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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(10): 11066-11078, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955333

RESUMO

To understand toxic effect of Zn oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Chenopodium murale, 40-day-old plants were exposed to 10, 50, and 250 mg L-1 of NPs using hydroponic system under controlled light and temperature conditions. Aboveground parts and roots were harvested 3 and 6 days after treatments and evaluated for some growth and biochemical indices. By increasing the concentration of ZnO NPs, the content of Zn increased in the roots more than the shoots. Our findings showed that all ZnO NPs treatments resulted in a decrease in growth, total chlorophyll content and soluble proteins, while the content of carotenoids, lipid peroxidation, leaf hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and leaf electrolyte leakage increased significantly compared with the control. These changes, along with increased proline content and catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the treated plants, suggest that all concentrations of ZnO NPs used in this study strongly induced oxidative stress. A decline in growth-related indicators can be considered as an indicator of ZnO NPs phytoxicity in C. murale. Based on the concentration of Zn dissolved in the solution, the effects of Zn released into the nutrient solution may be greatly involved in induction of toxicity and retardation of growth at least under our experimental conditions. The results of this study suggest that an important mechanism of ZnO NPs phytotoxicity may be the exacerbation of oxidative stress and damage to biomembranes.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Hidroponia , Estresse Oxidativo , Raízes de Plantas , Zinco
2.
Planta ; 250(6): 2111-2125, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584118

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Chenopodium ficifoliumflowered under long days despite much lower expression ofFLOWERING LOCUS Thomolog than under short days. Frequent duplications of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene across various taxonomic lineages resulted in FT paralogs with floral repressor function, whereas others duplicates maintained their floral-promoting role. The FT gene has been confirmed as the inducer of photoperiodic flowering in most angiosperms analyzed to date. We identified all FT homologs in the transcriptome of Chenopodium ficifolium and in the genome of Chenopodium suecicum, which are closely related to diploid progenitors of the tetraploid crop Chenopodium quinoa, and estimated their expression during photoperiodic floral induction. We found that expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T like 1 (FTL1), the ortholog of the sugar beet floral activator BvFT2, correlated with floral induction in C. suecicum and short-day C. ficifolium, but not with floral induction in C. ficifolium with accelerated flowering under long days. This C. ficifolium accession was induced to flowering without the concomitant upregulation of any FT homolog.


Assuntos
Chenopodium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chenopodium/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Magnoliopsida/genética , Regulação para Cima , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotoperíodo , Ativação Transcricional
3.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509964

RESUMO

Djulis is a cereal crop rich in polyphenols and dietary fiber that may have nutraceutical activity to prevent colon cancer. This study was designed to examine the preventive effect of djulis on colon carcinogenesis in rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Rats were fed different AIN-93G-based diets: groups N and DMH were fed AIN-93G diet and groups LD, MD, and HD were fed AIN-93G diet containing 5, 10, and 20% djulis, respectively. All rats except for group N were injected with DMH to induce colon carcinogenesis. After 10 weeks, rats were sacrificed and colon and liver tissues were collected for analysis. The results showed that djulis-treated rats had significantly lower numbers of colonic preneoplastic lesions, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), sialomucin-producing (SIM)-ACF, and mucin-depleted foci. Djulis treatment increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in colon and liver. Djulis also reduced p53, Bcl-2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expressions and increased Bax and caspase-9 expressions. Besides, phenolic compounds and flavonoids were found rich in djulis. These results demonstrate the chemopreventive effect of djulis on carcinogen-induced colon carcinogenesis via regulating antioxidative and apoptotic pathways in rats. Djulis may have the potential to be developed as a valuable cereal product for chemoprevention of colon cancer.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodium , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/prevenção & controle , 1,2-Dimetilidrazina , Ração Animal , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mucinas/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/induzido quimicamente , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/metabolismo , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Transdução de Sinais
4.
J Plant Res ; 132(6): 839-855, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473860

