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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(5): 1571-1578, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530235

RESUMO

The shrub species, Artemisia ordosica, commonly occurs in the eastern Hobq desert. Here, we used a micrometeorological observation system to continuously monitor the rainfall and soil water content in 0-10, 10-30, and 30-50 cm soil layers during the growing season from 2016 to 2018. The dynamic spatial and temporal changes in soil water content under different rainfall patterns were examined, and the replenishing effects of rainfall events on soil water content and water infiltration characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that soil water content of the surface layer in the A. ordosica community had significant seasonal and vertical variation under rainfall fluctuation. Rainfall amount and soil water content before rain were the main factors controlling soil water replenishment and infiltration. The soil surface layer (0-10 cm) was sensitive to rainfall, and the rainfall of 3.8 mm began to replenish this layer. The responses of 10-30 cm soil layer to rainfall was slower, more than 8.6 mm rainfall being needed for effective replenishment. The response of the 30-50 cm soil layer to rainfall was even more delayed, and replenishment at this depth could not be achieved until the rainfall exceeded 11.8 mm. The water infiltration rate increased with rainfall amount and decreased with soil depth, while water infiltration depth was positively correlated with the rainfall amount and soil water content before rainfall. During the study period, rainfall of <10 mm occurred predominantly, accounting for 78.4% of the total rainfall events. The rainfall mainly replenished soil layer above 30 cm, and the replenishment of deep soil was very limited, which was not conducive to the growth of deep-rooted species. Therefore, rainfall patterns directly affected the composition, distribution, and succession of plant communities in this area.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Solo , China , Ecossistema , Chuva , Água
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(21): 26594-26604, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372353

RESUMO

Medicinal and aromatic plants represent an outstanding source of green active ingredients for a broad range of real-world applications. In the present study, we investigated the insecticidal potential of the essential oils obtained from three medicinal and aromatic plants of economic importance in Algeria, Artemisia campestris, Pulicaria arabica, and Saccocalyx satureioides. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to study the essential oil chemical compositions. The three essential oils were tested against a mosquito vectoring filariasis and arboviruses, i.e., Culex quinquefasciatus, a fly pest acting also as pathogens vector, Musca domestica, and an agricultural moth pest, i.e., Spodoptera littoralis, using WHO and topical application methods, respectively. The essential oil from A. campestris, containing ß-pinene (15.2%), α-pinene (11.2%), myrcene (10.3%), germacrene D (9.0%) (Z)-ß-ocimene (8.1%) and γ-curcumene (6.4%), showed remarkable toxicity against C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 of 45.8 mg L-1) and moderate effects (LD50 of 99.8 µg adult-1) against M. domestica. Those from P. arabica and S. satureioides, containing epi-α-cadinol (23.9%), δ-cadinene (21.1%), α-cadinol (19.8%) and germacrene D-4-ol (8.4%), and thymol (25.6%), α-terpineol (24.6%), borneol (17.4%) and p-cymene (11.4%), respectively, were more active on S. littoralis showing LD50 values of 68.9 and 61.2 µg larva-1, respectively. Based on our results, the essential oil from A. campestris may be further considered a candidate ingredient for developing botanical larvicides.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Culex , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Plantas Medicinais , Pulicaria , Argélia , Animais , Larva
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(16): 20160-20172, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239405

RESUMO

Slope aspect is an important topographic factor for a micro-ecosystem environment that may affect macro- and micronutrients in plants and soil. The south-, northwest-, and north-facing slopes were selected to investigate the influence of slope aspect on the concentrations, storage, and allocation of macro- and micronutrients in Artemisia sacrorum on the Loess Plateau in China. The concentrations of available manganese (Mn) in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils reached their maximum on the north-facing slope. The concentrations of available iron (Fe) in rhizosphere soil and available copper (Cu) in non-rhizosphere soil reached their maximum on the south-facing slope. Slope aspect significantly affected the total concentrations of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), Cu, and Mn in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, and all of these elements reached their maximum on the northwest-facing slope. Slope aspect significantly influenced the concentrations of aboveground K, Ca, and Mg, sodium (Na), Mn, and belowground K in A. sacrorum, and the concentrations of aboveground K, Ca, Mg, and Na and belowground Mn, Na, Fe, Ca, and Mg in weed. Most elements in A. sacrorum and the weeds reached their maximum on the south-facing slope. Slope aspect significantly changed the aboveground-to-belowground concentration ratios of K, Ca, and Na in A. sacrorum and weed. Slope aspect significantly affected the storage of macro- and micronutrients in A. sacrorum and weed but not the storage in the plants of the entire plot. Slope aspect predominantly affected the storage allocation of macro- and micronutrients in A. sacrorum but not those in weed. Slope aspect is an important topographic factor that affects the macro- and micronutrients in plants and soil in micro-ecosystem environments.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Ecossistema , China , Micronutrientes , Solo
4.
Zootaxa ; 4743(1): zootaxa.4743.1.14, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230361

