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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 314: 123699, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599526

RESUMO

In this study, pyrolysis kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of Safflower residues (SR) obtained from oil extraction were investigated by using TG/DSC-FTIR and py-GC/MS. Thermal analysis was performed from ambient temperature to 750 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The first-order reaction kinetics model was applied to thermal analysis data to determine apparent kinetic parameters. Activation energy and pre-exponential factor were calculated as 76.60 kJ.mol-1 and 1.89x106 min-1, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters such as the change in Gibb's free energy, the difference in enthalpy and the entropy change were calculated to be 201.36 kJ mol-1, 71.79 kJ mol-1, and -0.196 kJ mol-1, respectively. TG/FTIR analysis revealed that CO2, C6H5OH, and CC functional group as the main pyrolysis gas products. According to Py-GC/MS results of SR, the presence of high energy-containing compounds among the pyrolysis products was proved. All these results show that SR is suitable for pyrolysis to produce biofuel and/or chemicals.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius , Pirólise , Cinética , Sementes , Termodinâmica , Termogravimetria
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110853, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563160

RESUMO

The phytotoxicity caused by 500 µM ZnSO4.7H2O and its detoxifying by co-application of 100 µM of MT melatonin (MT) and glutathione (GSH) in 6-week-old safflower plants have been investigated. Reduced biomass production and total chlorophyll content on the one hand and increased content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) with increase in lipoxygenase activity, on the other hand, showed Zn- induced oxidative damage in safflower seedlings. When MT, GSH and especially MT + GSH exogenously were applied to Zn-stressed seedlings, the content of H2O2, MDA and the activity of lipoxygenase considerably decreased. In Zn- treated seedlings, the application of these signaling molecules led to a considerable increment in ascorbate (ASC), GSH and phytochelatin (PC) contents along with the induction of activity of antioxidant enzymes including ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes when compared with the plants stressed with Zn only. In Zn-stressed safflower seedlings treated with MT, GSH and MT + GSH, decreased activity of enzymes involved in glyoxalase system may be associated with the role of MT and GSH in reducing Zn uptake and reducing Zn-induced toxicity and subsequently, lower plant's defense responses. The data showed that the effects of MT and GSH, in particular, the combination of these two molecules in reducing Zn uptake and diminishing its accumulation in the shoots of safflower seedlings, and also the participation of MT and GSH on increasing plant ability to tolerate high amount of Zn through stimulation of various antioxidant defense systems suggest them as suitable candidates to better the survival of safflower in soils contaminated with Zn excess.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carthamus tinctorius/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/farmacologia , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Carthamus tinctorius/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carthamus tinctorius/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 164: 149-155, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284121

RESUMO

Productivity of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is markedly reduced by salt stress. This study is based on analysis of proteins profile of safflower plants treated with 200 mM NaCl, with exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) and penconazole (PEN), as growth regulators. Plants were investigated through a gel-based proteomic approach, which resulted in the identification of 17 salt-responsive proteins related to different metabolic modifications. Of these, seven different proteins were up or down regulated by both SA and PEN, suggesting the synergistic and antagonistic effects of SA and PEN. The classification of differentially expressed proteins showed that salt-responsive proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, ion homeostasis, and oxidative stress response, as well as nitrogen, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism. The identified stress-responsive proteins in this study could pave the way to develop salt tolerance in safflower, thus sustaining its productivity under salinity. In addition, SA and PEN may be considered as a foliar application to ameliorate salinity effects, due to their low price and availability.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius , Plântula , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteômica , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Estresse Fisiológico
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228850, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069300

