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1.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(5): e20192297, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the efficacy of Baccharis dracunculifolia extract in the treatment of anal fistulas in rats. METHODS: twenty male Wistar rats were submitted to anal fistula and, after 30 days, were divided into three groups: Control Group, with five animals; Carbopol Group, with five animals; and Baccharis dracunculifolia Group, with ten animals. In the Control Group, no treatment was performed. In the Carbopol Group, a daily infusion of Carbopol was performed for 30 days. In the Baccharis dracunculifolia Group, a daily infusion of Carbopol plus Baccharis dracunculifolia extract was performed for 30 days. Specimens were taken for histological analysis after euthanasia. RESULTS: there was no complete closure of the fistulous tract in any of the animals. The mean area of the remaining tract was of 847.2µm2, 565.6µm2 and 372.7µm2, in the Control Group, Carbopol Group, and Baccharis dracunculifolia Group, respectively, (p=0.001). The mean of the inflammatory process score was of 2.4, 2.4, and 2.1, in the Control Group, Carbopol Group, and Baccharis dracunculifolia Group, respectively, (p=0.285), while the mean values of vascular congestion were of 1.6, 1.4, and 1.1, in the Control Group, Carbopol Group, and Baccharis dracunculifolia Group, respectively, (p=0.031). CONCLUSION: Baccharis dracunculifolia extract was able to reduce the lumen of the fistulous tracts and the degree of vascular congestion, without, however, reducing the local inflammatory process or totally closing the fistulous tracts.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fístula Retal/reabilitação , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Plantas Medicinais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fístula Retal/patologia
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(2): 150-162, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872313

RESUMO

The botanical source of Brazilian green propolis (BGP) is Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, which interacts not only with Apis mellifera, but also with galling insects. In the last decade, because of green propolis´ important biologic activities, the international demand for BGP overcame the production capacity, consequently, new approaches are required to increase this production. Hence, the understanding of the chemical ecology interactions of B. dracunculifolia with galls and bees in field conditions may provide insights to increase BGP's production. A "bee pasture" experiment aiming to better understand this plant-insect interaction was therefore performed. For that, 48 B. dracunculifolia individuals, being 24 females and 24 males, were cultivated and investigated for the following parameters: (1) phenolic and volatile compounds in both B. dracunculifolia leaves and green propolis, (2) environmental variables, (3) visiting rate by bees, (4) time of resin collection, and (5) number of galls. Regression analyses by independent linear mixed-effect models were run to correlate phenolic and volatile compounds concentration with the environmental and field variables. Significant differences in chemical profile and field variables were observed between male and female plants. Male plants showed higher infestation by galling insects while female plants showed higher number of visiting bees, time of resin collection and terpenes concentration, contributing to the differences observed in the field. The obtained results suggest that increasing the percentage of female B. dracunculifolia plants in the field may attract more bees and therefore enhance propolis production.


Assuntos
Baccharis/química , Abelhas/fisiologia , Própole/química , Animais , Baccharis/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenol/análise , Fenol/química , Fenol/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Tumores de Planta/parasitologia , Própole/análise , Própole/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
3.
Zootaxa ; 4691(1): zootaxa.4691.1.1, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719411

RESUMO

We describe seven new Neotropical species of Tischeriidae: Astrotischeria dondavisi Stonis Diskus, sp. nov., A. bacchariphaga Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., A. guatemalica Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., A. sanjosei Stonis Diskus, sp. nov., A. truncata Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., Coptotriche parvisacculata Diskus Stonis, sp. nov. and C. carmencita Stonis Diskus, sp. nov. We report the discovery of Coptotriche Walsingham in South America and provide the following new host-plant records for the Neotropical Tischeriidae: Terminalia australis Cambess. (Combretaceae), Baccharis latifolia (Ruiz Pav.) Pers., and B. emarginata (Ruiz Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). We update the biology of Astrotischeria ochrimaculosa Diskus, Stonis Vargas with the discovery that Wissadula (Malvaceae) is a new, verified host plant. The new species are illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and, if available, female genitalia, and the leaf mines. We expect broader distributions of tisheriid species in South America inferred from known host-plant distributions.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Lepidópteros , Malvaceae , Mariposas , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Folhas de Planta , América do Sul
4.
Zootaxa ; 4656(1): zootaxa.4656.1.8, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716843

