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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3795, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732942

RESUMO

Angiosperms have become the dominant terrestrial plant group by diversifying for ~145 million years into a broad range of environments. During the course of evolution, numerous morphological innovations arose, often preceded by whole genome duplications (WGD). The mustard family (Brassicaceae), a successful angiosperm clade with ~4000 species, has been diversifying into many evolutionary lineages for more than 30 million years. Here we develop a species inventory, analyze morphological variation, and present a maternal, plastome-based genus-level phylogeny. We show that increased morphological disparity, despite an apparent absence of clade-specific morphological innovations, is found in tribes with WGDs or diversification rate shifts. Both are important processes in Brassicaceae, resulting in an overall high net diversification rate. Character states show frequent and independent gain and loss, and form varying combinations. Therefore, Brassicaceae pave the way to concepts of phylogenetic genome-wide association studies to analyze the evolution of morphological form and function.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Brassicaceae/classificação , Brassicaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Filogenia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4019, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782255

RESUMO

Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a genotype of producing different phenotypes when exposed to different environments, may impact ecological interactions. We study here how within-individual plasticity in Moricandia arvensis flowers modifies its pollination niche. During spring, this plant produces large, cross-shaped, UV-reflecting lilac flowers attracting mostly long-tongued large bees. However, unlike most co-occurring species, M. arvensis keeps flowering during the hot, dry summer due to its plasticity in key vegetative traits. Changes in temperature and photoperiod in summer trigger changes in gene expression and the production of small, rounded, UV-absorbing white flowers that attract a different assemblage of generalist pollinators. This shift in pollination niche potentially allows successful reproduction in harsh conditions, facilitating M. arvensis to face anthropogenic perturbations and climate change.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Ecossistema , Flores/fisiologia , Polinização , Animais , Abelhas , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estações do Ano
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104653, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828371

RESUMO

Descurainia sophia L. is one of the most notorious broadleaf weeds in winter wheat fields of China. In this study, 95 out of 163 (58.3%) D. sophia populations which were collected from provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Jiangsu, have evolved resistance to tribenuron-methyl. The als1 and als2 were cloned in all test D. sophia populations, while als3 and als4 were identified only in some of the populations. Resistant mutations of Pro-197-Ser/Thr/Leu/His/Ala/Arg, Asp-376-Glu and Trp-574-Leu were identified in tribenuron-methyl-resistant (TR) D. sophia plants, while the Pro-197-Arg was first identified in D. sophia in this study. These resistant mutations displayed no preference between ALS1 and ALS2. However, Pro-197-Ser/Thr and Trp-574-Leu were identified in all ALS isozymes, while the other mutations were not. In addition, some resistant mutations displayed regional differences, the frequency of Pro-197-Ser in Shandong and Trp-574-Leu in Shanxi province is much higher than that in other provinces.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase/genética , Brassicaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Sulfonatos de Arila , China , Resistência a Herbicidas , Isoenzimas/genética , Mutação
4.
Food Chem ; 328: 127149, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480264

RESUMO

A novel approach for the discrimination of different glucosinolates (sinigrin, progoitrin, gluconapin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, glucoiberin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoraphenin, and glucoerucin) using a colorimetric sensor array (CSA) is reported herein. The developed CSA technique exhibited an acceptable linearity (r2 ≥ 0.97) over a concentration range of 0-150 µM for the 10 glucosinolates. The CSA coupled with principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis correctly distinguished the majority of glucosinolate samples according to their type. In addition, the CSA coupled with linear discriminant analysis correctly classified the majority of 8 kinds of cruciferous vegetable samples with an overall accuracy of 94%. Furthermore, the partial least squares regression results showed that the CSA responses were correlated with the concentration in a correlation coefficient (Rp) range of 0.813-0.964. These results demonstrate that the described procedure based on the CSA technique could be useful for the rapid discrimination of different glucosinolates.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Colorimetria/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Glucosinolatos/análise , Colorimetria/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110784, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485494