RESUMO

The Chenopodiaceae is one of the families including C4 species among eudicots. In this family, the genus Chenopodium is considered to include only C3 species. However, we report here a transition from C3 photosynthesis to proto-Kranz to C3-C4 intermediate type in Chenopodium. We investigated leaf anatomical and photosynthetic traits of 15 species, of which 8 species showed non-Kranz anatomy and a CO2 compensation point (Γ) typical of C3 plants. However, 5 species showed proto-Kranz anatomy and a C3-like Γ, whereas C. strictum showed leaf anatomy and a Γ typical of C3-C4 intermediates. Chenopodium album accessions examined included both proto-Kranz and C3-C4 intermediate types, depending on locality. Glycine decarboxylase, a key photorespiratory enzyme that is involved in the decarboxylation of glycine, was located predominantly in the mesophyll (M) cells of C3 species, in both M and bundle-sheath (BS) cells in proto-Kranz species, and exclusively in BS cells in C3-C4 intermediate species. The M/BS tissue area ratio, number of chloroplasts and mitochondria per BS cell, distribution of these organelles to the centripetal region of BS cells, the degree of inner positioning (vacuolar side of chloroplasts) of mitochondria in M cells, and the size of BS mitochondria also changed with the change in glycine decarboxylase localization. All Chenopodium species examined were C3-like regarding activities and amounts of C3 and C4 photosynthetic enzymes and δ13C values, suggesting that these species perform photosynthesis without contribution of the C4 cycle. This study demonstrates that Chenopodium is not a C3 genus and is valuable for studying evolution of C3-C4 intermediates.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Chenopodium/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Chenopodium/anatomia & histologia , Chenopodium/enzimologia , Glicina Desidrogenase (Descarboxilante)/genética , Glicina Desidrogenase (Descarboxilante)/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 297: 124948, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253280

RESUMO

Djulis (Chenopodiun formosaneum Koidz.,), pseudo-cereal crop emerged as a potential source of functional ingredients, was used to identify phytosterols and triterpenes from seven inbred lines of Djulis hull using GC-MS. Key bioactive compounds were identified including 6 phytosterols (34.73-59.48 mg/100 g), 6 triterpenes (30.56-57.47 mg/100 g), and 5 other unsaponifiable compounds (15.89-22.50 mg/100 g). Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted and explored the variation among Djulis hull samples with two clusters based on the surface color that reflected the content of phytosterols and triterpenes. These results confirmed that the color might be used as an indicator for estimation of phytosterol and triterpene contents in Djulis hull. Overall, this is the first study that identified novel unsaponifiable compounds in Djulis hull, which might contribute to the development of phytosterols and/or triterpenes enriched functional foods.


Assuntos
Chenopodium/química , Fitosteróis/análise , Triterpenos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pigmentação , Análise de Componente Principal
6.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 7836820, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179342

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered the epidemic of the 21st century. Traditional medicine uses plants to treat DM; many of these have hypoglycemic effects in both animal models and diabetic patients. Our objective was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of Tilia americana, Borago officinalis, Chenopodium nuttalliae, and Piper sanctum on diabetic rats. The methanolic extracts of the plants under study were obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Toxicity was evaluated on Artemia salina; the antioxidant potential was evaluated using the DPPH technique. Hypoglycemic capacity at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg was tested on Wistar rats with diabetes induced by alloxan (120 mg/kg). The toxicity on A. salina was null for the extracts of B. officinalis and P. sanctum, moderate for T. americana, and highly toxic for C. nuttalliae. The relevant extract of T. americana var. mexicana showed antioxidant activity. Three plants of the studied plants showed hypoglycemic activity: Tilia Americana (p = 0.0142), Borago officinalis (p = 0.0112), and Piper sanctum (p = 0.0078); P. sanctum was the one that showed the greatest reduction in glucose levels at a lower dose.


Assuntos
Borago/química , Chenopodium/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Piper/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tilia/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Água do Mar
7.
J Genet ; 98(2)2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204696

RESUMO

Evaluation of sequence variations in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 19 accessions, comprising of 11 accessions of Chenopodium quinoa, eight accessions of Chenopodium album and 165 retrieved sequences of different species of Chenopodium belonging to subfamily Chenopodioideae revealed a higher intraspecific genetic diversity in Himalayan C. album than that in C. quinoa. ITS and amplified fragment-length profiles of the accessions suggest the existence of accessions of Himalayan C. album as heteromorphs of the same species rather than a heterogenous assemblage of taxa. While the evolutionary relationship reconstructed from variations in 184 sequences of ITS region from species belonging to Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Polygonaceae and Nelumbonaceae established a paraphyletic evolution of family Chenopodiaceae, it also revealed a monophyletic evolution of Chenopodieae I. The reconstruction also established five independent lineages of the subfamily Chenopodioideae with C. album as a sister clade of C. quinoa within the tribe Chenopodieae I. The results also indicate a much younger age for Himalayan chenopods (C. album) than the reported crown age of Chenopodieae I.