RESUMO

Aphid specimens belonging to the genus Aphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Aphidinae) collected on species of Baccharis (Asteraceae) in localities of Argentina and Chile, preserved in the Natural History Museum in London and in the Universidad de León collections, have been studied. They belong to six species: Aphis craccivora, Aphis gossypii and Aphis spiraecola, which are widely-distributed and polyphagous, and the new species: Aphis ingeborgae Nieto Nafría and Brown sp. n., Aphis conspicua Nieto Nafría and Mier Durante sp. n. and Aphis fuentesi Nieto Nafría and Ortego sp. n. which are here described from apterous and alate viviparous females, and also from oviparous females and males in the case of Aphis fuentesi. These six species plus the native and monophagous A. coridifoliae are those known in southern South America living on plants of Baccharis. Diagnostic features of new species and an identification key for apterous viviparous females of these seven species are presented.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Baccharis , Animais , Argentina , Chile , Feminino , Londres , Masculino
5.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484385

RESUMO

In this work, two new flavonoids, oblongifolioside A (1) and oblongifolioside B (2), along with eight known compounds (3-10), are isolated from the leaves of Baccharis oblongifolia (Asteraceae). The new structures are established through spectroscopic data and the known compounds are identified by comparison with data reported in the literature. The compounds (1-10) are evaluated in relation to their antiradical properties. Compounds 1 and 2 are found to exhibit high antiradical activity compared to their respective non-acylated flavonoids.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Baccharis/química , Flavonoides/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ácido Clorogênico/química
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 222, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatic diseases are serious problems worldwide, which may lead to the development of fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis. Despite the significant number of people affected by hepatic fibrosis, no effective treatment is available. In the liver, hepatic stellate cells are the major fibrogenic cell type that play a relevant function in chronic liver diseases. Thus, the characterization of components that control the fibrogenesis in the hepatic stellate cells is relevant in supporting the development of innovative therapies to treat and/or control liver fibrosis. The present study investigated the effects of Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. and Plectranthus barbatus Andrews medicinal plant extracts in LX-2 transdifferentiation. METHODS: LX-2 is a human immortalized hepatic stellate cell that can transdifferentiate in vitro from a quiescent-like phenotype to a more proliferative and activated behavior, and it provides a useful platform to assess antifibrotic drugs. Then, the antifibrotic effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Plectranthus barbatus medicinal plants on LX-2 were evaluated. RESULTS: The results in our cellular analyses, under the investigated concentrations of the plant extracts, indicate no deleterious effects on LX-2 metabolism, such as toxicity, genotoxicity, or apoptosis. Moreover, the extracts induced changes in actin filament distribution of activated LX-2, despite not affecting the cellular markers of transdifferentiation. Consistent effects in cellular retinoid metabolism were observed, supporting the presumed activity of the plant extracts in hepatic lipids metabolism, which corroborated the traditional knowledge about their uses for liver dysfunction. CONCLUSION: The combined results suggested a potential hepatoprotective effect of the investigated plant extracts reinforcing their safe use as coadjuvants in treating imbalanced liver lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Células Estreladas do Fígado , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plectranthus , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Retinoides/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/química , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais , Retinoides/análise
7.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(9): 781-790, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264925

