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Toxicon ; 176: 55-58, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103796


Water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) is one of the most toxic plants to livestock and humans. Little is known regarding the amount of plant required to cause death. The objective of this study was to determine a lethal dose of water hemlock in a goat model. Plants were dosed to goats via oral gavage of freeze-dried ground plant material. The results from this study suggest that 1-2 fresh tubers would be lethal to goats.

Cicuta/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Animais , Cabras , Gado , Modelos Animais , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade
Toxicon ; 108: 11-4, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26415905


Water hemlocks (Cicuta spp.) are acutely toxic members of the Umbellierae family; the toxicity is due to the presence of C17-polyacetylenes such as cicutoxin. There is only limited evidence of noncompetitive antagonism by C17-polyacetylenes at GABAA receptors. In this work with WSS-1 cells, we documented the noncompetitive blockade of GABAA receptors by an aqueous extract of water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) and modulated the actions of the extract with a pretreatment of 10 µM midazolam.

Cicuta/química , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Receptores de GABA-A/química
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 140: 79-84, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25108203


The influence of beta-cypermethrin, a commercial insecticide, and Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak (Umbelliferae:Cicutal), an insecticidal plant, on the spontaneous ultraweak photon emissions from larvae of Spodoptera litura Fabricius and Zophobas morio Fabricius were studied. The increased percentages of spontaneous photon emission intensities from S. litura treated with 0.1 and 1 µg/ml beta-cypermethrin were both lower than those of the control in the 24 post-treatment hours, remarkable difference could also be observed during the same period from Z. morio treated with beta-cypermethrin at 0.156, 0.313 and 0.625 µg/ml. The increased percentages of spontaneous photon emission intensities from the two mentioned insects treated with 10,100 and 1000 µg/ml petroleum ether fraction of C. virosa L. var. latisecta, which displayed little activity against whole insects, could also be changed noticeably. The present study indicated that change in the intensity of spontaneous ultraweak photon emission from insect could be used as a novel method for screening insecticidal compounds with very low content in plant.

Inseticidas/química , Piretrinas/química , Alcanos/química , Animais , Cicuta/química , Cicuta/metabolismo , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Medições Luminescentes , Fótons , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Tempo
Int J Food Microbiol ; 145(2-3): 464-70, 2011 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21320730


The essential oil extracted from the fruits of Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak was tested in vitro and in vivo against four foodborne fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, and Alternaria alternata. Forty-five different components accounting for 98.4% of the total oil composition were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components were γ-terpinene (40.92%), p-cymene (27.93%), and cumin aldehyde (21.20%). Antifungal activity was tested by the poisoned food technique against the four fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentration against the fungi was 5 µL/mL and percentage inhibition of mycelial growth was determined at day 9. The essential oil had a strong inhibitory effect on spore production and germination in all tested fungi proportional to concentration. The oil exhibited noticeable inhibition on dry mycelium weight and synthesis of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by A. flavus, completely inhibiting AFB(1) production at 4 µL/mL. The effect of the essential oil on inhibition of decay development in cherry tomatoes was tested in vivo by exposing inoculated and control fruit to essential oil vapor at a concentration of 200 µL/mL. Results indicated that the essential oil from C. virosa var. latisecta (CVEO) has potential as a preservative to control food spoilage.

Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cicuta/química , Fungos Mitospóricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Aflatoxina B1/biossíntese , Antifúngicos/química , Benzaldeídos/química , Benzaldeídos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cimenos , Conservação de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fungos Mitospóricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos Mitospóricos/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Acta Biol Hung ; 61 Suppl: 197-205, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21565777