RESUMO

Environmental stresses influence the growth and development of plants by influencing patterns of gene expression. Different regulators control gene expression, including transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs: ~21 nucleotides long) are encoded by miRNA genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II (RNP-II) and play key roles in plant development and physiology. There is little knowledge currently available on miRNAs and their function in response to environmental stresses in safflower. To obtain more information on safflower miRNAs, we initially used a comparative genomics approach and succeeded in identifying 126 miRNAs belonging to 29 conserved families, along with their target genes. In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of seven conserved miRNAs related to drought, salinity, heat, and Cd stress in the leaf and root organs using qRT-PCR, for the first time. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis found that target genes of miRNAs are often TFs such as AP2/ERF and HD-ZIP as well as NAC domain-containing proteins. Expression analyses confirmed that miRNAs can play a vital role in keeping safflower stress-tolerant. Differential expression of miR156, miR162, miR164, miR166, miR172, miR398, and miR408 regulate the expression of their respective target genes. These genes activate several pathways leading to physiological and biochemical responses to abiotic stresses. Some conserved miRNAs were regulated by abiotic stresses. Our finding provides valuable information to understand miRNAs in relation to different abiotic stresses in safflower.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Carthamus tinctorius/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carthamus tinctorius/metabolismo , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Temperatura Alta , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Salinidade , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
5.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(2): 145-151, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714667

RESUMO

The use of herbs as alternative cardiovascular disease treatment has attracted a great deal of attention owing to their lower toxicity. Whether Carthamus tinctorius extract prevent cardiomyoblast cell hypertrophy remains unclear. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of C tinctorius extract (CTF) on rat cardiomyoblast cell H9c2 and the possible molecular mechanisms. H9c2 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2 µg/mL) for 12 hours, subsequently treated with CTF (1-25 µg/mL) The incubation continued for another 24 hours, and the cells were analyzed with actin staining assay, western blot analysis, and siRNA transfection assays. In the present study, the increased cell size induced by LPS was significantly decreased by pretreating at a concentration of 1-25 µg/mL CTF. It was found that CTF could inhibit cardiac hypertrophy induced by LPS and decrease hypertrophic proteins calcineurin, p-GATA-4, GATA-4, atrial natriuretic peptide, and B-type natriuretic peptide levels in H9c2 cells. Additionally, LPS-induced insulin-like growth factor-II receptor (IGF-IIR) hypertrophy pathway was downregulated by CTF. Moreover, IGF-IR siRNA or inhibitors both reversed the CTF effects, confirming that CTF activates IGF-1R to prevent LPS-induced H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell hypertrophy. The current findings indicate that CTF activates IGF-IR to inhibit IGF-IIR signaling pathway which resulted in reducing H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell hypertrophy induced by LPS.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Receptor IGF Tipo 2/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiomegalia/prevenção & controle , Tamanho Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/genética , Receptor IGF Tipo 2/genética , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(1): 108-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838660

RESUMO

Application of signaling molecules has gained immense importance in improving the phytoremediative capacity of plants. This study investigated the possible role of melatonin (MEL) as a signaling molecule in ameliorating lead (Pb)-induced oxidative injury in safflower seedlings. Pot grown 10-day-old safflower seedlings were exposed to 50 µM Pb (NO3)2 alone and in combination with different MEL concentrations (0-300 µM). Exposure to Pb, resulted in a severe oxidative stress, which was indicated by reducing biomass production and enhancing the level of oxidative stress markers (e.g. MDA and H2O2). Addition of exogenous MEL considerably decreased Pb uptake and its root-to-shoot translocation while, biomass production of roots, stems and leaves increased significantly. With MEL application a marked increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in leaves and roots was noted as compared with Pb treatment alone. In leaves the activity of enzymes involved in glyoxalase system increased markedly by adding MEL to Pb-sressed plants. In response to increasing MEL treatments, the phytochelatin content of leaves increased substantially in comparison with Pb treatment alone. These findings confirmed that MEL can alleviate Pb toxicity by reducing Pb uptake and its root-to-shoot translocation along with modulating different antioxidant systems. The results also showed that despite the insignificant effect of melatonin on the improvement of Pb phytoremediation potential, the application of this signaling molecule can improve the survival of safflower in Pb-contaminated soils by stimulating antioxidant defense mechanisms.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/fisiologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Melatonina/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Glutationa/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 171-179, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549205

