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3.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementias are among the most feared diseases and pose a threat to social and healthcare systems in aging societies. A cure for Alzheimer's or other dementias will not be achieved in the coming years, which makes prevention of cognitive decline and dementia a priority for research and patient-related services. AIM: Summary of evidence for drug and other compound-related prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature review of epidemiological evidence and clinical trials of antidementia drugs, anti-amyloid drugs under development, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, hormone replacement therapy, lithium, ginkgo biloba, and Fortasyn Connect. RESULTS: There is evidence for effects on single endpoints and subgroups for some of the reviewed compounds, but there is no consistent evidence for efficacy. DISCUSSION: There is no sufficient evidence to provide any specific or general recommendation for drug- or compound-related prevention of cognitive decline or dementia. It needs to be recognized that prevention trials on cognitive decline in aging and dementia require large numbers of participants and long follow-up times, which create major challenges with regard to conducting and financing such trials. The current state of evidence also supports the potential role of nonpharmacological approaches in dementia prevention.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Ginkgo biloba , Nootrópicos/uso terapêutico , Alemanha , Humanos
4.
Planta Med ; 86(6): 376-386, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097975

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba (GB) is one of the most widely used phytotherapeutic products in the world, and its extract has beneficial properties for the treatment of several pathologies, such as diabetic cardiomyopathy, neurodegenerative diseases, cataracts, hearing loss, myocardial lesion, hippocampus neuronal lesions, morphometry testicular changes, and liver damage. This review aims to investigate the effects of GB on diseases related to oxidative stress. Databases such as MEDLINE/PUBMED and EMBASE were consulted, and PRISMA guidelines were used to build the review. This plant has antioxidant properties since it regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes positively and reduces reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, contributing to the reduction of lipid peroxidation. It also exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. In animal models, the use of GB can show positive effects on brain damage, neurodegenerative diseases, myocardial injury, and renal and liver damage. In humans, the positive effects were shown in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and ischemic colitis. These effects are due to the presence of compounds such as bilobalide, isoramnetina, quercetin, kaempferol, and ginkgolides A, B, and C. For these reasons, GB can be a low-cost alternative to the therapeutic approach of several pathologies since it acts in the prevention, treatment, and inhibition of several complications of common comorbidities.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antioxidantes , Ginkgolídeos , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Quercetina
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 717: 137241, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070898

RESUMO

Fast pyrolysis of lignin is still struggling in efficiency and scalable utilization. The low product selectivity thereby represents one of the most challenging issues. White-rot fungi have been widely used in bio-pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, where ligninolytic enzymes have been evidenced to modify lignin structures and enhance bio-refining efficiency. We thus treated lignin from both softwood (ginkgo) and hardwood (poplar) with enzymatic cocktail from white-rot fungus for fast pyrolysis. Both ginkgo and poplar lignin had much improved product selectivity at lower temperature after enzymatic modification, in particular, the 2-methoxy-phenol production from ginkgo lignin. Besides the improved product selectivity, the residue bio-char from pyrolysis had much improved surface area with more porous structures. Mechanistic study showed that the improvement of lignin pyrolysis products might attribute to demethoxylation and interunit linkage cleavage of lignin during enzymatic treatment. All these results highlighted that the product selectivity and bio-char performances have been synergistically improved by enzymatic treatment, which could thus pave a new way for enhancing fast pyrolysis efficiency. Overall, using softwood and hardwood lignin, this research has presented a new strategy using ligninolytic enzyme to modify lignin for synergistically improving product selectivity and bio-char performances, which opened up a new avenue for lignin valorization.