RESUMO

The toxicity of four essential oils extracted from Baccharis articulata, Baccharis ochracea, Baccharis psiadioides and Baccharis trimera was tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria alternata, which causes Alternaria stem canker on tomatoes. Diseases caused by Alternaria fungi are responsible for great economic losses in terms of production and are controlled by synthetic fungicides; however, essential oils offer an alternative, since they have been proven to be effective for controlling against various plant pathogens. In this way, the antifungal activity of Baccharis essential oils was tested using potato dextrose agar medium with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 20.0 µL mL-1. Baccharis trimera and Baccharis ochracea essential oils presented 100% mycelial growth inhibition of A. alternata and were also able to control Alternaria stem canker disease under greenhouse conditions. Tomato plants treated with these essential oils exhibited area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) values of 230.10 and 241.42, differing from the control condition, which showed an AUDPC value of 268.92. The essential oils of B. trimera and B. ochracea can be an alternative for controlling Alternaria stem canker disease of tomatoes and should be formulated as a potential fungicide against the A. alternata pathogen.


Assuntos
Alternaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Baccharis/química , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alternaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163607

RESUMO

ß-Glucans are biomacromolecules well known, among other biological activities, for their immunomodulatory potential. Similarly, extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia also possess biological properties and are used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, ulcers, and hepatic diseases. Microparticles containing (1→6)-ß-d-glucan (lasiodiplodan) and B. dracunculifolia extract were produced and characterized. A 23 factorial design was employed to define the conditions of production of microparticles by atomization. Lasiodiplodan associated with maltodextrin and gum arabic was studied as a matrix material. Microparticles of 0.4 µm mean size and high phenolics content (3157.9 µg GAE/g) were obtained under the optimized conditions. The microparticle size ranged from 0.23 to 1.21 µm, and the mathematical model that best represented the release kinetics of the extract was the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Diffusional exponent (n) values of 0.64 at pH 7.7 and 1.15 at pH 2.61 were found, indicating particles with a non-Fickian or anomalous transport system, and Super Case II transport, respectively. Thermal analysis indicated that the microparticles demonstrated high thermal stability. The X-ray diffraction analyses revealed an amorphous structure, and HPLC-DAD analysis showed microparticles rich in phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and catechin. The microparticles obtained comprise a new biomaterial with biological potential for applications in different fields.


Assuntos
Baccharis/química , Microesferas , Extratos Vegetais/química , beta-Glucanas/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Goma Arábica/química , Cinética , Modelos Teóricos , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
9.
Biofactors ; 45(3): 479-489, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974027

RESUMO

Baccharis dracunculifolia is a medicinal plant native to southeastern Brazil and is the main botanical source used by bees (Apis mellifera) in the manufacture of green propolis and display similar gastroprotective action and chemical profile. This article reports the healing gastric ulcer activity of the hydroethanolic extract of B. dracunculifolia (HEBD) in an acetic acid-induced ulcer model. In addition to the extract, the isolated compounds ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, baccharin, and aromadendrin-4'-O-methyl ether were also assayed. HEBD at a dose of 300 mg/kg reduced the ulcerated area by 49.4% after treatment for 7 days, twice a day. Histological analyses revealed that the margins and base of the ulcer obtained significant regeneration, and periodic acid Schiff base staining showed a 78.2% increase in the mucin levels. The action on the enzymatic antioxidant system demonstrated an increased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase, in addition to raising glutathione reduced levels and myeloperoxidase activity. HEBD did not show cytotoxicity in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylterazole bromine test. In vitro, HEBD inhibited the H+ /K+ -ATPase enzyme and showed antioxidant activity in the 2,2 diphenyl-1-picryllydrazyl test. Regarding the isolated compounds, oral administration of p-coumaric acid (15 mg/kg) reduced the ulcerated area by 66.2%. The results suggest that HEBD recovers the gastric ulcerated tissue, raising mucus and antioxidant enzyme levels, and reducing the H+ /K+ -ATPase activity. In addition, the findings confirm that p-coumaric acid is a pivotal bioactive compound on the gastric healing effects elicited by HEBD. © 2019 BioFactors, 45(3):479-489, 2019.