RESUMO

Alternaria leaf spot (ALS) caused by Alternaria carthami Chowdhary is one of the major threats to the cultivation of safflower in the world. The pathogen is seed borne and requires early detection for restricting its transmission and proliferation. A PCR-based diagnostic assay was developed for easy, quick and reliable detection of A. carthami in infected seeds and leaf samples of safflower. A primer set, AcSPF and AcSPR was designed using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions of A. carthami that consistently produced a distinct amplicon of 340 bp with DNA extracted from thirty A. carthami isolates. The specificity of the primer was confirmed using strains of 26 other strains of Alternaria and four other fungal pathogens of safflower. The sensitivity of detection was further enhanced from concentration of 100 pg by simple PCR to as low as 10 pg fungal DNA by a nested PCR assay using ITS and AcSPF and AcSPR primers. The primer pair also facilitated detection of A. carthami in infected seeds and leaf samples. The study provides an accurate and sensitive diagnostic tool for detection of A. carthami.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Alternaria/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Carthamus tinctorius/microbiologia , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Sementes/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112284, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604137

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Herb pair, the most fundamental and simplest form of herb compatibility, serves as the basic building block of traditional Chinese medicine formulae. The Danshen-Honghua herb pair (DH), composed of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen in Chinese) and Carthami Flos (Honghua in Chinese), has remarkable clinical efficacy to cure cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. This study was designed to investigate the pharmacodynamics of DH in comparison with single herbs and pharmacokinetics of DH relative to Danshen in acute myocardial ischemic injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into control, model and drug treated groups. The acute myocardial ischemia rat model was induced by administering 85 mg/kg/d isoproterenol (ISO) subcutaneously for two consecutive days. For pharmacodynamic study, histopathological and biochemical analysis were performed to assess the anti-myocardial ischemic effects. While for pharmacokinetic study, a UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for determination of nine main active ingredients, namely danshensu, protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, caffeic acid, lithospermic acid, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A and salvianolic acid C in rat plasma. RESULTS: The histopathological and biochemical analysis revealed that DH exerted enhanced anti-myocardial ischemic effects against the ISO-induced myocardial ischemia compared with single herbs. The pharmacokinetic study indicated that DH could significantly increase the t1/2z of danshensu, Tmax, AUC0-∞ and MRT0-t of protocatechuic acid in comparison with Danshen alone in normal rats, but more importantly elevate systemic exposure level and prolong t1/2z of protocatechualdehyde, caffeic acid, Tmax of danshensu in acute myocardial ischemia rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated the greater effects of DH after the compatibility in ISO-induced acute myocardial ischemia rats at pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic levels and provided valuable information for clinical application of herb pairs.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Carthamus tinctorius , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Isoproterenol/toxicidade , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Ratos
9.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 178: 112936, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672581

RESUMO

The combination of notoginseng total saponins (NS) and safflower total flavonoids (SF), namely CNS, presents a synergistic protection effect on the myocardial ischemia rats. The aim of this study was to find the clues for their synergistic actions by comparing the biliary metabolism and excretion profiles after oral administration of CNS and its individual extracts. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTRAP-MS/MS) platform was used to identify and quantify the CNS-derived components in bile. The neutral losses, precursor ions, and predictive multiple reaction monitoring (pMRM) scans were firstly used to detect the CNS-derived ingredients in vivo. A total of 43 components, including 38 flavonoids and 5 ginsenosides were tentatively identified according to the previously established chemical and metabolic profiles of NS and SF. Afterwards, the primary circulating and biological components, hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), ginsenosides Rg1 (GRg1), Re (GRe), and Rd (GRd) were chosen to compare the bile excretion between CNS and its individual extract groups, by using a validated LC-MRM-MS/MS method. The approach was proved to be well satisfied the related requirements from the guidelines of FDA (specificity, calibration curve, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect, recovery, and stability). Comparing with the SF and NS groups, the combination group did not affect the metabolic pathways of the CNS-related components, however, it decreased the cumulative excretion ratios of HSYA, GRg1, GRe, and GRd. In conclusion, the compatibility of SF and NS could reduce the bile excretion of the CNS-derived compounds, which may be one of the reasons for the enhancement of anti-myocardial ischemia after combination.