Assuntos
Lignina/metabolismo , Biomassa , Ginkgo biloba , Populus , Pirólise , Temperatura
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 123020, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088630

RESUMO

Production of sustainable clean energy can be achieved by co-pyrolysis of agricultural residues and wastewater sludge. Herein, non-additive thermal behaviour of co-pyrolysis of pharmaceutical sludge and ginkgo biloba leaf residues was investigated. Synergistic effect of co-pyrolysis was not obvious at elevated temperatures. Further, kinetics of co-pyrolysis was studied by fitting Coats-Redfern integration method to thermogravimetric (TG) curve. The change of heat and mass transfer in the reactor caused the change of dynamic parameters. Moreover, hybrid particle swarm optimization and gradient boosting decision tree (PSO-GBDT) algorithm was designed to boost the energy production at full-scale pyrolysis plant by monitoring TG curves. PSO-GBDT model well predicts mass loss rate of the mixture at different heating rates confirming that co-pyrolysis of PS and GBLR can results in high energy production by increasing PS pyrolysis. Designing PSO-GBDT model help to reduced waste production by resourceful treatment of waste in to energy.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Esgotos , Algoritmos , Árvores de Decisões , Ginkgo biloba , Cinética , Pirólise , Termogravimetria
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(4): 2201-2210, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932448

RESUMO

Aging is a universal property of multicellular organisms. Although some tree species can live for centuries or millennia, the molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying their longevity are unclear. To address this, we investigated age-related changes in the vascular cambium from 15- to 667-y-old Ginkgo biloba trees. The ring width decreased sharply during the first 100 to 200 y, with only a slight change after 200 y of age, accompanied by decreasing numbers of cambial cell layers. In contrast, average basal area increment (BAI) continuously increased with aging, showing that the lateral meristem can retain indeterminacy in old trees. The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentration in cambial cells decreased with age, whereas the content of abscisic acid (ABA) increased significantly. In addition, cell division-, cell expansion-, and differentiation-related genes exhibited significantly lower expression in old trees, especially miR166 and HD-ZIP III interaction networks involved in cambial activity. Disease resistance-associated genes retained high expression in old trees, along with genes associated with synthesis of preformed protective secondary metabolites. Comprehensive evaluation of the expression of genes related to autophagy, senescence, and age-related miRNAs, together with analysis of leaf photosynthetic efficiencies and seed germination rates, demonstrated that the old trees are still in a healthy, mature state, and senescence is not manifested at the whole-plant level. Taken together, our results reveal that long-lived trees have evolved compensatory mechanisms to maintain a balance between growth and aging processes. This involves continued cambial divisions, high expression of resistance-associated genes, and continued synthetic capacity of preformed protective secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Câmbio/metabolismo , Ginkgo biloba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Câmbio/citologia , Ginkgo biloba/genética , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Árvores/genética , Árvores/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 314: 125082, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982853

RESUMO

The structures and physicochemical properties of ginkgo starches from seven cultivars were investigated and their relationships analyzed. The ginkgo starches had oval or irregular shapes, size distributions with a unimodal peak, and an A-type crystal pattern. The fine structures, crystalline structures, and physicochemical properties varied significantly among these ginkgo starches. Pearson correlation analysis and a PCA loading plot indicated that amylopectin A-chains and amylose had negative effects on the IR ratio, Imax, and D, while amylopectin B-chains had a clear positive effect on the relative crystallinity. Furthermore, the amylopectin short B1-chains and long B-chains contributed amorphous and single-helix structures, respectively. The thermal properties of the ginkgo starches were mainly influenced by the amylopectin B-chains and Imax, while the pasting properties were mainly influenced by amylopectin B-chains and helical structures. These results indicated that the starch fine structures and crystalline structures had significant effects on the physicochemical properties.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba/química , Amido/química , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Especificidade da Espécie , Amido/ultraestrutura
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 998-1006, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910001

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba L. leaves are a flavonoid resource for the pharmaceutical industry. The flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) is a key enzyme in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. However, the role of F3'H in flavonoid biosynthesis and metabolism is unclear. In this study, we characterized and functionally analyzed the ginkgo F3'H gene GbF3'H1 that encodes a protein of 520 amino acids. Expression profiling showed that GbF3'H1 was highly expressed in the leaves of ginkgo in September. Subcellular localization showed that GbF3'H1 occurred predominately in the cytoplasm. Transgenic poplars overexpressing GbF3'H1 had more red pigmentation in leaves than did wild-type (WT) plants. Furthermore, the concentrations of epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, and catechin in the downstream products synthesized by flavonoids were significantly higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants. These results indicate that the overexpression of GbF3'H1 enhances flavonoid production in transgenic plants and provides new insights into flavonoid biosynthesis and metabolism.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ginkgo biloba/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
J Nat Med ; 74(1): 269-274, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493217

