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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(11): 11958-11967, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983003

RESUMO

The development of "green" alternatives to chemical pesticides could play a crucial role in integrated pest management (IPM). Their use is considered either as a substitution for or in addition to hazardous synthetic products. We analysed the influence of three concentrations of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) essential oil (EO), previously characterised by GC-MS, on the survival and moulting of the 2nd instar and the nutritional indices of the 4th instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae. In a residual contact toxicity assessment, the exposure to tansy EO caused low mortality (< 10%) while larval development was significantly slowed down, i.e., the percentage of larvae that moulted into the 3rd instar was reduced. On the other hand, when tansy EO was incorporated into the diet (digestive toxicity assay), high mortality and a lack of moulting after 120 h of eating were recorded for the highest applied concentration of EO. During 48 h of feeding on EO-supplemented food at concentrations of 0.5 and 1% (v/v), the relative growth rate (RGR) of the 4th instar larvae significantly decreased, which can be explained by a significant reduction of the relative consumption rate (RCR) and significantly or marginally significantly lower efficiency of conversion of ingested food into insect biomass (ECI). Although the RCR was also reduced with the lowest applied EO concentration (0.1%), the ECI was not affected which meant the RGR was as high as it was for the control larvae. ECI changes, when two higher EO concentrations were applied, were due to a reduction in the efficiency of conversion of digested food into biomass (ECD), while approximate digestibility was unaffected by the presence of EO in the food. Our results on the significant negative effects of tansy EO on gypsy moth larval survival, development time, and nutritional physiology suggest that it could be considered in future designs for botanical insecticides for gypsy moth control.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Óleos Voláteis , Tanacetum , Animais , Larva , Óleos Vegetais
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 162: 105-112, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836045

RESUMO

Acrobasis advenella (Zinck.) is the most dangerous pest of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa [Michx.] Elliot). The aim of this study was to investigate the insecticidal activity of an essential oil from Tanacetum vulgare (L.) and its main components such as thujone, camphor, and borneol against A.advenella larvae. In addition, the effects of the oil and its main ingredients on the activity of catalase (CAT), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), and α- and ß-glucosidases, which are important antioxidants, detoxification enzymes, and digestive enzymes, were examined. Our study showed an increased mortality of larvae and a decrease in the percentage of pupation and emergence of A. advenella moths as well as their longevity. Moreover, we found a significant increase in catalase and polyphenol oxidase activity in larvae feeding on inflorescences treated with T. vulgare EO. The results showed a significant increase in peroxidase assay activity in insects feeding on plants treated with borneol and thujone. However, a significant decrease in peroxidase activity was noted after the use of T. vulgare essential oil. It was shown that the activity of α- and ß-glucosidase significantly decreased in larvae fed on inflorescences treated with the essential oil and all substances but the greatest decrease in the activity of α- and ß-glucosidase was shown in larvae after thujone treatment. The results suggest that T. vulgare essential oil and its compounds can be useful in protecting organic crops of black chokeberry.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Mariposas , Óleos Voláteis , Tanacetum , Animais , Larva
3.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res ; 25: 179-186, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND With the continued demand for new, effective, and safe endodontic therapies, the aim of this study was assessment of efficiency of the ethyl acetate (EthOAc) extract of Tanacetum vulgare (L.) against Candida albicans. MATERIAL AND METHODS The antifungal effectiveness of the EthOAc extract of T. vulgare was determined using the agar disk diffusion method. The inhibition zones induced by the EthOAc extract were compared after 5 minutes, 60 minutes, and 24 hours to those induced by standard solutions (2% chlorhexidine, saturated calcium hydroxide, and 2% sodium hypochlorite). Statistical analysis of the results was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS The inhibition zone of chlorhexidine against C. albicans was 30.3-19.3 mm, but in combination with EthOAc extract (100 mg/mL) of T. vulgare, this inhibition was from 32.7-30 mm, indicating that this combination exerted a marked synergistic effect against C. albicans. The inhibition zone of sodium hypochlorite (69.7-65 mm) was higher than the inhibition zone of EthOAc extract and chlorhexidine. The combination of EthOAc extract with sodium hypochlorite resulted in a loss of antifungal activity. Furthermore, the activity of the EthOAc extract against C. albicans was decreased after mixing the extract with dentine at a concentration of 25 mg/50 µL (30.3-20.7 mm). The EthOAc extract did not show a genotoxic effect on lymphocyte cells. CONCLUSIONS The EthOAc extract of T. vulgare may be a useful tool to discover natural bioactive agents that have antifungal activity against C. albicans and could be used as endodontic therapies.