Assuntos
Bile/metabolismo , Carthamus tinctorius/química , Flavonoides/química , Panax notoginseng/química , Saponinas/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Ginsenosídeos/química , Masculino , Metaboloma , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
10.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(4): 351-354, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the preventive and therapeutic effects of safflower water extract on systemic scleroderma (SSc) in mice and its mechanism. METHODS: Sixty BALB/C mice were randomly divided into the control group, model group, prednisone group and safflower low, middle, high dose groups, 10 mice in each group.The control group was injected with normal saline, and the other five groups were subcutaneously injected with bleomycin hydrochloride with 100 µl at the concentration of 200 µg /ml on the back, once a day for 28 days to establish the SSc models.At the same time, the control group and model group were treated with normal saline (10 ml/kg), the prednisone group was treated with prednisone 4.5 mg/kg (10 ml/kg), and the low, middle, and high dose safflower groups were treated with safflower at the doses of 1.5, 3, 6 g/kg (10 ml/kg), and all groups were treated for 28 days.After 28 days, all mice were decapitated. The blood samples and back skin of the BLM injection part were collected.After that, all the tissue slices were taken to measure the dermal thickness, and the content of hydroxyproline (HYP) in the skin tissues was detected by hydrolysis method.The contents of tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß ) in the skin tissues and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in serum were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the dermal thickness of the model group was increased(P<0.05), the contents of CTGF, TGF-ß and HYP in the skin tissues and the levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in the serum of the model group were increased(P<0.05); compared with the model group, the dermal thickness in the prednisone group and safflower groups was decreased (P<0.05), the levels of CTGF, TGF-ß and HYP in the skin tissues and the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in the prednisone group and safflower groups were decreased (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Safflower water extract can improve skin condition (or dermal thickness) in SSc mice, and its mechanism may be related to reducing immune inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bleomicina , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hidroxiprolina/análise , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Distribuição Aleatória , Pele/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635425

RESUMO

When the imagination conjures up an image of an Egyptian mummy, it is normally one of a human body wrapped with undyed linen bandages. However, the reality was much more colourful, as shown by the set of red mummy shrouds and textile fragments from Pharaonic Egypt considered in this work. The textiles were subjected to scientific investigation with the main aim of shedding light on the sources of red colour and on the possible reasons for the different levels of colour fading. The red colourants were investigated using various non-invasive and micro-invasive approaches. The results pointed towards the presence of three sources of red colour, which, in increasing order of lightfastness, are safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), madder (Rubia spp.), and red ochre. Micro-morphological observations and elemental analyses also enabled some hypotheses to be formulated regarding the application of these colourants to the textiles. The results not only deepen our knowledge of dyeing technologies in ancient Egypt and shed new light on the function of red shrouds and textiles as part of the funerary practices of Pharaonic Egypt, but are also essential in planning the display and future preservation of these mummies and their associated textiles.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/química , Corantes/análise , Rubia/química , Têxteis/história , Argila/química , Corantes/classificação , Antigo Egito , História Antiga , Humanos , Múmias , Têxteis/análise
12.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(11): 1099-1104, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611512