Assuntos
Baccharis/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Propionatos/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893865

RESUMO

The decoction of the local plant Baccharis grisebachii is used as a digestive, gastroprotective, external cicatrizing agent and antiseptic in Argentine. A lyophilized decoction (BLD) from the aerial parts of this plant was evaluated regarding its anti-ulcer, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and the bioactivities were supported by UHPLC-MS metabolome fingerprinting which revealed the presence of several small bioactive compounds. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, FRAP and lipoperoxidation inhibition in erythrocytes methods, and the antibacterial activity was evaluated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The BLD showed a moderate free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH (EC50 = 106 µg/mL) and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes assays (67%, at 250 µg/mL). However, the BLD had the highest gastroprotective effect at a dose of 750 mg/kg with a ninety-three percent inhibition of damage through a mechanism that involve NO and prostaglandins using the ethanol-induced gastric damage in a standard rat model. On the other hand, BLD does not induce cytotoxic changes on human tumor and no-tumor cell lines at the concentrations assayed. Regarding the metabolomic analysis, thirty-one compounds were detected and 30 identified based on UHPLC-OT-MS including twelve flavonoids, eleven cinnamic acid derivatives, one coumarin, one stilbene and two other different phenolic compounds. The results support that the medicinal decoction of Baccharis grisebachii is a valuable natural product with gastroprotective effects and with potential to improve human health that opens a pathway for the development of important phytomedicine products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Baccharis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cinamatos/química , Flavonoides/química , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas , Picratos/química
11.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(2): 307-310, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734668

RESUMO

We describe and illustrate lesions in an outbreak of lead arsenate poisoning in beef cattle that ingested pesticide residues stored in an abandoned building of a former orange orchard. Of 70 exposed cattle, 14 had diarrhea, paresis, ataxia, recumbency, and/or seizures. Ten of the affected animals died after a clinical course of 12-18 h. Pathologic findings in 3 steers included extensive necrohemorrhagic, ulcerative rumenitis, omasitis, and abomasitis; lymphocytolysis in lymphoid organs; and nephrosis. Hepatic arsenic and lead levels in cases 1-3 were 20, 24, and 31 ppm, and 8.3, 25, and 9.4 ppm, respectively. Lesions in the forestomachs and lymphoid tissues have been rarely reported in cases of lead arsenate poisoning. In southern South America, these lesions are indistinguishable from those produced by Baccharis coridifolia, a toxic plant that contains macrocyclic trichothecenes, thus these conditions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of necrotizing lesions in alimentary and lymphoid organs.


Assuntos
Arseniatos/envenenamento , Baccharis/envenenamento , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Sistema Digestório/patologia , Feminino , Chumbo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Necrose/classificação , Necrose/patologia , Necrose/veterinária , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Uruguai
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(4): e1800547, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719835

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils as well as the anatomy of the aerial parts from Baccharis aracatubaensis, Baccharis burchellii, and Baccharis organensis owing to the therapeutic potential of Baccharis. The volatile constituents were analyzed using GC/MS, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACFL ) and DPPH assays, and the antimicrobial activity by a microdilution technique. Of the 56 compounds identified, only seven (ß-caryophyllene, γ-muurolene, bicyclogermacrene, ß-germacrene, spathulenol, τ-muurolol, and α-cadinol) were common in the three specimens studied. Of these, γ-muurolene was found abundantly in B. aracatubaensis, while bicyclogermacrene was abundant in B. burchellii and B. organensis. The essential oils exhibited antioxidant activity in the ORACFL (>500.0 µmol TE g-1 ) and DPPH assays. However, they did not exhibit any antimicrobial activity. Secretory ducts and flagelliform glandular trichomes were observed in the anatomical study of all the Baccharis species studied.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Baccharis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(2): e1800372, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673172