RESUMO

Tuberocephalus tsengi (Tao, 1963) STAT. REV., an aphid species described from China, is reported feeding on Artemisia vulgaris in southern England. This species is here redescribed and distinguished from T. sasakii (Matsumura, 1917), with which it has previously been synonymised.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Artemisia , Animais , Reino Unido
5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086895

RESUMO

Objective:To analyze the distribution of allergens and the risk factors in patients with allergic rhinitis in Qingdao area. Method:Two hundred and sixteen patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis and 49 healthy volunteers were admitted to the outpatient clinic of the Otolaryngology Department of the three branches of Qingdao University Affiliated Hospital in Qingdao from August 2018 to March 2019. A total of 271 patients(5-84 years old) were included in the epidemiological investigation. The study conducted a skin stinging test of inhalation allergens. In addition, the questionnaire of allergic disease and self-examination of dust mite allergy were carried out for each group of patients, and the results were analyzed and counted. Result:①In 216 patients with allergic rhinitis, the top six inhalation allergens were dust mites(55.0%), house dust mites(46.1%), tropical mites(21.8%), dog hair(16.6%), Artemisia halodendron(13.3%), and German cockroaches(10.3%). ②Inhalation allergens, the degree of positive of house dust mites and dust mites were mainly(+++), the degree of positive of Artemisia halodendron were mainly(+++) and(++++), and the degree of positive of other allergens were mainly(++). ③There were statistically significant differences in the positive rates of inhalation allergens in different age groups, and the positive rates of inhalation allergens gradually decreased with age after adulthood. ④The single factor and multi-factor logical regression analysis all showed that the history of smoking, family history, age less than 18 years, and 18-40 years old were closely related to the occurrence of allergic rhinitis(P<0.05). ⑤Using Spearson-related analysis and loess regression analysis, it was found that with the increase of dust mite self-examination score, the positive rate of dust mite increased significantly. Conclusion:The most important inhalation allergens of patients with allergic rhinitis in Qingdao area are dust mites, dog hair and artemisinin. The positive rate of inhalation allergens is influenced by age and there are certain rules in them. Smoking history, family history, age and other factors are risk factors for allergic rhinitis. The dust mite self-examination score can predict the occurrence of dust mite allergy.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Artemisia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Baratas , Cães , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pyroglyphidae , Fatores de Risco , Testes Cutâneos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109854, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063317

RESUMO

Traditional reclamation consists of landform reconstruction characterized by uniform topography and linear slopes. Geomorphic reclamation improves on traditional reclamation by recreating heterogeneous landforms that blend into surrounding landscapes. Environmental heterogeneity created by geomorphic design is expected to increase the number of available ecological niches, and thus increase plant species diversity when compared with traditional reclamation practices. We sampled plant communities at two reclaimed surface mines in Wyoming using line-point intercept transects to compare vegetative diversity, composition, and structure between sites reclaimed using geomorphic and traditional methods. Greater species richness and Simpson's diversity were observed in geomorphic reclamation at the first site, but did not differ significantly at the second site, although geomorphic reclamation was more likely to resemble undisturbed controls. Shrub abundance was up to 10 times greater on geomorphic reclamation compared to traditional reclamation. Neither reclamation method achieved levels of vegetative diversity observed on nearby, undisturbed rangeland. Geomorphic methods have potential benefits for restoration of vegetative diversity and foundation species such as Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis). Our results suggest geomorphic reclamation may improve plant community diversity and wildlife habitat as a practical method for landscape-level restoration in post-mining sites.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Ecossistema , Wyoming
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136611, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958727