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different extraction solvents (petroleum benzene, hexane, diethyl ether and acetone) and extraction methods (hot and cold) on oil yield of safflower seeds and its fatty acid compositions. Oil contents of safflower seeds extracted by hot extraction system were changed between 37.40% (acetone) and 39.53% (petroleum benzene), while that of cold extraction was varied between 39.96% (petroleum benzene) and 39.40% (diethyl ether). Regarding the extraction solvents, the highest oil yield (39.53%) was obtained with petroleum benzene, while the minimum value (37.40%) was found with acetone under hot extraction condition. The main fatty acids observed in all extracted oil samples were linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids. Oleic acid contents of safflower oils extracted by hot extraction system was ranged between 41.20% (acetone) and 42.54% (hexane), its content in oils obtained by cold extraction method was varied between 40.58% (acetone) and 42.10% (hexane and diethyl ether). Linoleic content of safflower oil extracted by hot extraction system was found between 48.23% (acetone) and 49.62% (hexane), while that oil extracted by cold method range from 48.07 (hexane) to 49.09% (acetone). The fatty acid composition of safflower seeds oil showed significant (p < 0.05) differences depending on solvent type and extraction method. The results of this study provide relevant information that can be used to improve organic solvent extraction processes of vegetable oil.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Óleo de Cártamo/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Solventes , Acetona , Benzeno , Temperatura Baixa , Éter , Temperatura Alta , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácido Linoleico/isolamento & purificação , Organofosfatos , Ácidos Palmíticos/análise , Ácidos Palmíticos/isolamento & purificação , Petróleo , Óleo de Cártamo/química
13.
Environ Toxicol ; 34(12): 1320-1328, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486215

RESUMO

Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae) is used in Chinese medicine to treat heart disease and inflammation. In our previous study, we found that C. tinctorius L. inhibited lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) activation, JNK expression, and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. The present study was performed to investigate the protective effect of C. tinctorius extract (CTF) on LPS-challenged H9c2 myocardioblast cell and to explore the possible underlying mechanism. Cell viability assay showed that LPS treatment decreased the cell viability of H9c2 cell, whereas CTF treatment reversed LPS cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, especially in the LPS + CTF 25 (µg/mL) group. LPS treatment-induced apoptosis was determined by transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, and by Western blot. LPS-induced apoptotic bodies were decreased following CTF treatment. Expression of TNF-α, FAS-L, FAS, FADD, caspase-8, BID, and t-BID was significantly increased in LPS-treated H9c2 cells. In contrast, it was significantly suppressed by the administration of CTF extract. In addition, CTF treatment activates antiapoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and p-Bad, and downregulates Bax, cytochrome-c, caspase-9, caspase-3, and apoptosis-inducing factor expression. Furthermore, CTF exerted cytoprotective effects by activating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling pathway leading to downregulation of the apoptotic proteins involved in FAS death receptor pathway. In addition, AG1024 and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) inhibitor and siRNA silencing reverses the effect of CTF implying that CTF functions through the IGF-IR pathway to inhibit LPS-induced H9c2 apoptosis. These results suggest that treatment with CTF extract prevented the LPS-induced apoptotic response through IGF-I pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carthamus tinctorius/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor fas/metabolismo , Animais , Carthamus tinctorius/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109268, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545239

RESUMO

Danshen (salvia miltiorrhiza) and honghua(Carthamus tinctorius) were traditional herb pair with promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis actions, in China. Both were widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) for hundreds years, especially shown definite advantage in the treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, the mechanism of danshen-honghua herb pair (DHHP) in the treatment of IHD was still unclear. This study was focused on examining the effects and possible mechanisms of DHHP in rats with acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol (ISO). The results suggested that DHHP significantly ameliorated the myocardial tissue abnormalities, notablely inhibited the elevation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinekinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin T (CTn-T) in plasma, obviously decreased the plasma levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α), outstandingly inhibited the reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) caused by ISO, significantly inhibited the high expression of Bcl-2 assaciated X protein (Bax) and nuclear transcriptionfactor-κBP65 (NF-κBP65) protein, significantly induced the low expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein in acute myocardial ischemia rats. DHHP can obviously ameliorate hemodynamic parameters. In summary, DHHP can significantly improve myocardial ischemia in acute myocardial ischemia model rats caused by ISO. Anti-free radicals, anti-peroxidation, inhibition of cell apoptosis and anti- inflammation maybe are the potential mechanisms of DHHP anti-myocardial ischemia in acute myocardial ischemia rats in duced by ISO.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Carthamus tinctorius , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Hemorreologia/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Isoproterenol , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/enzimologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Troponina T/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533325