RESUMO

Biscutella auriculata L. is one of the rare species that is able to grow in a very contaminated mining area in Villamayor de Calatrava (Ciudad Real, Spain). In an effort to understand the mechanisms involved in the tolerance of this plant to high metal concentrations, we grew B. auriculata in the presence of 125 µM Cd(NO3)2 for 15 days and analysed different parameters associated with plant growth, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species metabolism, metal uptake and translocation, photosynthesis rate and biothiol (glutathione and phytochelatins) content. Treatment with Cd led to growth inhibition in both the leaves and the roots, as well as a reduction of photosynthetic parameters, transpiration and stomatal conductance. The metal was mainly accumulated in the roots and in the vascular tissue, although most Cd was detected in areas surrounding their epidermal cells, while in the leaves the metal accumulated mainly in spongy mesophyll, stomata and trichrome. Based on the Cd bioaccumulation (5.93) and translocation (0.15) factors, this species denoted enrichment of the metal in the roots and its low translocation to the upper tissues. Biothiol analysis showed a Cd-dependent increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as the phytochelatins (PC2 and PC3) in both roots and leaves. Cd-promoted oxidative damage occurred mainly in the leaves due to disturbances in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, while the roots did not show significant damage as a result of induction of antioxidant defences. It can be concluded that B. auriculata is a new Cd-tolerant plant with an ability to activate efficient metal-sequestering mechanisms in the root surface and leaves and to induce PCs, as well as antioxidative defences in roots.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassicaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Espanha
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1927): 20200559, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396796

RESUMO

Coexistence results from a complex suite of past and contemporary processes including biogeographic history, adaptation, ecological interactions and reproductive dynamics. Here we explore drivers of local micro-parapatry in which two closely related and reproductively isolated Streptanthus species (jewelflower, Brassicaceae) inhabit continuous or adjacent habitat patches and occur within seed dispersal range, yet rarely overlap in fine-scale distribution. We find some evidence for abiotic niche partitioning and local adaptation, however differential survival across habitats cannot fully explain the scarcity of coexistence. Competition may also reduce the fitness of individuals migrating into occupied habitats, yet its effects are insufficient to drive competitive exclusion. Experimental migrants suffered reduced seed production and seed viability at sites occupied by heterospecifics, and we infer that heterospecific pollen transfer by shared pollinators contributes to wasted gametes when the two congeners come into contact. A minority disadvantage may reduce effective colonization of patches already occupied by heterospecifics, even when habitat patches are environmentally suitable. Differential adaptation and resource competition have often been evoked as primary drivers of habitat segregation in plants, yet negative reproductive interactions-including reproductive interference and decreased fecundity among low-frequency migrants-may also contribute to non-overlapping distributions of related species along local tension zones.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Pólen , Polinização , Reprodução , Dispersão de Sementes , Simpatria
7.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 30, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The wild radishes, Raphanus raphanistrum and R. pugioniformis (Brassicaceae) are native to the East Mediterranean region. However, whereas R. raphanistrum is widely distributed worldwide, the endemic R. pugioniformis is limited to specific habitats. In R. raphanistrum the diaspores of the indehiscent fruits comprise glabrous, light, single-seeded segments, whereas the intact fruits of R. pugioniformis are heavy and covered with spiny backward-pointing trichomes. We aimed to investigate whether the structure of the diaspores was directly associated with long- and short-range dispersal in R. raphanistrum and R. pugioniformis, respectively. We further surveyed within-population spatial distributions, to test the hypothesis that short- and long-range dispersal contribute to a patchy vs. uniform distribution patterns of R. pugioniformis and R. raphanistrum, respectively. RESULTS: The results indicated that dispersal by wind and run-off water was substantially lower for diaspores of R. pugioniformis than for those of R. raphanistrum diaspores. Supporting the hypothesis that backward-pointing trichomes promote adherence to soil particles, the displacement on soil surface of R. pugioniformis fruits depended on their orientation relative to wind direction. Furthermore, trichome removal from fruits of R. pugioniformis significantly reduced wind velocity needed to remove fruits that were placed on soils typical of the species' natural habitats. The spatial-distribution survey results indicated a patchy distribution of R. pugioniformis populations as compared with the more uniform arrangement in the studied populations of R. raphanistrum; consistent with the unidirectional vs. homogeneous wind dispersal of the respective diaspores, with respect to wind direction. In addition, R. pugioniformis population sizes changed less between years than those of R. raphanistrum. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results indicate that fruit structure is strongly linked to dispersal ability and spatial distribution of the two closely related wild radish species. Whereas R. raphanistrum inhabits homogenous sandy soil habitats, the distribution range of R. pugioniformis includes heterogeneous environments in which growth niches are scarcer. We suggest that the different modes of dispersal have evolved as adaptive traits appropriate to the species' specific habitats.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Raphanus , Dispersão de Sementes , Demografia , Sementes
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428039