RESUMO

Artemisia pollen grains are important aeroallergens worldwide. The amount of allergenic proteins produced by pollen, or pollen allergenicity, is regulated by both genes and the environment. As a result, even closely related plant taxa may release pollen with distinctly different allergen contents. Here, we determined the variability in atmospheric exposure to the major Artemisia pollen allergen, Art v 1, during the pollination seasons of two common species, i.e., A. vulgaris (early flowering species) and A. campestris (late flowering species), in Poznan, Poland (2013-2015). Artemisia pollen grains were collected using Hirst-type volumetric trap, while Art v 1 was collected by a two-stage cascade impactor (PM10 and PM>10 air fractions) and quantified by immunoenzymatic analysis. The results showed that daily Art v 1 levels correlated significantly with mean daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen (from r = 0.426 to r = 0.949, depending on air fraction and peak of the season). Significant differences were observed between 1) the median pollen allergenicity in different seasons (from 2.5 to 4.7 pg Art v 1/pollen) and 2) the median pollen allergenicity in different peak periods of the season (from 1.8 to 6.7 pg Art v 1/pollen). During the late peak (flowering of A. campestris), the median pollen allergenicity was significantly higher (on average by 63%, p < 0.05) than that during A. vulgaris flowering. The highest mean seasonal pollen allergenicity was observed during the wettest season, while the lowest was observed during the driest season (from July-August). In summary, our study showed distinct differences in Artemisia pollen allergenicity, that were not only related to daily and seasonal variability, which may exceed 800% and 80%, respectively but also noticeable when two common Artemisia species were compared. Therefore, we argue that variability in pollen allergenicity (both seasonal and species-specific) should be considered in future studies assessing pollen exposure.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Alérgenos , Polônia , Pólen , Tempo (Meteorologia)
8.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 22(3): 241-248, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585504

RESUMO

Two new nordammarane-type triterpenoids, 3ß-acetoxy-20-oxo-21-nordammaran-23-carboxylic acid methyl ester (1) and 3ß-acetoxy-17ß-dammaranic acid (2), along with two known cycloartane-type triterpenoids (3-4), were isolated from the petroleum ether-soluble extract of Artemisia argyi. Their structures were elucidated based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. Compounds 1-4 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase with IC50 values ranging from 38.34 ± 0.23 to 105.54 ± 0.33 µM.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Triterpenos , Estrutura Molecular , alfa-Glucosidases
9.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 181(2): 128-135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to the 3 major aeroallergens tree pollen, grass pollen, and house dust mites, allergic rhinitis caused by herbal pollen has received comparatively little attention in recent clinical studies. Since various weeds flower during summer until fall, allergic rhinitis to weeds may be underdiagnosed and/or mistakenly diagnosed as grass pollen allergy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate (i) the currently most frequent weed allergy between mugwort, ragweed, plantain, chamomile, nettle, and oilseed rape and (ii) time trends in prevalence of sensitization to weed pollen in the middle of Germany over the last 20 years. METHODS: This study, the largest of its kind to date, monocentrically evaluated the prick test results of a total of 6,220 patients with suspected RCA over a period of 20 years (1998-2017). RESULTS: In the study cohort, sensitization rates to plantain almost doubled from 26.6% in the decade 1998-2007 to 50.5% in 2008-2017. Identical increases were observed for ragweed, while sensitization rates for mugwort stayed largely unchanged. The most prominent increase in positive skin prick tests to plantain and ragweed pollen was mainly observed in younger patients. Further, we identified a trend toward polysensitization, currently dominated by plantain and ragweed. Sensitization to weed pollen was found to be highly associated with additional sensitizations to grass and/or birch pollen. CONCLUSION: Plantain is currently the best choice to screen rhinitis patients for weed allergy which identifies 86% of all weed-sensitized individuals, at least in Germany. Over the last 20 years, we demonstrate a significant rise in the total number of weed pollen sensitization as well as increases in polysensitization, predominantly in younger patients.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Ambrosia/imunologia , Plantago/imunologia , Pólen/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Artemisia/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/imunologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia , Testes Cutâneos/métodos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112262, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585162