Assuntos
Acetatos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tanacetum/química , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dentina/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutagênicos/toxicidade
4.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218569, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220147

RESUMO

Failures in control of tan spot of pyrethrum, caused by Didymella tanaceti, has been associated with decreased sensitivity within the pathogen population to the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide boscalid. Sequencing the SdhB, SdhC, and SdhD subunits of isolates with resistant and sensitive phenotypes identified 15 mutations, resulting in three amino acid substitutions in the SdhB (H277Y/R, I279V), six in the SdhC (S73P, G79R, H134R, H134Q, S135R and combined H134Q/S135R), and two in the SdhD (D112E, H122R). In vitro testing of their boscalid response and estimation of resistance factors (RF) identified isolates with wild-type (WT) Sdh genotypes were sensitive to boscalid. Isolates with SdhB-I279V, SdhC-H134Q and SdhD-D112E exhibited moderate resistance phenotypes (10 ≥ RF < 100) and isolates with SdhC-H134R exhibited very high resistance phenotypes (RF ≥ 1000). All other substitutions were associated with high resistance phenotypes (100 ≥ RF < 1000). High-resolution melt assays were designed and used to estimate the frequencies of substitutions in four field populations (n = 774) collected in August (pre-boscalid application) and November (post-boscalid application) 2012. The SdhB-H277Y, SdhC-H134R and SdhB-H277R genotypes were most frequently observed across populations at 56.7, 19.0, and 10.3%, respectively. In August 92.9% of D. tanaceti contained a substitution associated with decreased sensitivity. Following boscalid application, this increased to 98.9%, with no WT isolates detected in three fields. Overlaying previously obtained microsatellite and mating-type data revealed that all ten recurrent substitutions were associated with multiple genotypes. Thus, boscalid insensitivity in D. tanaceti appears widespread and not associated with clonal spread of a limited pool of individuals.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/toxicidade , Ascomicetos/genética , Compostos de Bifenilo/toxicidade , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Niacinamida/toxicidade , Tanacetum/microbiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217484, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163041

RESUMO

Inflorescence patterns of ultraviolet (UV) absorption and UV-reflection are attractive to many insect pollinators. To understand whether UV inflorescence cues affect the attraction of nectar-foraging mosquitoes, we worked with the common house mosquito, Culex pipiens and with two plant species exhibiting floral UV cues: the tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, and the common hawkweed Hieraciumm lachenalii. Electroretinograms revealed that Cx. pipiens eyes can sense UV wavelengths, with peak sensitivity at 335 nm. Behavioural bioassays divulged that UV inflorescence cues enhance the attractiveness of inflorescence odour. In the presence of natural floral odour, female Cx. pipiens were attracted to floral patterns of UV-absorption and UV-reflection but preferred uniformly UV-dark inflorescences. Moreover, Cx. pipiens females preferred UV-dark and black inflorescence models to UV-dark and yellow inflorescence models. With feathers and pelts of many avian and mammalian hosts also being UV-dark and dark-coloured, foraging Cx. pipiens females may respond to analogous visual cues when they seek nectar and vertebrate blood resources.