RESUMO

Stress-associated proteins (SAPs) are favorable targets to improve stress tolerance in plants, owing to their roles in developmental processes and stress responses. However, the role of SAPs and the molecular mechanisms by which they regulate plant stress responses remain poorly understood. Previously, it was reported that LmSAP expression was upregulated by various abiotic stressors in Lobularia maritima, and that transgenic tobacco lines with constitutively expressed LmSAPΔA20 and LmSAPΔA20-ΔAN1 showed dwarf phenotypes due to the deficiency of cell elongation under salt and osmotic stresses. In this study, we examined the function of A20 domain in the GA pathway in response to abiotic stresses. Transient expression of acGFP-LmSAPΔA20 and acGFP-LmSAPΔA20-ΔAN1 in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that these fused proteins were localized in the nucleo-cytoplasm. However, the truncated form acGFP-LmSAPΔAN1 was localized in the nucleus. Moreover, comparison of native and truncated LmSAP showed dramatic structural changes caused by the deletion of the A20 domain, leading to loss of function and localization. Interestingly, overexpression LmSAP and truncated LmSAPΔAN1 led to up-regulation of GA biosynthetic genes and increased total gibberellins (GAs) content, corresponding with accelerated development in transgenic tobacco plants. Moreover, the dwarf phenotype of the transgenic lines that express LmSAPΔA20 and LmSAPΔA20-ΔAN1 under stress conditions was fully restored by the application of exogenous GA3. These findings improve our understanding of the role of LmSAP in regulating GA homeostasis, which is important for regulating plant development under abiotic stress conditions.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Homeostase , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Domínios Proteicos/fisiologia
9.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(9): 952-960, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293792

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), one of the most well-known nanomaterials, are regularly utilized in everyday consumer products. The present study aimed to investigate the testicular toxicity and oxidative stress by AgNPs and the therapeutic role of the rocket seeds (Eruca sativa) in treatments. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four equivalent groups (group 1, control; group 2, rocket seeds extract [RS]; group 3, AgNPs; group 4, AgNPs+RS). Our results showed that AgNPs induced a significant decrease in serum total testosterone, FSH (follicle-animating hormone), prolactin and LH (luteinizing hormone), testicular glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). In contrast, a significant increase in testicular DNA, injury, testicular thiobarbituric acid, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) expressions after treatments with AgNPs when contrasted with the control group. Treatments of AgNPs with rocket seeds extract (AgNPs+RS) improved testicular functions and structure. Rocket seeds extract might offer benefits against the toxic nature of AgNPs.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prata/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testículo/enzimologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 151: 362-368, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272354

RESUMO

Calcium is an essential element for plants' survival and ability to deal with environmental stresses. However, it can cause cell death due to cellular disequilibrium. Serpentine plants are sensitive to high concentrations of Ca2+, which induces lethal symptoms, especially under environmental stress. In this study, the direct effects of Ca2+ on cell death were investigated in cell cultures of Alyssum inflatum, a serpentine plant native to Western Iran, and results were compared to a non-serpentinitic congeneric species A. saxatile. The results were also compared to the effects of Mg2+ treatments in both species, as another determinative factor in serpentinite soil is high Mg2+ content. Plasma membrane permeability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) production were measured as physiological cell injury indices. In A. inflatum higher levels of ROS and MDA were observed in Ca2+-treated cells (5 mM or more), while in A. saxatile they were measured in Mg2+-treated cells (5 mM or more). In serpentine species, results indicated that cell death by Ca2+ was more intensive than the cell death by Mg2+, which were observed with less intensity in non-serpentine plants. Microscopic studies showed that cell death occurred via apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD). Therefore, Ca2+ sensitivity and AL-PCD as mechanistic reasons for their non-serpentine intolerance would be a crucial consideration in cellular researches concerning serpentine plants, which could be employed in green technologies such as phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Cálcio , Morte Celular , Técnicas de Cultura , Magnésio , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Magnésio/metabolismo , Solo/química
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0222687, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271752