RESUMO

This is the first time that composition, antimicrobial potential and antioxidant ability of essential oil from the leaves of Baccharis oreophila are reported. Essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Antimicrobial potential was evaluated by diffusion disk and broth microdilution methods. ABTS.+ , DPPH. and FRAP methods were employed for antioxidant activity evaluation. Essential oil yield was 0.47 %. Sixty-five compounds were identified, representing 88.53 % of the total essential oil, which showed to be rich in oxygenated (37.88 %) and hydrocarbons sesquiterpenes (34.84 %). The main constituents were khusimone (16.37 %) and spathulenol (16.12 %). Antimicrobial activity was verified against S. aureus (10.33±0.5 mm, MIC: 1250 µg mL-1 ) and C. albicans (8.66±0.5 mm, MIC: >2500 µg mL.1 ). Antioxidant ability was evidenced by FRAP (4.09 µmol FeSO4 E mL-1 ), ABTS.+ (1.45 µmol TE mL-1 ) and DPPH. (1.04 µmol TE mL-1 ) scavenging capacity. Results showed that this essential oil has interesting biological potential, encouraging further investigations especially in relation to action mechanisms of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Baccharis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Recuperação de Fluorescência Após Fotodegradação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 234: 1-7, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660710

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Baccharis punctulata (Asteraceae), popularly known as "Chíllka saru saru" in Bolivia, has been used by rural communities in Bustillo Province of the Potosi Department for treatment of asthma, luxations and contusions. AIM OF THE STUDY: To analyze the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from leaves of female (BPF) and male (BPM) specimens and evaluate their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Chemical composition analyses of Baccharis punctulata essential oils isolated by hidrodistillation from leaves of male and female specimens were performed by GC-FID-MS. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the model of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) induced ear edema, and the polymorphonuclear cell migration was evaluated by mieloperoxidase (MPO) and analyzed histologically. To measure the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the inflamed tissue, the DCFH-DA fluorescent probe was used. The chemical in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oils was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. RESULTS: The chemical analysis showed high proportion of sesquiterpenes in the volatiles samples obtained from BPM, such as δ-elemene (14.29%), germacrene D (11.29%) and bicyclogermacrene (10.90%), and in the sample from BPF, bicyclogermacrene (42.44%), germacrene D (21.18%) and ß-caryophyllene (14.06%). A statistical difference (p < 0.05) on chemical composition between both essential oils was observed. Topical administration of both BPM and BPF essential oils was able to inhibit the formation of TPA-induced edema in the treated groups. Isolated administration of TPA promoted an increase in MPO enzyme activity, and inhibition of the increase of MPO activity was observed when animals were treated with BFP at concentrations of 0.1 mg/ear (13.69 ±â€¯0.20%), 0.3 mg/ear (22.35 ±â€¯0.11%), and 1.0 mg/ear (44.98 ±â€¯0.27%). Topical treatment with BPM was able to inhibit MPO activity at 22.40 ±â€¯0.29% (0.1 mg/ear), 36.49 ±â€¯0.07% (0.3 mg/ear) and 52.19 ±â€¯0.28% (1.0 mg/ear). The positive control of dexamethasone (DEXA, 0.1 mg/ear) was able to revert the increase in the enzymatic activity of MPO caused by TPA (65.16%). Histological analysis showed that topical application of TPA promoted intense cellular infiltration. This inflammatory parameter was reduced with the topical application of the BPF and BPM oil samples as well as with DEXA. The results observed in the ROS and DPPH tests suggest that both samples were able to reduce the inflammatory cells influx and have in vitro antioxidant properties, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents, for the first time, the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from leaves of male and female specimens of Baccharis punctulata, and their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The results presented by the volatile samples in our biotests support traditional uses of this plant species.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Baccharis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Administração Tópica , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
Exp Parasitol ; 197: 20-28, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633914