RESUMO

In the present study, a new strategy including the combination of external appearance, chemical detection, and biological analysis was proposed for the comprehensive evaluation of safflowers in different producing areas. Firstly, 40 batches of safflower samples were classified into class I and II based on color measurements and K-means clustering analysis. Secondly, a rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 16 chromaticity-related characteristic components (including characteristic components hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, safflomin C, and another 13 flavonoid glycosides) in safflowers by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTRAP®/MS2). The results of the quantification indicate that hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, kaempferol, quercetin, and safflomin C had significant differences between the two types of safflower, and class I of safflower had a higher content of hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, and safflomin C as the main anti-thrombotic components in safflower. Thirdly, chemometrics methods were employed to illustrate the relationship in multivariate data of color measurements and chromaticity-related characteristic components. As a result, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-ß-d-glucoside were strongly associated with the color indicators. Finally, anti-thrombotic analysis was used to evaluate activity and verify the suitability of the classification basis of safflower based on the color measurements. It was shown that brighter, redder, yellower, more orange-yellow, and more vivid safflowers divided into class I had a higher content of characteristic components and better anti-thrombotic activity. In summary, the presented strategy has potential for quality evaluation of other flower medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Carthamus tinctorius/classificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibrinolíticos/química , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Geografia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(7): 506-516, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514982

RESUMO

MSC transplantation has been explored as a new clinical approach to stem cell-based therapies for bone diseases in regenerative medicine due to their osteogenic capability. However, only a small population of implanted MSC could successfully reach the injured areas. Therefore, enhancing MSC migration could be a beneficial strategy to improve the therapeutic potential of cell transplantation. Catharmus tinctorius volatile oil (CTVO) was found to facilitate MSC migration. Further exploration of the underlying molecular mechanism participating in the pro-migratory ability may provide a novel strategy to improve MSC transplantation efficacy. This study indicated that CTVO promotes MSC migration through enhancing ROCK2 mRNA and protein expressions. MSC migration induced by CTVO was blunted by ROCK2 inhibitor, which also decreased myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Meanwhile, the siRNA for ROCK2 inhibited the effect of CTVO on MSC migration ability and attenuated MLC phosphorylation, suggesting that CTVO may promote BMSC migration via the ROCK2/MLC signaling. Taken together, this study indicates that C. tinctorius volatile oil could enhance MSC migration via ROCK2/MLC signaling in vitro. C. tinctorius volatile oil-targeted therapy could be a beneficial strategy to improve the therapeutic potential of cell transplantation for bone diseases in regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/química , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/genética , Óleos Voláteis/química , Fosforilação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Associadas a rho/genética
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561549