RESUMO

The telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) is essential for genome stability and performs this role through the addition of repetitive DNA to the ends of chromosomes. The telomerase enzyme is composed of a reverse transcriptase (TERT), which utilizes a template domain in an RNA subunit (TER) to reiteratively add telomeric DNA at the ends of chromosomes. Multiple TERs have been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we combine a phylogenetic and biochemical approach to understand how the telomerase RNP has evolved in Brassicaceae, the family that includes A. thaliana. Because of the complex phylogenetic pattern of template domain loss and alteration at the previously characterized A. thaliana TER loci, TER1 and TER2, across the plant family Brassicaceae, we bred double mutants from plants with a template deletion at AtTER1 and T-DNA insertion at AtTER2. These double mutants exhibited no telomere length deficiency, a definitive indication that neither of these loci encode a functional telomerase RNA. Moreover, we determined that the telomerase components TERT, Dyskerin, and the KU heterodimer are under strong purifying selection, consistent with the idea that the TER with which they interact is also conserved. To test this hypothesis further, we analyzed the substrate specificity of telomerase from species across Brassicaceae and determined that telomerase from close relatives bind and extend substrates in a similar manner, supporting the idea that TERs in different species are highly similar to one another and are likely encoded from an orthologous locus. Lastly, TERT proteins from across Brassicaceae were able to complement loss of function tert mutants in vivo, indicating TERTs from other species have the ability to recognize the native TER of A. thaliana. Finally, we immunoprecipitated the telomerase complex and identified associated RNAs via RNA-seq. Using our evolutionary data we constrained our analyses to conserved RNAs within Brassicaceae that contained a template domain. These analyses revealed a highly expressed locus whose disruption by a T-DNA resulted in a telomeric phenotype similar to the loss of other telomerase core proteins, indicating that the RNA has an important function in telomere maintenance.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Telomerase/genética , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Seleção Genética
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 884-889, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237489

RESUMO

To establish a content determination method for quality control of the pieces and standard decoction of honey-fried Descurainiae Semen. Standard decoction of honey-fried Descurainiae Semen was prepared with standardized process, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector(HPLC-DAD) was used to detect its characteristic fingerprint and determine the content of quercetin-3-O-ß-D-glucose-7-O-ß-D-gentiobioside. In addition, the transfer rate, dry extract rate and pH value were calculated. The results showed that the established method had a high accuracy. The content of quercetin-3-O-ß-D-glucose-7-O-ß-D-gentiobioside in 13 batches of standard decoction was 0.03-0.12 mg·mL~(-1); the transfer rate was 13.4%-23.1%; the rate of extracts was 1.9%-5.5%, and the pH was between 5.4-5.9. The similarity coefficients were all greater than 0.85, indicating good homogeneity for the different batches of decoction. There were 7 common peaks in the characteristic chromatogram, one of which was quercetin-3-O-ß-D-glucose-7-O-ß-D-gentiobioside. In this paper, the established content determination and quality evaluation method for Descurainiae Semen pieces and decoction was simple, rapid and reproducible, providing reference for the quality control of honey-fried Descurainiae Semen pieces, standard decoction and its preparations.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Mel , Sementes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucosídeos/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Quercetina/análogos & derivados
13.
Gene ; 748: 144685, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334024

RESUMO

Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (Lhc) proteins comprise a plant-specific superfamily involved in photosynthesis and stress responses. Despite their importance, little is known in papaya (Carica papaya), an economically important tree fruit crop as well as a species close to the model plant arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This study reports a first genome-wide analysis of Lhc superfamily genes in papaya, and a total of 28 members that represent four defined families or 26 orthologous groups were identified from the papaya genome. The superfamily number is comparable to 28 or 27 reported in castor (Ricinus communis) and jatropha (Jatropha curcas), respectively, two Euphorbiaceous plants also without any recent whole-genome duplication (WGD), but relatively less than 35, 34, 32, 32, 37, 30 or 32 present in cassava (Manihot esculenta), arabidopsis, A. lyrata, A. halleri, Capsella rubella, C. grandiflora, and Eutrema salsugineum, respectively, representative species having experienced one or two recent WGDs. Local duplication was shown to play a predominant role in gene expansion in papaya, castor, and jatropha, which is only confined to the Lhcb1 group. By contrast, WGD plays a relatively more important role in cassava, arabidopsis, and other Brassicaceous plants. Further comparison of Brassicaceous plants revealed that loss of the SEP6 group in arabidopsis is lineage-specific, occurring sometime after papaya-arabidopsis divergence but before the radiation of Brassicaceous plants. Transcriptional profiling revealed a leaf-preferential expression pattern of most CpLhc superfamily genes and their transcript levels were markedly regulated by three abiotic stresses, i.e., mimicking drought, cold, and high salt. These findings not only facilitate further functional studies in papaya, but also improve our knowledge on lineage-specific evolution of this special gene superfamily in Brassicaceae.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/genética , Carica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação à Clorofila/genética , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1399-1405, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281354