Assuntos
Chenopodium/classificação , Chenopodium/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 5239-5248, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudocereals are nutrient-rich grains with high mineral content but also phytate content. Phytate is a mineral absorption inhibitor. The study's aim was to evaluate phytate degradation during spontaneous fermentation and during Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® fermentation of quinoa, canihua, and amaranth grains and flours. It also aimed to evaluate the accessibility of iron, zinc, and calcium and to estimate their bioavailability before and after the fermentation of flours with starter culture. Lactic acid, pH, phytate, and mineral content were analyzed during fermentation. RESULTS: Higher phytate degradation was found during the fermentation of flours (64-93%) than during that of grains (12-51%). Results suggest that phytate degradation was mainly due to endogenous phytase activity in different pseudocereals rather than the phytase produced by added microorganisms. The addition of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® resulted in a higher level of lactic acid (76.8-82.4 g kg-1 DM) during fermentation, and a relatively quicker reduction in pH to 4 than in spontaneous fermentation. Mineral accessibility was increased (1.7-4.6-fold) and phytate : mineral molar ratios were reduced (1.5-4.2-fold) in agreement with phytate degradation (1.8-4.2-fold) in fermented flours. The reduced molar ratios were still above the threshold value for the improved estimated mineral bioavailability of mainly iron. CONCLUSION: Fermentation proved to be effective for degrading phytate in pseudocereal flours, but less so in grains. Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® improved mineral accessibility and estimated bioavailability in flours. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/microbiologia , Chenopodium quinoa/microbiologia , Chenopodium/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Amaranthus/química , Amaranthus/metabolismo , Chenopodium/química , Chenopodium/metabolismo , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fermentação , Farinha/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Minerais/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/análise
9.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 74(11-12): 329-337, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116705

RESUMO

An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry based profiling of a purified MeOH extract (PME) from the roots of Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. (Amaranthaceae) tentatively identified 15 saponins of six sapogenins. The PME exerts hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities comparable to those of flavonoid complex silymarin in in vitro (1 and 10 µg/mL) and in vivo (200 mg/kg/daily for 7 days) models of hepatotoxicity, induced by CCl4. The main constituents of PME, respectively saponins bonushenricoside A (1), 3-O-ß-D-glucuronopyranosyl-bayogenin-28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), 3-O-ß-D-glucuronopyranosyl-medicagenic acid-28-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl (1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester (3), 3-O-ß-D-glucuronopyranosyl-2ß-hydroxygypsogenin-28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4), 3-O-α-L-rabinopyranosyl-bayogenin-28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (6) and bonushenricoside B (8) (3 µg/mL each), compared to silymarin (5 and 50 µg/mL), significantly reduced the cellular damage caused by CCl4 in rat hepatocytes, preserved cell viability and glutathione level, decreased lactate dehydrogenase leakage and reduced lipid damage. The experimental data suggest that the glycosides of phytolaccagenin, bayogenin, medicagenic acid, 2ß-hydroxygypsogenin, 2ß-hydroxyoleanoic acid and oleanoic acid are a promising and safe class of hepatoprotective agents.


Assuntos
Chenopodium/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Saponinas/química , Silimarina/farmacologia
10.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(2): 447-455, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945523

RESUMO

The acute shortage of forage resources is a serious problem for Tibetan pigs in the Tibet region, and the composition of feed can change the structure of the intestinal flora. This study first reported the effect of Alfalfa and Chenopodium glaucum feeding on the microbial diversity in Tibetan pigs, contributing to the forage exploitation of Tibetan pigs in the Tibet region.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bactérias/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Chenopodium , Medicago sativa , Tibet
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857296