RESUMO

One novel neoligan glucoside, Ginkgoside B (1), and one new glucose ester, 6-O-(4-hydroxyhydrocinnamoyl)-D-glucopyranose (2), along with nine known compounds (3-11) were isolated from the ethanol extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves. Their structures were elucidated by combination of spectroscopic analyses and alkaline methanolysis. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity activities, and compound 11 exhibited IC50 values of 36.20 and 58.95 µM against 5637 and HeLa cell lines, respectively.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HeLa , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/análise
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(6): 893-897, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445863

RESUMO

This study aims to isolate the potential antiproliferative and cytotoxic compounds from ginkgo biloba sarcotestas (GBS) and investigates the underlying mechanism in human MDA-MB-231 and mouse 4T-1 triple-negative breast cancer cells. Our results showed that 2-Hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid was isolated by cytotoxicity-guided fractionation where different fractions were assessed using MTT assay against MDA-MB-231 and 4T-1 cells. Colony formation assay showed that 2-Hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid significantly inhibited cell proliferation. The inhibition was associated with the enhancement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and no significant change of CYP1A1 expression by qPCR and Western blot assays in MDA-MB-231 and 4T-1 cells. The mechanism was further demonstrated by the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway with the upregulation of AhR, AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and AhR-dependent xenobiotic response elements (XRE) activity. These findings may have implications for development of anticancer agents containing 2-Hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid as functional additives.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginkgo biloba/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/metabolismo , Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 298: 122523, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830657

RESUMO

Low H2 yield from biomass impedes the industrial application of biohydrogen production. To improve H2 yield, the effect of Ginkgo biloba leaf (GL) on H2 production was investigated in this study. In batch fermentation with sugarcane molasses (SM), the addition of GL improved H2 yield by 28.03%. SM medium was optimized with response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the best concentrations of GL, SM, and an inexpensive nitrogen source-corn steep liquor (CSL). A maximum yield of 1.58 mol-H2/mol-hexose from SM was obtained when GL, CSL and SM hexose were 2.31 g/L, 2.28 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively. As observed with metabolic flux analysis, GL enhanced H2 conversion from SM via altering the metabolic flux distribution of E. harbinense from ethanol pathway towards acetate pathway. This study demonstrated the promotion effect of GL on H2 production from SM, raising a novel method for enhanced biohydrogen production in large scales.


Assuntos
Melaço , Saccharum , Fermentação , Ginkgo biloba , Folhas de Planta
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 147: 133-140, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862579

RESUMO

Flavonoids are the most important secondary metabolites in ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) leaves that determine its medicinal quality. Studies have suggested that secondary metabolism is strongly affected by temperature in other plant species, but little is known about ginkgo. In this study, we investigated the effects of different day-night temperature combinations (15/10, 25/20, and 35/30 °C (day/night)) on key enzyme activity, growth regulator concentrations, and flavonoid accumulation in ginkgo leaves. We found that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was enhanced and inhibited at 15/10 and 35/30 °C, respectively. Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) activity was relatively stable under the three temperature conditions, and the p-coumarate CoA ligase (4CL) activity showed different trends under the three temperature conditions. The concentrations of flavonoid constituents (quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) were decreased and increased under the 35/30 and 15/10 °C conditions, respectively. Low temperature promoted soluble sugar accumulation, while temperature had a limited impact on the accumulation of soluble protein. The pattern of change in the total flavonoid concentration was not always in agreement with PAL activity due to its complex pathway. Indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) changes shared similar patterns and had limited effects on flavonoid accumulation, while abscisic acid (ABA) acted as a promotor of flavonoid accumulation under high-temperature conditions. The total flavonoids achieved the highest content under the 15/10 °C treatment on the 40th day. Therefore, the lower temperature (15/10 °C) is more favorable for flavonoid accumulation and will provide a theoretical basis for further study.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Ginkgo biloba , Folhas de Planta , Temperatura , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 309: 125680, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670118

