-2.1 g/dL] versus 2.6 g/dL [1.7-3.4 g/dL] and 21 × 103 [0-64 × 103] versus 62 × 103 [6-144 × 103], respectively). In this cohort of dogs, the case fatality rate was higher than previously reported. Nadir serum albumin levels and nadir platelet counts may help distinguish potential survivors from nonsurvivors.


Assuntos
Cycas/toxicidade , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Transfusão de Sangue/veterinária , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Soluções Cristaloides , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/mortalidade , Cães , Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Soluções Isotônicas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Plantas Tóxicas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Texas/epidemiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 33540, 2016 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27629063

RESUMO

Dramatic crustal deformation and river incision in Southwest China induced by the Indo-Asian collision have long been argued to contribute to the complicated landscapes, heterogeneous environment and abundant biodiversity in this region. However, biological impacts in promoting intraspecific phylogeographical subdivision and divergence along the Red River Fault zone (RRF) remain poorly understood. To investigate the possible biological effects of tectonic movements and environment variations within the RRF, the phylogeography of Cycas dolichophylla-an endemic but widely distributed Cycas in Southwest China and North Vietnam along the RRF were carried out based on four chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers (cpDNA), three nuclear DNA sequences (nDNA) and 16 simple sequence repeat variations (SSR). Two different phylogeographical patterns were detected: a Southwest-Northeast break across the RRF disclosed by chlorotypes and a China-Vietnam separation revealed by SSR. A Bayesian skyline plot from cpDNA data demonstrated a historical increasing, but a recent declining, dynamic in population size during the Pleistocene. Consequently, we infer it is the local environmental variation during Cenozoic that contributed to the complex landscape and microclimate mosaics, facilitating speciation and divergence of C. dolichophylla. Subsequently, the Quaternary climatic fluctuations coupled with human activities profoundly influenced the genetic structure and demographic history of this species.


Assuntos
Biota , Clima , Cycas/classificação , Fenômenos Geológicos , Filogeografia , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , China , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia
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