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of water extracts of Orychophragmus violaceus seeds on liver injury induced by thioacetamide(TAA) in mice. ICR male mice were randomly divided into seven groups: normal group, model group, bicyclol positive control group(200 mg·kg~(-1)), Kuihua Hugan Tablets group(350 mg·kg~(-1)), O. violaceus seeds low-dose water extract group(125 mg·kg~(-1)), middle-dose water extract group(250 mg·kg~(-1)), and high-dose water extract group(500 mg·kg~(-1)). Intragastric administration was given in all groups at 0.02 mL·g~(-1) body weight, 1 time a day for continuous 4 days. One h after the administration on the 4 th day, the liver injury model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of TAA(100 mg·kg~(-1)). The mice were put to death 24 hours later. Blood and tissues were taken and organ indexes were calculated. The activities of ALT, AST and TBiL in serum were detected. The content of MDA, GSH and the activity of SOD, GSH-Px in liver homogenate were examined by colorimetry method. HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of liver tissues in mice. The protein expression levels of NF-κB p65, Keap-1, Nrf2, p-p38, p-JNK, p-ERK, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8 were detected by Western blot. The results showed that as compared with the model group, various O. violaceus seeds groups could significantly improve the pathological conditions of liver and reduce ALT, AST, TBiL activities in serum of mice with liver injury. In the high-dose group, the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and the content of GSH were significantly increased, while MDA content was sharply declined. Meanwhile, O. violaceus seeds extract down-regulated the expressions of Bax, Keap-1, p-p38, p-JNK, p-ERK, NF-κB p65, cleaved caspase-3 and up-regulated the expressions of Nrf2, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and caspase-8. In conclusion, O. violaceus seeds extract exhibited potent protective effect on liver injury induced by TAA in mice, and its mechanism may be related to down-regulating levels of Keap-1, up-regulating the expressions of Nrf2, inhibiting the expressions of p-p38, p-ERK and NF-κB p65 signaling pathway, and inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis by down-regulating the expressions of p-JNK and Bax and up-regulating the expressions of Bcl-2.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Apoptose , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais , Tioacetamida
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 150: 151-161, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142988

RESUMO

Brassica is one of the most economically important genus of the Brassicaceae family, encompassing several key crops like Brassica napus (cabbage) and broccoli (Brassica oleraceae var. italica). This family is well known for their high content of characteristic secondary metabolites such as glucosinolates (GLS) compounds, recognize for their beneficial health properties and role in plants defense. In this work, we have looked through gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of GLS, by combining genomic analysis with biochemical pathways and chemical diversity assessment. A total of 101 Brassicaceae genes involved in GLS biosynthesis were identified, using a multi-database approach. Through a UPGMA and PCA analysis on the 101 GLS genes recorded, revealed a separation between the genes mainly involved in GLS core structure synthesis and genes belonging to the CYP450s and MYBs gene families. After, a detailed phylogenetic analysis was conducted to better understand the disjunction of the aliphatic and indolic genes, by focusing on CYP79F1-F2 and CYP81F1-F4, respectively. Our results point to a recent diversification of the aliphatic CYP79F1 and F2 genes in Brassica crops, while for indolic genes an earliest diversification is observed for CYP81F1-F4 genes. Chemical diversity revealed that Brassica crops have distinct GLS chemo-profiles from other Brassicaceae genera; being highlighted the high contents of GLS found among the Diplotaxis species. Also, we have explored GLS-rich species as a new source of taxa with great agronomic potential, particularly in abiotic stress tolerance, namely Diplotaxis, the closest wild relatives of Brassica crops.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassicaceae , Glucosinolatos , Brassicaceae/química , Brassicaceae/classificação , Brassicaceae/genética , Variação Genética , Genômica , Glucosinolatos/química , Filogenia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1404, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179752