RESUMO

In this work, to improve the availability of the recognition sites of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers (OMMIPs) were facilely prepared by grafting a quercetin-MIPs layer on the pore walls of the ordered macroporous thiol group functionalized silica. The pore structures were characterized by FTIR, Raman, SEM, BET and TGA measurements. The results indicated that OMMIPs possessed a nanoscale polymer layer, a more regular macroporous structure and a greater porosity compared with the traditional bulk MIPs (TBMIPs). The polymer content of OMMIPs was about 49.7%. Kinetic and isothermal adsorption experiments indicated that OMMIPs exhibited higher affinity and selectivity towards quercetin than its structural analogues. Moreover, OMMIPs could improve the intra-particle adsorption and thus provide a significant improvement in recognition sites availability over TBMIPs. Using the quercetin-OMMIPs as SPE sorbent, quercetin was directly extracted from the crude Gingko leaves extract with a satisfying selectivity and elution recovery.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Ginkgo biloba/química , Impressão Molecular , Polímeros , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Folhas de Planta/química , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 527, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in diverse biological processes and have been widely studied in recent years. However, the roles of lncRNAs in leaf pigment formation in ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) remain poorly understood. RESULTS: In this study, lncRNA libraries for mutant yellow-leaf and normal green-leaf ginkgo trees were constructed via high-throughput sequencing. A total of 2044 lncRNAs were obtained with an average length of 702 nt and typically harbored 2 exons. We identified 238 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs), 32 DELs and 49 differentially expressed mRNAs (DEGs) that constituted coexpression networks. We also found that 48 cis-acting DELs regulated 72 target genes, and 31 trans-acting DELs regulated 31 different target genes, which provides a new perspective for the regulation of the leaf-color mutation. Due to the crucial regulatory roles of lncRNAs in a wide range of biological processes, we conducted in-depth studies on the DELs and their targets and found that the chloroplast thylakoid membrane subcategory and the photosynthesis pathways (ko00195) were most enriched, suggesting their potential roles in leaf coloration mechanisms. In addition, our correlation analysis indicates that eight DELs and 68 transcription factors (TFs) might be involved in interaction networks. CONCLUSIONS: This study has enriched the knowledge concerning lncRNAs and provides new insights into the function of lncRNAs in leaf-color mutations, which will benefit future selective breeding of ginkgo.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Ginkgo biloba/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética , Cor , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Mutação , Pigmentação/genética , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878199

RESUMO

Human stress recovery response to landscapes is under discussion in Chinese settings. The present study aimed to clarify the stress recovery effects of campus street trees on graduate students in autumn. A total of 150 participants (23.75 ± 1.01 years old) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and were then randomly assigned to view one of five virtual environments, including the street trees Sophora japonica, Ginkgo biloba, Platanus acerifolia, Koelreuteria paniculata, and the indoor environment (control). Physiological responses were measured by R-R interval and electroencephalography (EEG). Psychological responses were examined through the state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS). Results showed that R-R intervals significantly increased while viewing all street trees. Both alpha and beta brainwave activities while viewing S. japonica and G. biloba were remarkably higher than those while viewing P. acerifolia and K. paniculata. The STAI-S scores significantly decreased, and the positive PRS scores were registered after viewing street trees. We concluded that a brief virtual visual experience of campus street trees in autumn has stress recovery effects on graduate students, and the different levels of stress recovery are associated with different types of street trees.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Árvores , Percepção Visual , Adulto , China , Feminino , Ginkgo biloba , Humanos , Masculino , Sapindaceae , Estações do Ano , Sophora , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
Mikrochim Acta ; 186(12): 783, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732804