Fens are among the most threatened habitats in Europe as their area has decreased considerably in the last centuries. For successful management and restoration conservationists need detailed knowledge about seed bank formation and seed longevity of plants, as these features are closely related to successional and vegetation dynamical processes. I analysed seed longevity and the germination characteristics of six fen plant species by seed burial experiments. Based on seed weight, seed bank was expected for long-term persistent for the light-seeded Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata, C. pseudocyperus, C. davalliana and Peucedanum palustre and also that for the medium-seeded Cicuta virosa. It was proved that, the latter two species have short-term persistent seed banks, while Carex pseudocyperus has a transient seed bank, therefore these species may only have a limited role in restoration from seed banks. It was found that Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata and C. davalliana have persistent seed banks, because some of their four-year-old seeds have emerged. Fresh seeds had low germination rate in all studied species and majority of seeds emerged after winter, except for Carex pseudocyperus. After the germination peak in spring, the majority of the ungerminated seeds of Schoenus nigricans, Peucedanum palustre, Carex appropinquata, C. davalliana and Cicuta virosa entered a secondary dormancy phase that was broken in autumn. I found the seasonal emergence of the latter three species highly similar.

Carex (Planta)/fisiologia , Germinação , Sementes/fisiologia , Áreas Alagadas , Apiaceae/fisiologia , Cicuta/fisiologia , Longevidade , Temperatura
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 34(6): 705-7, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19624009


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the chemical constituents in Cicuta virosa var. latisecta. METHOD: Many kinds of column chromatography were used to isolate the compounds from the EtOH ext. of C. virosa var. latisecta. The chemical constituents of the plant were identified by means of IR, MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, respectively, in some case by direct comparison with authentic samples. RESULT: Nine compounds were isolated from the aerial part and were identified as: 3beta-acetyloxy-16-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), 9 (11), 12-dieneoleana-3beta-ol (2), 9, 19-cyclolanaost-24-en-3-one (3), 9, 19-cycloergost-23-en-3, 25-diol (4), stigmasterol (5), falcarindiol (6), 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, his (2-ethylhexyl) ester (7), stigmast-5-en-3beta-ol (8), beta-daucosterol (9). CONCLUSION: Compound 1 is a new natural product, and compounds 2 to 9 were firstly isolated from this plant.

Cicuta/química , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/isolamento & purificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 47(4): 270-8, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19514873


INTRODUCTION: Water hemlock, which encompasses a range of species divided across two genera (Cicuta and Oenanthe), are regarded as being among the most poisonous plants both in North America and in the United Kingdom. Despite their toxicity, the literature consists almost entirely of case reports. AIM: The aim of this review is to summarize this literature by covering all aspects of taxonomy and botanical characterization, principal toxins, basic pharmacology including mechanisms of toxicity, and the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of poisoning. MECHANISMS OF TOXICITY: The principal toxins, cicutoxin and oenanthotoxin, belong to a group of C17 conjugated polyacetylenes. They act as (noncompetitive) gamma-aminobutyric acid antagonists in the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in unabated neuronal depolarization that can lead to seizures. Ingestion of even a small amount of plant matter may result in severe intoxication. FEATURES: After ingestion, the patient is most likely to experience CNS stimulatory effects including seizures that, in the absence of aggressive supportive care, can result in death. Other features include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tachycardia, mydriasis, rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, coma, respiratory impairment, and cardiac dysrhythmias. MANAGEMENT: Treatment consists mainly of prompt airway management and seizure control, plus decontamination if achieved early and after stabilization. In the event of renal failure, the use of hemodialysis has been employed successfully. CONCLUSIONS: The ingestion of water hemlock can lead to serious complications that may be fatal. Prognosis is good, however, if prompt supportive care is provided.

Cicuta/envenenamento , Oenanthe/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cicuta/química , Di-Inos/isolamento & purificação , Di-Inos/envenenamento , Enedi-Inos/isolamento & purificação , Enedi-Inos/envenenamento , Álcoois Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Álcoois Graxos/envenenamento , Antagonistas GABAérgicos/isolamento & purificação , Antagonistas GABAérgicos/envenenamento , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Oenanthe/química , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/terapia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 22(2): 299-313, vii, 2004 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15163569