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Artemisia ordosica Krasch. (AOK) has been used for rheumatic arthritis, cold headache, sore throat, etc. in traditional Chinese/Mongolian medicine and is used for nasosinusitis by local Mongolian "barefoot" doctors. Up to now, their mechanisms are still unclear. AIM: To evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory and allergic rhinitis (AR) alleviating effect as well as in vitro antimicrobial activities of AOK extracts to verify its ethno-medicinal claims. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crude extracts (methanol/95%-ethanol/ethyl acetate) of AOK root/stem/leaf and fractions (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/n-butanol/aqueous) of AOK root extract were prepared. Xylene-induced ear swelling model in mouse and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR model in guinea pig were established. Ear swelling degrees of mice were measured. The numbers of rubbing movement and sneezes of guinea pigs were counted to evaluate the symptoms of AR. The serum levels of histamine, INF-γ, IL-2/4/10, and VCAM-1 were measured by ELISA assay. The histological changes of nasal mucosa were investigated by light microscope after H&E staining. Antimicrobial activities of AOK extracts were also tested. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed to characterize the constituents of active extract and molecular docking was conducted to predict the biological mechanism. RESULTS: In ear-swelling model, extract (100.00 mg/kg) from the ethyl acetate layer of 95% ethanol (100.00 mg/kg) showed better swelling inhibition in mice than positive control (dexamethasone, 191.91 mg/kg). In AR model, extract from the ethyl acetate layer of 95% ethanol significantly alleviated the AR symptoms in guinea pigs, decreased the serum levels of histamine, INF-γ, IL-2/4/10, and VCAM-1, and reduced the infiltration of eosinophil in nasal mucosa. For Staphylococcus aureus, the ethyl acetate extract of AOK stem showed the highest inhibition (MIC=1.25 mg/mL), for Escherichia coli, n-butanol layer of 95% ethanol extract of AOK root showed the highest inhibition (MIC=15.00 mg/mL), for Candida glabrata, 95%-ethyl acetate extract of AOK leaf showed the best inhibition (MIC=0.064 mg/mL), while ethyl acetate and n-butanol layers showed similar inhibition on MRSA (MIC=7.50 mg/mL). LC-MS/MS characterization showed that dicaffeoylquinic acids account for more than 30% of ethyl acetate layer of AOK extract. Dicaffeoylquinic acids bind with histamine-1 receptor with high affinities and interesting modes. CONCLUSIONS: Extracts from AOK had interesting anti-inflammatory activity in mice, alleviating effect against OVA-induced AR in guinea pigs, and antimicrobial activities in vitro, which support the ethno-medicinal use of it. The main constituents in ethyl acetate layer of AOK root extract are dicaffeoylquinic acids and could bind with histamine-1 receptor well. These findings highlighted the importance of natural product chemistry study of AOK.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Artemisia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Alérgenos , Animais , Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Candida glabrata/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida glabrata/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citocinas/imunologia , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cobaias , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicina Tradicional da Mongólia , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Ovalbumina , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Histamínicos H1/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/patologia , Sinusite/imunologia , Sinusite/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Xilenos
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112272, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586695