RESUMO

Flavonoids are mainly associated with growth, development, and responses to diverse abiotic stresses in plants. A growing amount of data have demonstrated the biosynthesis of flavonoids through multienzyme complexes of which the membrane-bounded cytochrome P450 supergene family shares a crucial part. However, the explicit regulation mechanism of Cytochrome P450s related to flavonoid biosynthesis largely remains elusive. In the present study, we reported the identification of a stress-tolerant flavonoid biosynthetic CtCYP82G24 gene from Carthamus tinctorius. The transient transformation of CtCYP82G24 determined the subcellular localization to the cytosol. Heterologously expressed CtCYP82G24 was effective to catalyze the substrate-specific conversion, promoting the de novo biosynthesis of flavonoids in vitro. Furthermore, a qRT-PCR assay and the accumulation of metabolites demonstrated that the expression of CtCYP82G24 was effectively induced by Polyethylene glycol stress in transgenic Arabidopsis. In addition, the overexpression of CtCYP82G24 could also trigger expression levels of several other flavonoid biosynthetic genes in transgenic plants. Taken together, our findings suggest that CtCYP82G24 overexpression plays a decisive regulatory role in PEG-induced osmotic stress tolerance and alleviates flavonoid accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Pressão Osmótica , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Carthamus tinctorius/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 376, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a traditional Chinese herb, safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is valued for its florets to prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Basing on previous chemical analysis, the main active compounds are flavonoids in its florets. Although flavonoid biosynthetic pathway has been well-documented in many model species, unique biosynthetic pathway remains to be explored in safflower. Of note, as an important class of transitional enzymes, chalcone isomerase (CHI) has not been characterized in safflower. RESULTS: According to our previous research, CHIs were identified in a safflower transcriptome library built by our lab. To characterize CHI in safflower, a CHI gene named CtCHI1 was identified. A multiple sequences alignment and phylogenetic tree demonstrate that CtCHI1 shares 92% amino acid identity and close relationship with CHI to Saussurea medusa. Additionally, subcellular localization analysis indicated CtCHI1-GFP fusion protein was mainly in the cell nucleus. Further, we purified CtCHI1 protein from E. coli which can effectively catalyze isomerization of 2',4',4,6'-tetrahydroxychalcone into naringenin in vitro. Via genetic engineer technology, we successfully obtained transgenic tobacco and safflower lines. In transgenic tobacco, overexpression of CtCHI1 significantly inhibited main secondary metabolites accumulation, including quercetin (~ 79.63% for ovx-5 line) and anthocyanins (~ 64.55% for ovx-15 line). As shown in transgenic safflower, overexpression of CtCHI1 resulted in upstream genes CtPAL3 and CtC4H1 increasing dramatically (up to ~ 3.9fold) while Ct4CL3, CtF3H and CtDFR2 were inhibited. Also, comparing the whole metabolomics database by PCA and PLS-DA between transgenic and control group, 788 potential differential metabolites were marked and most of them displayed up-regulated trends. In parallel, some isolated secondary metabolites, such as hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), rutin, kaempferol-3-O-ß-rutinoside and dihydrokaempferol, accumulated in transgenic safflower plants. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that CtCHI1 is an active, functional, catalytic protein. Moreover, CtCHI1 can negatively and competitively regulate anthocyanins and quercetin pathway branches in tobacco. By contrast, CtCHI1 can positively regulate flavonol and chalcone metabolic flow in safflower. This research provides some clues to understand CHI's differential biochemical functional characterization involving in flavonoid pathway. More molecular mechanisms of CHI remain to be explored in the near future.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/genética , Carthamus tinctorius/metabolismo , Liases Intramoleculares/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Vias Biossintéticas , Liases Intramoleculares/química , Liases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Alinhamento de Sequência
19.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 176: 112804, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408754

RESUMO

In the present study, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared and firstly applied to extract flavonoids from Safflower using ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), and DES2-UAE was selected as a green and efficient extraction method. The effects of extraction parameters on extraction efficiency (EE) of flavonoids were investigated by single-factor experiments and optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimal results were 56.37 mL/g liquid-solid ratio, 55.85 min extraction time, 41.44 °C extraction temperature and 188.55 W ultrasonic power, respectively. Under optimal extraction conditions, the highest EE of flavonoids (55.41 mg/g) was obtained. The verification experimental results were in good correlation with the predicted results. The adsorption and desorption experiments of flavonoids on five types of macroporous resins (NKA-2, AB-8, HPD-100, D-101 and S-8) were carried out, NKA-2 and S-8 showed higher adsorption/desorption capacities, successively followed by AB-8, D-101 and HPD-100. The adsorption behaviors were better explained by Langmuir isotherm model according to correlation coefficient on the basis of static adsorption test at different temperature. In conclusion, the developed DES2-UAE combined with macroporous resin enrichment can be an alternative method for the green and efficient extraction of bioactive flavonoids from plant materials.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/química , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Resinas Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Química Farmacêutica , Flavonoides/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Resinas Vegetais/química , Solventes/química
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