RESUMO

Porous carbon was prepared from wheat flour by alkali treatment and carbonization. The resulting biomass-derived porous carbon (BPC) was employed to prepare a Pt-Au-BPC nanocomposite by a hydrothermal method. The material was then placed on the surface of a carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). The Pt-Au-BPC was characterized by SEM, XPS, and the modified CILE by electrochemical methods. They revealed a porous structure, a large specific surface with high conductivity. Pt-Au-BPC/CILE was applied to the sensitive determination of quercetin. Electrochemical response was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under optimized experimental conditions, the oxidation peak current (measured at 0.48 V vs. Ag/AgCl by DPV) increases linearly in the 0.15 to 6.0 µM and in the 10.0 to 25.0 µM quercetin concentration range. The detection limit is 50.0 nM (at 3σ). The Pt-Au-BPC/CILE was applied to the direct determination of quercetin in ginkgo tablets sample and gave satisfactory results. Graphical abstract A Pt-Au-BPC nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode was applied to differential pulse voltammetric determination of quercetin. BPC: biomass-derived porous carbon.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Nanocompostos/química , Quercetina/análise , Biomassa , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Farinha , Ginkgo biloba/química , Ouro/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Platina/química , Porosidade , Compostos de Piridínio/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comprimidos/análise , Triticum/química
19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 335, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised regarding the efficacy and safety resulting from the potential interactions of herbs with Western medications due to the use of both herbs and Western medicine by the general public. Information obtained from the web must be critically evaluated prior to its use in making decisions. DESCRIPTION: This study aimed to construct an herb-drug interaction (HDI) website (https://drug-herb-interaction.netlify.com) with a critically reviewed database. Node.js was used to store the database by running JavaScript. Vue.js is a front-end framework used for web interface development. A total of 135 sets of information related to the interactions of ginseng, ginkgo and dong quai with Western medicine from the literature identified in Medline were collected, followed by critical reviews to prepare nineteen items of information for each HDI monograph. A total of 80 sets of validated HDIs met all criteria and were further assessed at the individual reliability level (likely, possible, and unevaluable) and labeled with the "interaction" item. This query system of the website can be operated in both the Chinese and English languages to obtain all monographs on HDIs in the database, including bilingual interaction data. The database of HDI monographs can be updated by simply uploading a new version of the information Excel file. The designed "smart search" module, in addition to the "single search", is convenient for requesting multiple searches. Among the "likely" interactions (n = 26), 50% show negative HDIs. Ten of these can increase the effect of the Western drug, and the others (n = 3) imply that the HDI can be beneficial. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides a website platform and 80 sets of validated bilingual HDIs involving ginseng, ginkgo and dong quai in an online database. A search of HDI monographs related to these three herbs can be performed with this bilingual, easy-to-use query website, which is feasible for professionals and the general public. The identified reliability level for each HDI may assist readers' decisions regarding whether taking Western medications concomitant with one of three herbal medicinal foods is safe or whether caution is required due to potentially serious outcomes.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Multilinguismo , Interface Usuário-Computador , Competência Cultural , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ginkgo biloba , Humanos , Internet , Panax , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771121

RESUMO

Neurological-related disorders are seen as an increasingly important aspect of welfare. While conventional medicine is still the mainstay for the treatment of these diseases, it is becoming apparent that patients are also seeking more natural and preventative interventions. Panax ginseng G115® and Ginkgo biloba GK501® extracts alone or in combination were used in two in vitro experimental models of primary cultures exposed to excitotoxicity: rat organotypic hippocampal slices exposed to either 5 µM kainic acid or 10 µM N-Methyl-d-aspartate for 24 hours, and mixed cortical cells exposed to 300 µM NMDA for 10 min. Cell death in the Cornu Ammonis areas CA3 or CA1 subregions of slices was quantified by measuring propidium iodide fluorescence, whereas in cortical cells, it was assessed by measuring the amount of lactate dehydrogenase. In slices, treatment with extracts alone or in combination significantly attenuated CA3 and CA1 damage induced by exposure to kainic acid or NMDA, respectively. A similar neuroprotective effect was observed in cortical cells exposed to NMDA. Analysis of cell signaling pathways found that the two extracts induced an increase of the phosphorylation and they reversed the decrease of phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt induced by kainic acid and NMDA in organotypic hippocampal slices. These results suggest that P. ginseng G115® and G. biloba GK501® extracts may mediate their effects by activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, protecting against excitotoxicity-induced damage in in vitro models.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Ginkgo biloba/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Encefalopatias/induzido quimicamente , Encefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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