RESUMO

The indiscriminate use of chemical drugs to deworm livestock tends to trigger an anthelmintic resistance problem. In this context, the use of plant extracts rich in secondary metabolites could be an alternative method for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes. Baccharis conferta Kunth is a native plant species from Mexico that is widely used by several ethnic groups as forage for farm animals and medicinally to treat gastrointestinal diseases such as acute stomach ache, dysentery, diarrhoea, vomiting, indigestion, colic, intestinal spasms, urinary problems, and cramps. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterise the ovicidal constituents of B. conferta and to determine a possible mode of action against Haemonchus contortus. The ovicidal activity was determined using the egg hatching inhibition test (EHI) to assess the methanol extract obtained from B. conferta foliage. The dry extract was partitioned (water/ethyl acetate) to obtain an ethyl acetate (BcEtOAc-F) and aqueous fraction. BcEtOAc-F showed an ovicidal activity of 72.32% EHI at 1 mg/mL. The chromatographic fractionation of BcEtOAc-F resulted in three active sub-fractions with higher ovicidal activity: BcC1R4 (99.15% EHI at 1.0 mg/mL); BcC1R5 (92.51% EHI at 0.75 mg/mL); and BcC1R8 (96.8% EHI at 3.0 mg/mL). Chemical analysis of the BcC1R4 fraction allowed the identification of the major active compound, isokaempferide (1, 98.06% EHI at 1 mg/mL). While, 4,5-di-O-acid caffeoylquinic (3; 96.8% EHI at 3 mg/mL) and an inactive flavone (vicenin-2, 2) were identified as the main compounds in BcC1R8. Chemical characterisation of the isolated compounds was performed via spectroscopic (NMR) and spectrometric (UPLC-MS) analyses. Additionally, the environmental and confocal scanning microscopy analyses revealed that isokaempferide was able to cross the eggshell layer without breaking it and attach itself to the embryo, causing its death. The flavonol, isokaempferide, and the hydroxycinamic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic, displayed powerful ovicidal effects, proving to be a potential alternative for the development of a phytodrug for the control of haemonchosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Baccharis/química , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Baccharis/ultraestrutura , Bioensaio , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/ultraestrutura , México , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
16.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(17): 2521-2525, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527950

RESUMO

The aerial parts of Baccharis dracunculifolia (BdE) is used in the Brazilian folk medicine to treat inflammatory conditions. Here we examined the ability of free and liposomal BdE to modulate reactive oxygen species generation in human neutrophils in vitro and zymosan-induced acute joint inflammation in Wistar rats. We prepared biocompatible liposomes of soya phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol with low diameter, homogeneous size distribution, and neutral surface charge. Free BdE decreased joint swelling, total leucocyte and neutrophil infiltration, and the synovial levels of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukins 6 and 1ß. Incorporation of BdE into liposomes preserved its capacity to inhibit the neutrophil superoxide anion and total reactive oxygen species generation, and improved its anti-inflammatory effect in vivo by decreasing the effective BdE dose by nearly sixfold. The same liposome type lowered the effective dose of caffeic acid by nearly sixteenfold. Therefore, incorporation of BdE into phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol liposomes improves its anti-inflammatory effect.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Baccharis/química , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Brasil , Ácidos Cafeicos/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Colesterol/metabolismo , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
17.
Ecology ; 99(12): 2731-2739, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508249