Assuntos
Culex/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos da radiação , Modelos Biológicos , Odorantes , Tanacetum/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Feminino
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1603: 355-360, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975527

RESUMO

Bioactive polyacetylenes in tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) root extract were separated by overpressured layer chromatography (OPLC) with better resolutions than achievable by capillary flow high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). OPLC enabled a longer development distance in a shorter time (16 cm, 7 min) in comparison to conventional HPTLC (7 cm, 16 min). OPLC separations on HPTLC plates with spherical particles resulted in higher resolutions than on such with irregular particles. A slight distortion of zones sometimes occurred that could be eliminated by sonication of the mobile phase through removal of the dissolved air. However, zone distortion did not diminish the meaning of the qualitative outcome. The combination of OPLC with direct bioautography and direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) led to the determination of the individual polyacetylenes responsible for the diverse effects. In each recorded mass spectrum, the basepeak was the respective protonated molecule. The assignments confirmed the results of a previous study, however, compounds TR5a (tetradeca-2,4,6-triine-8-en-12-one) and TR5b (trans-2-(2,4-hexadiynylidene)-1,6-dioxaspiro[4,5]dec-3-ene) that were not separable by HPTLC were partially separated by OPLC. Thus, it was proven that TR5b was not an oxidation product of TR5a and thus not formed as artefact during the HPTLC-DART-HRMS analysis, but originally present in the sample.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Pressão , Tanacetum/química
7.
Planta Med ; 85(5): 424-430, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620946

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation of extracts from flowers and aerial parts of Tanacetum sonbolii afforded 7 new germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones. The structures were established by a combination of 1- and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and electronic circular dichroism. The in vitro antiprotozoal activity of the compounds against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity against rat myoblast (L6) cells were determined. Compounds 4: and 5: showed IC50 values of 5.1 and 10.2 µM and selectivity indices of 3.9 and 4.0, respectively.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/farmacologia , Tanacetum/química , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Flores/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Lactonas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Mioblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Ratos , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química
8.
New Phytol ; 221(1): 503-514, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040116

RESUMO

Phloem sap quality can differ between and within plants, and affect the performance of aphids. In turn, aphid infestation may change the chemical composition and nutritional value of phloem sap. However, the effects of different aphid species on the overall phloem sap composition of distinct parts within plant individuals in relation to aphid performance remain unclear. To test the specificity of plant responses to aphids, we used two chemotypes of Tanacetum vulgare plants and placed the monophagous aphids Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria and Uroleucon tanaceti on different plant parts (stems close to the inflorescence, young and old leaves). Aphid population growth was determined and sugars, organic acids, amino acids and metabolic fingerprints of phloem exudates were analysed. Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria performed best on stems, whereas U. tanaceti performed best on old leaves, indicating differences in niche conformance. Aphid infestation led to distinct changes in the phloem exudate composition of distinct metabolite classes, differing particularly between plant parts but less between chemotypes. In summary, plant responses to aphids are highly specific for the chemotype, plant part, metabolite class and aphid species. These changes may indicate that aphids construct their own niche, optimizing the food quality on the plant parts they prefer.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Floema/química , Tanacetum/química , Tanacetum/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Exsudatos e Transudatos/química , Metaboloma , Floema/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta , Caules de Planta , Crescimento Demográfico , Especificidade da Espécie , Açúcares/análise
9.
Phytochemistry ; 159: 1-10, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530039

RESUMO

Intraspecific and intra-individual differences in emitted volatile compounds and in surface and phloem sap-related metabolites do not only affect host plant choice of monophagous aphids but may also guide them to the plant part that provides their ideal niche by maximising their fitness. However, little is known about the variation at these different plant appearance levels. We investigated the preferences of the monophagous aphid species Macrosiphoniella tancetaria and Uroleucon tanaceti for different plant parts (inflorescence stems, young and old leaves) of Tanacetum vulgare plants from two chemotypes, testing their reactions towards volatile, surface and phloem sap-related cues. Furthermore, we studied the variation in leaf glandular trichome density as well as in the composition of volatile, stored and phloem exudate-located specialised (secondary) plant compounds from the different plant parts of these chemotypes. Aphid species showed differences in their preferences. Aphids of M. tanacetaria had to assess the entire plant to choose the stem, whereas U. tanaceti only needed volatile cues to locate the old leaves, which are the plant parts representing their respective niches. Volatiles and stored metabolites varied in their composition and concentration between chemotypes. Stored metabolites additionally differed among plant parts, which was reflected in distinct trichome densities. The composition of phloem exudate-located specialised compounds mostly varied among plant parts. These pronounced differences in plant chemistry on multiple levels provide distinct perception levels for aphids probably driving their niche choice. This study demonstrates the importance to consider these multiple levels to elucidate plant-herbivore interactions with high resolution.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Floema/metabolismo , Tanacetum/metabolismo , Tanacetum/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Herbivoria , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo
10.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(12): 1787-1790, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405745