RESUMO

Selfing is a frequent evolutionary trend in angiosperms, and is a suitable model for studying the recurrent patterns underlying adaptive evolution. Many plants avoid self-fertilization by physiological processes referred to as self-incompatibility (SI). In the Brassicaceae, direct and specific interactions between the male ligand SP11/SCR and the female receptor kinase SRK are required for the SI response. Although Arabidopsis thaliana acquired autogamy through loss of these genes, molecular evolution contributed to the spread of self-compatibility alleles requires further investigation. We show here that in this species, dominant SRK silencing genes have evolved at least twice. Different inverted repeat sequences were found in the relic SRK region of the Col-0 and C24 strains. Both types of inverted repeats suppress the functional SRK sequence in a dominant fashion with different target specificities. It is possible that these dominant suppressors of SI contributed to the rapid fixation of self-compatibility in A. thaliana.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Alelos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
17.
Ann Bot ; 125(6): 993-1002, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Camelina (Camelina sativa, Brassicaceae) has attracted interest in recent years as a novel oilseed crop, and an increasing number of studies have sought to enhance camelina's yield potential or to modify the composition of its oil. The ability of camelina to cross-hybridize with its wild relative, C. microcarpa, is of interest as a potential source of genetic variability for the crop. METHODS: Manual crosses were performed between the crop C. sativa and its wild relative C. microcarpa; F1 and F2 progenies were obtained. Cytology was used to study meiosis in the parents and F1s and to evaluate pollen viability. Flow cytometry was used to estimate nuclear DNA amounts and fatty acid methyl ester analysis was used to evaluate the lipid composition of F3 seeds. KEY RESULTS: The F1 plants obtained by interspecific crossing presented severe abnormalities at meiosis and low pollen viability, and produced very few F2 seeds. The F2s presented diverse phenotypes and in some cases severe developmental abnormalities. Many F2s were aneuploid. The F2s produced highly variable numbers of F3 seeds, and certain F3 seeds presented atypical lipid profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the meiotic abnormalities observed and the probability of aneuploidy in the F2 plants, the C. microcarpa accessions used in this study would be difficult to use as sources of genetic variability for the crop.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/genética , Ácidos Graxos , Hibridização Genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes
18.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 114025, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004964

RESUMO

Odontarrhena muralis is one of the most promissing plant species for Ni phytomining, and soil amendments can further increase its Ni phytoextraction ability. Here we investigated whether Ni phytomining/phytoremediation using this Ni hyperaccumulator can benefit from applying citric acid to a serpentine soil that is naturally enriched in Ni (>1000 mg kg-1). Synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-SXRF) was used to image Ni and other metal distributions in whole fresh leaves of O. muralis. Leaf Ni accumulation in plants grown on citric acid-amended soil increased up to 55% while Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations were 4-, 14-, 6-, 7- and 1.3-fold higher than the control treatment. O. muralis presented high bioconcentration factors (leaf to soil concentration ratio) to Ni and Zn whereas Cr was seemingly excluded from uptake. The µ-SXRF images showed a uniform distribution of Ni, preferential localization of Co in the leaf tip, and clear concentration of Mn in the base of trichomes. The citric acid treatments strongly increased the Co fluoerescence intensity in the leaf tip and altered the spatial distribution of Mn across the leaf, but there was no difference in Ni fluorescence counts between the trichome-base region and the bulk leaf. Our data from a serpentine soil suggests that citrate treatment enhances Ni uptake, but Co is excreted from leaves even in low leaf concentrations, which can make Co phytoming using O. muralis unfeasible in natural serpentine soils.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Brassicaceae , Metais/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo , Ácido Cítrico , Metais Pesados , Níquel , Solo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3121-3131, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053364

RESUMO

A new method to simultaneously analyze various glucosinolates (GSLs) and isothiocyanates (ITCs) by reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for 14 GSLs and 15 ITCs. It involved derivatization of ITCs with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). The limits of detection were 0.4-1.6 µM for GSLs and 0.9-2.6 µM for NAC-ITCs. The analysis of Sinapis alba, Brassica napus, and Brassica juncea extracts spiked with 14 GSLs and 15 ITCs indicated that the method generally had good intraday (≤10% RSD) and interday precisions (≤16% RSD). Recovery of the method was unaffected by the extracts and within 71-110% for GSLs and 66-122% for NAC-ITCs. The method was able to monitor the enzymatic hydrolysis of standard GSLs to ITCs in mixtures. Furthermore, GSLs and ITCs were simultaneously determined in Brassicaceae plant extracts before and after myrosinase treatment. This method can be applied to further investigate the enzymatic conversion of GSLs to ITCs in complex mixtures.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glucosinolatos/química , Isotiocianatos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sinapis/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
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