RESUMO

Plants are able to adjust their anti-herbivore defenses in response to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by herbivore-damaged neighbors, and some of these changes increase resistance against subsequent herbivory. This phenomenon of plant-plant communication is thought to be widespread, but recent investigations have cautioned that it can be context dependent, including variation in the strength of communication based on the identity of plants and their associated herbivores. Here, we performed three greenhouse experiments using multiple male and female genotypes of the dioecious woody shrub Baccharis salicifolia and its specialist aphid Uroleucon macolai to test for specificity of plant-plant communication with respect to plant sex and genotype. Moreover, we evaluated plant sexual dimorphism and genotypic variation in VOC emissions (i.e., the "speaking" side of the interaction) and response of plants to VOC exposure (i.e., the "listening" side of the interaction) in order to identify the chemical mechanisms underlying such specificity. We did not find genotypic specificity of communication; emitter plants damaged by U. macolai significantly reduced subsequent U. macolai performance on receivers, but these effects were indistinguishable for communication within vs. among genotypes. In contrast, we found sex specificity of communication; male emitter plants reduced subsequent U. macolai performance on male and female receiver plants equally, while female emitter plants only did so for female receivers. We found sexual (but not genotypic) dimorphism in speaking but not listening; of the seven compounds induced by U. macolai feeding (speaking), pinocarvone was approximately fivefold greater in female than in male plants, while exposure of plants to pinocarvone emissions (listening) reduced U. macolai performance equally in both male and female plants. Together, our study demonstrates novel evidence for sexually dimorphic specificity of plant-plant communication and the chemical mechanism underlying this effect.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Baccharis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Herbivoria , Masculino , Plantas
18.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204380, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303990

RESUMO

There is a need to develop effective techniques for establishing native vegetation in dryland ecosystems. We developed a novel treatment that primes (hydrates) seeds in a matrix of absorbent materials and bio-stimulants and then forms the mixture into pods for planting. In the development process, we determined optimal conditions for priming seeds and then compared seedling emergence from non-treated seeds, non-primed-seed pods, and primed-seed pods. Emergence trials were conducted on soils collected from a hillslope and ridgetop location on the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, USA. Poa fendleriana and Pseudoroegneria spicata were used as test species. Seeds were primed from -0.5 to -2.5 MPa for up to 12 d. Seeds primed under drier conditions (-1.5 to -2.5 MPa) tended to have quicker germination. Days to 50% emergence for primed-seed pods was between 66.2 to 82.4% faster (5.2 to 14.5 d fewer) than non-treated seeds. Seedling emergence from primed-seed pods for P. fendleriana was 3.8-fold higher than non-treated seeds on the ridgetop soil, but no difference was found on the other soil. Final density of P. spicata primed-seed pods were 2.9 to 3.8-fold higher than non-treated seeds. Overall, primed-seed pods show promise for enhancing germination and seedling emergence, which could aid in native plant establishment.


Assuntos
Germinação , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Baccharis , Estações do Ano , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Fatores de Tempo , Água/análise
19.
Molecules ; 23(10)2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322067

RESUMO

This paper provides a comparative account of the essential oil chemical composition and biological activities of five Brazilian species of Baccharis (Asteraceae), namely B. microdonta, B. pauciflosculosa, B. punctulata, B. reticularioides, and B. sphenophylla. The chemical compositions of three species (B. pauciflosculosa, B. reticularioides, and B. sphenophylla) are reported for the first time. Analyses by GC/MS showed notable differences in the essential oil compositions of the five species. α-Pinene was observed in the highest concentration (24.50%) in B. reticularioides. Other major compounds included α-bisabolol (23.63%) in B. punctulata, spathulenol (24.74%) and kongol (22.22%) in B. microdonta, ß-pinene (18.33%) and limonene (18.77%) in B. pauciflosculosa, and ß-pinene (15.24%), limonene (14.33%), and spathulenol (13.15%) in B. sphenophylla. In vitro analyses for antimalarial, antitrypanosomal, and insecticidal activities were conducted for all of the species. B. microdonta and B. reticularioides showed good antitrypanosomal activities; B. sphenophylla showed insecticidal activities in fumigation bioassay against bed bugs; and B. pauciflosculosa, B. reticularioides, and B. sphenophylla exhibited moderate antimalarial activities. B. microdonta and B. punctulata showed cytotoxicity. The leaves and stems of all five species showed glandular trichomes and ducts as secretory structures. DNA barcoding successfully determined the main DNA sequences of the investigated species and enabled authenticating them.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/química , Baccharis/classificação , Inseticidas/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Tripanossomicidas/química , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Baccharis/química , Baccharis/genética , Percevejos-de-Cama/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/química , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Limoneno/química , Limoneno/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia
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