RESUMO

The composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Tanacetum walteri were studied. Aerial flowering parts of plant were collected from North Khorasan Province of Iran and the essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was determined by disc diffusion and MIC and MBC determination. Thirty-five compounds were identified in the oil of T. walteri accounting for 94.4% of the total oil. Thymol (22.5%), 1,8-cineole (8.2%), umbellulone (6.9%), α-bisabolol (6.3%) and camphor (5.3%) were as the principal constituents. The highest antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MIC value of 0.63 mg/mL. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil of T. walteri could be attributed mainly to the high levels of phenolic compound thymol and oxygenated terpenes in essential oil.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Tanacetum/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cânfora/análise , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Eucaliptol/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Irã (Geográfico) , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos , Monoterpenos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Timol/análise
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(9): 1379-1382, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768020

RESUMO

Chemical diversity of the essential oils of twenty wild populations of Tanacetum polycephalum Sch. Bip., was investigated. The aerial parts of T. polycephalum were collected at full flowering stage from West Azerbaijan Province of Iran, air-dried; hydrodistilled to produce essential oils. The essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of forty compounds were identified accounting for 96.4-99.9% of the total oils. The most principal compounds were cis-thujone (0-82.3%), trans-thujone (0-79.8%), camphor (1.3-75.0%), 1,8-cineole (4.5-43.3%), borneol (1.0-36.2%) and bornyl acetate (0-26.8%). Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the percentages (>0.5%) of the essential oils components was carried out to determine the chemical diversity among the populations studied. The cluster analysis resulted in the identification of four main chemotypes namely: 'camphor + 1,8-cineole', 'mixed', 'cis-thujone' and 'trans-thujone'.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Tanacetum/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Canfanos/análise , Cânfora/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Irã (Geográfico) , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise
12.
J Biotechnol ; 289: 7-14, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423368

RESUMO

The aims of this research were to obtain modified pectins of callus cultures using various culture conditions, to evaluate the relationship between the chemical characteristics of pectins, the swelling behavior and the release of prednisolone from calcium pectinate gel (CaPG) beads. An increase of the calcium concentration in the culture media correlated significantly with the rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) branching of the pectin. The beads from the pectin with a higher RG-I branching had the lower prednisolone release in a gastric fluid. The beads produced from the pectins obtained from callus cultured with a higher calcium concentration showed the lower prednisolone release. The swelling of the CaPG beads from pectin with a lower molecular weight (Mw) or linearity occurred to a lower degree. All beads prepared from modified pectins showed a high stability and a slow liberation of prednisolone in the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, whereas rapid drug release in a colonic fluid. An applied strategy involving modification of the pectic structure using the abiotic factors allows obtaining the pectic gels with modified functional properties, in particular, with enhanced gastric and small intestinal resistance and a low drug release. These CaPG beads can be applied as the carriers for colon delivery of the drugs.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Pectinas/química , Araceae , Cálcio/química , Meios de Cultura , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Suco Gástrico/química , Géis , Secreções Intestinais/química , Prednisolona/química , Tanacetum
13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4657, 2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405138

RESUMO

Guaianolides are an important class of sesquiterpene lactones with unique biological and pharmaceutical properties. They have been postulated to be derived from germacranolides, but for years no progress has been made in the elucidation of their biosynthesis that requires an unknown cyclization mechanism. Here we demonstrate the isolation and characterization of a cytochrome P450 from feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), kauniolide synthase. Kauniolide synthase catalyses the formation of the guaianolide kauniolide from the germacranolide substrate costunolide. Unlike most cytochrome P450s, kauniolide synthase combines stereoselective hydroxylation of costunolide at the C3 position, with water elimination, cyclization and regioselective deprotonation. This unique mechanism of action is supported by in silico modelling and docking experiments. The full kauniolide biosynthesis pathway is reconstructed in the heterologous hosts Nicotiana benthamiana and yeast, paving the way for biotechnological production of guaianolide-type sesquiterpene lactones.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Ciclização , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Hidroxilação , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Tanacetum/enzimologia , Tabaco/metabolismo
14.
Plant Cell Environ ; 41(12): 2791-2805, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30035804