RESUMO

Satellite DNA (satDNA) is the most variable fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Related species share a common ancestral satDNA library and changing of any library component in a particular lineage results in interspecific differences. Although the general developmental trend is clear, our knowledge of the origin and dynamics of satDNAs is still fragmentary. Here, we explore whole genome shotgun Illumina reads using the RepeatExplorer (RE) pipeline to infer satDNA family life stories in the genomes of Chenopodium species. The seven diploids studied represent separate lineages and provide an example of a species complex typical for angiosperms. Application of the RE pipeline allowed by similarity searches a determination of the satDNA family with a basic monomer of ~40 bp and to trace its transformation from the reconstructed ancestral to the species-specific sequences. As a result, three types of satDNA family evolutionary development were distinguished: (i) concerted evolution with mutation and recombination events; (ii) concerted evolution with a trend toward increased complexity and length of the satellite monomer; and (iii) non-concerted evolution, with low levels of homogenization and multidirectional trends. The third type is an example of entire repeatome transformation, thus producing a novel set of satDNA families, and genomes showing non-concerted evolution are proposed as a significant source for genomic diversity.


Assuntos
Chenopodium/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA Satélite/genética , Diploide , Evolução Molecular , Componentes Genômicos , Genoma de Planta , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(7): 3693-3702, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various physical and chemical methods for synthesis of metal nanoparticles have had some drawbacks. Therefore, green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) has became one of the most crucial emerging areas of nanobiotechnology. In the present study, plant-mediated synthesis of Au NPs was performed using Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum) shell extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. RESULTS: Reaction parameters were manipulated to optimize the Au NPs using a UV-visible spectrophotometer. Optimized Au NPs with a surface plasmon resonance band at 533 nm were prepared using a 744 µg mL-1 extract and a solution of pH 2.62 chloroauric acid (HAuCl4 ·3H2 O) at 40 °C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) results indicated that most of the resultant Au NPs were spherical in shape and exhibited a mean size of 8 ± 6 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the elemental gold and crystalline nature of the resultant NPs. FTIR spectrum analysis indicated the critical role of phenolic groups in the reduction of Au3+ ions and stabilization of the formed Au NPs. Moreover, the synthesized Au NPs possessed antibacterial activity for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION: In this study, Au NPs were synthesized with high efficiency and stability using Djulis shell extract, and related antibacterial applications were demonstrated. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Chenopodium/química , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antibacterianos/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Química Verde , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(14): 2024-2031, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882435

RESUMO

Two new glycosides of phytolaccagenin and 2ß-hydroxyoleanoic acid, namely bonushenricoside A (3) and bonushenricoside B (5) together with four known saponins, respectively compounds 3-O-L-α-arabinopyranosyl-bayogenin-28-O-ß-glucopyranosyl ester (1), 3-O-ß-glucuronopyranosyl-2ß-hydroxygypsogenin-28-O-ß-glucopyranosyl ester (2), 3-O-ß-glucuronopyranosyl-bayogenin-28-O-ß-glucopyranosyl ester (4) and 3-O-ß-glucuronopyranosyl-medicagenic acid-28-ß-xylopyranosyl(1→4)-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-α-arabinopyranosyl ester (6) were isolated from the roots of Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. The structures of the compounds were determined by means of spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, IR and HRMS). The MeOH extract and compounds were tested for cytotoxic activity on five leukemic cell lines (HL-60, SKW-3, Jurkat E6-1, BV-173 and K-562). In addition, the ability of metanolic extract and saponins to modulate the interleukin-2 production in PHA/PMA stimulated Jurkat E6-1 cells was investigated as well.


Assuntos
Chenopodium/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glicosídeos/química , Humanos , Interleucina-2/biossíntese , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia/patologia , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saponinas/química , Análise Espectral
14.
Plant Cell Environ ; 42(2): 730-739, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321458

RESUMO

We present a simple model to assess the quantum yield of photochemistry (ΦP ) and CO2 assimilation rate from two parameters that are detectable by remote sensing: chlorophyll (chl) fluorescence and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI). ΦP is expressed as a simple function of the chl fluorescence yield (ΦF ) and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ): ΦP  = 1-bΦF (1 + NPQ). Because NPQ is known to be related with PRI, ΦP can be remotely assessed from solar-induced fluorescence and the PRI. The CO2 assimilation rate can be assessed from the estimated ΦP value with either the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax ), the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci ), or parameters of the stomatal conductance model. The model was applied to experimental data obtained for Chenopodium album leaves under various environmental conditions and was able to successfully predict ΦF values and the CO2 assimilation rate. The present model will improve the accuracy of assessments of gas exchange rates and primary productivity by remote sensing.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Chenopodium/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Modelos Biológicos , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química
15.
Food Chem ; 272: 165-173, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309527