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chinese medicinal herbs have long been recognized as important resources that can be used for the struggle against diseases and a significant component of health care system for thousands of years. AIM OF THE STUDY: In order to understand their roles in the treatment against bacterial infections, we examined the underlying mechanisms of one of the medicinal herb extracts (MHE) (Artemisiae argyi Folium, the root bark of Cortex dictamni and the root of Solanum melongena) on the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We combined phenotypic assays, transcriptional analysis and chemical investigations to identify the mechanisms underlying MHE inhibition. The standard sample was prepared and transcriptional reporters for quorum sensing systems were constructed. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to clarify the mechanism. GC-MS and molecular docking were used to identify the chemicals in MHE and potential binding agents. RESULTS: We found that co-culturing of MHE with bacterial cells did not change the growth rate but substantially attenuate the production of virulence factors such as phenazine pyocyanin, siderophore pyoverdine and biofilm formation. Transcriptional responses of three major quorum sensing (QS) systems of P. aeruginosa to MHE showed that Pseudomonas quinolone signaling (PQS) system was completely repressed, rhlR/rhlI QS system was moderately inhibited, while lasR/lasI QS system was only slightly affected, suggesting that MHE might selectively target the PQS system to inhibit bacterial virulence. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed that MHE inhibited the binding of MvfR the corresponding pqsA promoter region, suggesting that MHE serves as a competitive agent to quench the QS functionality in P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSION: We prove that MHE functions as an effective countermeasure against bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Artemisia , Dictamnus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum melongena , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Piocianina/metabolismo , Quinolonas/metabolismo , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 343-353, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbs are rich in various beneficial bioactive compounds and they can be used for many different purposes. One of the most common is maceration of herbs in alcohol. Different substances respond differently to extraction in prepared solutions. It is very important to enhance the highest proportion of beneficial ingredients during the maceration process in a herbal liqueur. A comparative analysis of numerous different phenolic compounds from eight of the most frequently used herbs for making aperitifs in Europe was performed. RESULTS: In the comparison among all studied herbs, the highest phenolic content was found with Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) (14.61 mg g-1 ) and Mentha piperita (peppermint) (13.89 mg g-1 ), while the lowest content was found with Centaurium erythraea (common centaury) (3.96 mg g-1 ). Salvianolic acid isomers and caffeic acid derivatives were the greatest contributors to the total phenolic content in lemon balm, wormwood, peppermint, fennel and sage. These compounds contain more hydroxyl groups and they were better extracted at the beginning of the maceration process. Caraway and common centaury contain more flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol derivatives), with higher chemical stability and fewer hydroxyl groups in their structure. CONCLUSION: The compositions of eight herbal liqueurs were highly related to the presence of different herbal ingredients and their solubility in the extract over time. Most flavonol derivatives were extracted over a longer time and the two liqueurs (common centaury and caraway) therefore had the highest phenolic contents after 3 weeks of maceration. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Artemisia/química , Carum/química , Centaurium/química , Europa (Continente) , Manipulação de Alimentos , Isomerismo , Mentha piperita/química , Fenóis/química
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 481, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linoleic acid is an important polyunsaturated fatty acid, required for all eukaryotes. Microsomal delta-12 (Δ12) oleate desaturase (FAD2) is a key enzyme for linoleic acid biosynthesis. Desert shrub Artemisia sphaerocephala is rich in linoleic acid, it has a large FAD2 gene family with twenty-six members. The aim of this work is to unveil the difference and potentially functionality of AsFAD2 family members. RESULTS: Full-length cDNAs of twenty-one AsFAD2 genes were obtained from A. sphaerocephala. The putative polypeptides encoded by AsFAD2 family genes showed a high level of sequence similarity and were relatively conserved during evolution. The motif composition was also relatively conservative. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the AsFAD2-1 gene was strongly expressed in developing seeds, which may be closely associated with the high accumulating ability of linoleic acid in A. sphaerocephala seeds. Although different AsFAD2 family members showed diverse response to salt stress, the overall mRNA levels of the AsFAD2 family genes was stable. Transient expression of AsFAD2 genes in the Nicotiana benthamiana leaves revealed that the encoded proteins were all located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggested that only three AsFAD2 enzymes, AsFAD2-1, - 10, and - 23, were Δ12 oleate desaturases, which could convert oleic acid to linoleic acid, whereas AsFAD2-1 and AsFAD2-10 could also produce palmitolinoleic acid. CONCLUSIONS: This research reported the cloning, expression studies, subcellular localization and functional identification of the large AsFAD2 gene family. These results should be helpful in understanding fatty acid biosynthesis in A. sphaerocephala, and has the potential to be applied in the study of plant fatty acids traits.


Assuntos
Artemisia/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Artemisia/enzimologia , Artemisia/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
14.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(10): 785-791, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703759

RESUMO

One new dimeric (1) and two monomeric sesquiterpene lactones (5 and 13), together with 10 known compounds (2-4, 6-12), were isolated from Artemisia heptapotamica collected in Almaty region of Kazakhstan. All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. The structures of the new compounds were mainly achieved by extensive analysis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, and ECD spectrum as well. The inhibitory activities of all isolates against activation of NF-κB induced by LPS were assessed on a THP1-Dual cell model. Some of them showed strong inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging from 2 to 25 µmol·L-1.


Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Lactonas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Dimerização , Humanos , Lactonas/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
15.
Zootaxa ; 4668(1): zootaxa.4668.1.7, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716642

RESUMO

The mature larva of Meliboeus morawitzi (Semenov, 1905) from material collected within the roots of Artemisia marschalliana Spreng. in Khomutovskyi Steppe Nature Reserve (Donetsk Region, Ukraine) is described. Diagnosis of the larva of this species together with improved key to the known larvae of the genus Meliboeus are provided.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Besouros , Animais , Larva , Ucrânia
16.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104372, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669720

RESUMO

Four new sesquiterpene lactones, named artemargyinolides A-D (1-4), and seven known sesquiterpenoids (5-11) were isolated from Artemisia argyi. Their structures were elucidated based on the extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 1 is an unprecedented sesquiterpene dimer-monoterpene lactone. The cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitory activities of all isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 6-11 showed inhibitory activity against COX-2 with IC50 values ranging from 35.78 ±â€¯0.39 to 256.07 ±â€¯0.38 µM. However, compounds 7, 9, and 10 exhibited weak inhibitory activity against COX-1 with IC50 values of 465.70 ±â€¯1.53, 281.43 ±â€¯3.56, and 490.45 ±â€¯6.07 µM, respectively. Other compounds are inactive against COX-1. Therefore, compounds 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 11 displayed selective COX-2 inhibitory activity.


Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , China , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
17.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698834

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are one of the most important groups of plant metabolites responsible for their biological activities. This study was carried out to study the chemical composition and the antimicrobial effects of Artemisia herba-alba and Origanum majorana essential oils against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and a fungal strain isolated from spoiled butter. The plants were collected in the region Azzemour of South West Morocco and the EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity was determined using the agar paper disc method. The main components of A. herba-alba EO were cis-thujone, trans-thujone and vanillyl alcohol; in O. majorana EO terpinen-4-ol, isopulegol and ß-phellandrene predominated. Both essential oils exhibited growth inhibiting activities in a concentration-dependent manner on several microorganism species. Our results demonstrated that O. majorana and A. herba-alba EOs could be effective natural antibacterial agents in foods.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Artemisia/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Marrocos , Análise Espectral
18.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 38(3): 205-216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679308

RESUMO

Artemisia vulgaris is a traditional Chinese herb believed to have a wide range of healing properties; it is traditionally used to treat numerous health ailments. The plant is commonly called mugwort or riverside wormwood. The plant is edible, and in addition to its medicinal properties, it is also used as a culinary herb in Asian cooking in the form of a vegetable or in soup. The plant has garnered the attention of researchers in the past few decades, and several research studies have investigated its biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial properties. In this review, various studies on these biological effects are discussed along with the tests conducted, compounds involved, and proposed mechanisms of action. This review will be of interest to the researchers working in the field of herbal medicine, pharmacology, medical sciences, and immunology.


Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química
19.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 8137-8148, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746883

RESUMO

High fructose (HF) diet-induced liver steatosis is associated with intestinal microbiota dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to assess the modulatory effects of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krash seed polysaccharide (ASKP) on fatty acid metabolism and intestinal microbiota in mice fed with HF water. Administration of HF-fed mice with ASKP prevented fat accumulation and blunted metabolic inflammation and endotoxaemia. ASKP-treated mice displayed improved glucose tolerance and fully exhibited protection against hepatic steatosis. Besides, ASKP was effective in improving the changes in the composition of liver fatty acids via modulating hepatic SREBP-1c, SCD-1, ACC and FAS expressions. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that ASKP treatment modified the gut microbial species at the phylum level with a decrease of Firmicutes and a slight increase of Bacteroidetes (p > 0.05). Interestingly, ASKP markedly increased the proportion of the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia at the genus level in HF-fed mice. These findings support the beneficial metabolic effects of ASKP through amelioration of the HF-induced features of liver steatosis, which is associated with health maintenance of the intestinal microecosystem.


Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo
20.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 288, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracts from medicinal plants with phytochemicals with known antimicrobial properties can be an effective adjunct in the complex treatment of infectious diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of wormwood extracts collected in Kazakhstan (Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm.), along with their phytochemical analysis. METHODS: The ethanolic and chloroform extracts were subjected to HPLC combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. For quantitative assessment of antimicrobial activity, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the tested extracts was determined by micro-dilution broth method for the panel of the reference microorganisms. Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) were also determined. RESULTS: LC/MS analysis showed the presence of 13 compounds in the tested extracts, including flavonoids: apigenin, luteolin, rutin, two O-methylated flavonols (isorhamnetin, rhamnazine), coumarin compounds (umbelliferone, scopoletin and scopolin (scopoletin 7-glucoside), 3-hydroxycoumarin and 4-hydroxycoumarin), chlorogenic acid and two dicaffeoylquinic acid isomers. Quantitative HPLC analysis showed that umbelliferone was dominant in the chloroform extract while chlorogenic acid was identified as a main compound in the ethanolic extract. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of chloroform and ethanolic extracts was comparable. The most sensitive were the Gram-positive bacteria represented by staphylococci, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus spp. (MIC = 1.25-5 mg/ml) and yeasts represented by Candida spp. (MIC = 2.5-5 mg/ml), irrespective of the assayed extract. CONCLUSIONS: Extracts of wormwood Artemisia gmelinii have shown a wide spectrum of antibacterial and antifungal activity. Luteolin, rutin, isorhamnetin and scopolin were identified in A. gmelinii species for the first time. The determining of the most potential compounds of Artemisia gmelinii can be used to develop effective antibacterial and antifungal agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Artemisia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Ácido Clorogênico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Leveduras/efeitos dos fármacos , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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