RESUMO

It is well known that plant volatiles influence herbivores in their selection of a host plant; however, less is known about how the nonvolatile metabolome affects herbivore host selection. Metabolic diversity between intraspecific plants can be characterized using non-targeted mass spectrometry that gives us a snapshot overview of all metabolic processes occurring within a plant at a particular time. Here, we show that non-targeted metabolomics can be used to reveal links between intraspecific chemical diversity and ecological processes in tansy (Tanacetum vulgare). First, we show that tansy plants can be categorized into five subgroups based up on their metabolic profiles, and that these "metabotypes" influenced natural aphid colonization in the field. Second, this grouping was not due to induced metabolomic changes within the plant due to aphid feeding but rather resulted from constitutive differences in chemical diversity between plants. These findings highlight the importance of intraspecific chemical diversity within one plant population and provide the first report of a non-targeted metabolomic field study in chemical ecology.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Tanacetum/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Herbivoria , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
15.
Intervirology ; 61(1): 14-22, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone that is present in plants of the Tanacetum genus, for which many biological effects have already been reported, including antiherpetic activity. Although the effectiveness of parthenolide against Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has already been demonstrated, such findings are still controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the ways in which parthenolide exerts anti-HSV-1 activity. METHODS: The cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of parthenolide were determined by the MTT method and plaque reduction assay, respectively. The expression of cell and viral proteins during the treatment of infected cells was investigated by Western blot. RESULTS: Both strains of HSV-1 were sensitive to parthenolide, and parthenolide was active only after penetration of the virus into the host cell. The expression of p65 protein decreased, the expression of caspases 8 and 9 increased, and the expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 protein was altered in infected cells after parthenolide treatment, resulting in lower cell survival. The low expression of viral proteins gB, gD, and ICP0 confirmed the reduction of HSV-1 particle production. CONCLUSION: Parthenolide exerts anti-HSV-1 activity by impairing cell viability, which consequently interferes with the efficient infection and production of new viral particles.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Tanacetum/química , Animais , Caspases/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspases/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Humanos , NF-kappa B/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Células Vero , Proteínas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1543: 73-80, 2018 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499840

RESUMO

The knowledge about the activity of polyacetylenes was extended by their new acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antibacterial activity against plant pathogenic bacteria. For this discovery, an utmost streamlined workflow, which we consider to be of high potential in the field of natural product or superfood search was developed. It demonstrates the combined power of biological, biochemical and chemical fingerprints. Bioactive components of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) root extract were profiled and identified by high-performance thin-layer chromatography hyphenated with in situ effect-directed analysis, chemical derivatizations and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPTLC-UV/Vis/FLD-EDA-HRMS). The effect-directed profiling was performed using four bacterial bioassays including two plant pathogens, an antioxidant assay and acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory assays. The chromatographic, spectral and powerful mass spectrometric study of zones that exerted substantial antibacterial and/or antioxidant and/or acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects allowed these multi-potent zones to be identified as polyacetylenes. Five polyacetylene compounds were assigned to be 2-non-1-ene-3,5,7-triynyl-3-vinyl-oxirane, 2-(2,4-hexadiynylidene)-3,4-epoxy-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane, trans- and cis-2-(2,4-hexadiynylidene)-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]dec-3-ene and tetradeca-2,4,6-triine-8-en-12-one. This study clearly showed the advantage of the combined use of different ionization sources, i.e. electrospray ionization via an elution-head based interface and also the Direct Analysis in Real Time interface, for HRMS analysis of compounds from the same class with very similar chromatographic behavior and polarity.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Poli-Inos/farmacologia , Tanacetum/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
17.
Oecologia ; 186(1): 173-184, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143149

RESUMO

Plant chemistry is one of the main drivers of herbivore distribution. Monophagous herbivore species are highly specialized, but even within their only host species the chemistry varies. The herbivore's choice is initially mainly guided by volatile plant compounds. Once on the plant, particularly for aphids the phloem quality affects their performance. However, little is known about the intraspecific and intra-individual variation in phloem sap and their influences on monophagous aphids. To determine potential mechanisms involved in aphid colonization, we tested the effects of intraspecific chemical variation in Tanacetum vulgare, which produces different chemotypes, on the preference of two monophagous aphid species. Moreover, we measured the performance of the aphids on different plant parts (stem close to the inflorescence, young and old leaves) of these chemotypes and analyzed their phloem sap composition. Both species preferred the ß-thujone (THU) over the trans-carvyl acetate (CAR) chemotype in dual-choice assays. Survival of Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria was neither affected by intraspecific nor intra-individual variation, whereas the reproduction was highest on stems. In contrast, Uroleucon tanaceti survived and reproduced best on old leaves of the preferred chemotype. The sugar, organic acid and amino acid composition pronouncedly differed between phloem exudates of different plant parts, but less between chemotypes. Unexpectedly, high concentrations of amino acids did not necessarily enhance aphid performance. These different performance optima may cause niche differentiation and, therefore, enable co-existence. In conclusion, the tremendous variation in plant chemistry even within one species can affect the distribution of highly specialized aphids at various scales aphid species-specifically.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Tanacetum , Animais , Herbivoria , Individualidade , Floema
18.
Can Vet J ; 58(11): 1171-1175, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089653

RESUMO

Two pygmy goats from a herd of 3 animals in British Columbia died within 24 hours of exhibiting lethargy. Histopathology revealed liver failure and tansy ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris) was discovered in the goats' pasture. Goats are typically resistant to the toxic effects of tansy ragwort. This is the first report of presumed tansy ragwort toxicity in goats in North America.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Envenenamento/veterinária , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/envenenamento , Tanacetum/envenenamento , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Cabras , Envenenamento/diagnóstico
19.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 30(6): 2047-2052, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175772

RESUMO

In the present study hydrodistilled essential oil and total methanol extracts of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium have been evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. The chemical composition of the oil and the crude extract were determined by GC/FID, GC/MS and LC/DAD/ESI-MS systems respectively. ß-thujone (47.1%), α-pinene (19.1%) and α-thujone (10.5%) were the main compounds of the essential oil while the 5-Ocaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid were identified as flavonoid content of the crude extract. The oil and the methanol extract were demonstrated moderate antimicrobial effects (MIC range; 0,062-2,0 mg/mL) against 21 different pathogenic micro organism. Total phenolic content was determined as 63 mg GAE in g extract and the DPPH radical scavenging effect was determined as 0.16 mg/mL (IC50) and TEAC was determined as 0.21mMol.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tanacetum , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metanol/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Tanacetum/química
20.
Chemosphere ; 185: 1011-1018, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753902

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution is an important concern because of its potential to affect human health. This study was conducted to analyze plants growing on a landfill body and in its surroundings to determine their potential for heavy metal accumulation. In addition, the enrichment coefficient (EC) for the plant/soil system was used for determining the environmental contamination from a landfill in terms of heavy metal accumulation. The samples were taken in 2013-2014. Of the analyzed metals, iron achieved the highest values in the samples, i.e. - stalk (103.4-6564.6 mg/kg DM), roots (6563.6-33,036.6 mg/kg DM), leaf (535.1-11,275 mg/kg DM) and soil (12,389-39,381.9 mg/kg DM). The highest concentrations were determined in 2013 for Fe, Mn and Zn. Iron achieved the highest concentrations in the years 2013-2014. Next, EC values were then calculated, with the highest noted for Cd. Cd, as well as Cr, Ni and Zn are accumulated mostly in the leaves, whereas Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn and Pb are accumulated mainly in the roots of T. vulgare.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Tanacetum/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Ferro , Metais Pesados/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
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