RESUMO

Alkali extraction and acid precipitation methods were adopted to isolate protein from quinoa and album seeds of variety Chenopodium. Different pH dispersions (3-11) of isolated proteins were prepared and effects of pH and holding time on protein characteristics were evaluated. The pH-10 of extraction medium was found suitable for protein extraction on the basis of yield, purity, solubility and colour having isoelectric pH of 4.5. Yield and purity of protein isolates (PI) of quinoa and album varied from 8.12 to 12.22%; 74.19 to 85.07% and 7.71 to 10.98%; 77.16 to 86.12%, respectively. Overall, pH and time had significant effect on functional properties of PI of both seeds. Quinoa PI had higher emulsifying activity, emulsion stability, water binding capacity and dispersibility, whereas, foaming capacity and stability were higher for album PI. Nutritional indices were 64.20 and 64.58 for quinoa and album PI, respectively, whereas, amino acid scoring (FAO, 2013) indicated, isoleucine, leucine and valine as the limiting amino acids.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Chenopodium/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas na Dieta/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(9)2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213072

RESUMO

To maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Chenopodium formosanum seeds, the process factors, such as the ethanol concentration (0⁻100%), extraction time (30⁻180 min) and temperature (30⁻70 °C), for the extraction of the bioactive contents as well as the antioxidant capacity are evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM). The experimental results fit well with quadratic models. The extract was identified by GC/MS, and it was found that some active compounds had antioxidant, repellency and insecticidal activities. Various concentrations of the extract were prepared for the evaluation of the insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum, and the toxicity test results indicated that the extract was toxic to Tribolium castaneum, with an LC50 value of 354.61 ppm. The oxidative stability of the olive oil determined according to the radical scavenging activity and p-anisidine test demonstrates that the extract obtained from the Chenopodium formosanum seeds can retard lipid oxidation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Chenopodium/química , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Animais , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Food Chem ; 269: 173-180, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100421

RESUMO

This study determined the effects of germination on the minerals, fatty acids, pasting, thermal, rheological and phytocomponents contents of Chenopodium album flour. The predominant fatty acids in raw flour were palmitic (0.83%), oleic (0.99%) and linoleic acids (1.96%), which increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with germination. Minerals (Na, Cu and Zn) and dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) were increased with germination, while pasting and gelatinization properties were reduced significantly. Scanning electron micrographs showed destruction of the continuous composite structure of starch embedded in the dense protein matrix of flour following germination. Quantitative analysis of C. album flour by GC-MS revealed that germinated flour contained more phytocompounds than raw flour. This research suggests the potential of germination in enhanced product development and utilization of valuable bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Chenopodium album/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Farinha , Minerais/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Chenopodium , Germinação , Reologia
19.
Molecules ; 23(7)2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029534

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to provide new insights into the role of the ethanolic extracts of Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum, EECF) and its bioactive compounds in preventing adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results demonstrated EECF significantly inhibited oil red O-stained material (OROSM), triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The expression of the critical molecules involved in lipid synthesis such as PPARγ, C/EBPα and SREBP-1c was attenuated in EECF-treated cells. According to HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS analysis, rutin, kaempferol, betanin and another nine compounds were present in EECF. The suppression of lipid accumulation by rutin, kaempferol and betanin occurred by decreasing the gene expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα and SREBP-1c. Taken together, these findings suggest the presence of bioactive compounds in EECF may partly account for the anti-adipogenesis of EECF and EECF is therefore a potentially lipid lowering functional food.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodium/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Cromatografia Líquida , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos
20.
Protoplasma ; 255(6): 1683-1692, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748859

RESUMO

Chenopodium murale L. is an invasive weed species significantly interfering with wheat crop. However, the complete nature of its allelopathic influence on crops is not yet fully understood. In the present study, the focus is made on establishing the relation between plant morphophysiological changes and oxidative stress, induced by allelopathic extract. Phytotoxic medium of C. murale hairy root clone R5 reduced the germination rate (24% less than control value) of wheat cv. Natasa seeds, as well as seedling growth, diminishing shoot and root length significantly, decreased total chlorophyll content, and induced abnormal root gravitropism. The R5 treatment caused cellular structural abnormalities, reflecting on the root and leaf cell shape and organization. These abnormalities mostly included the increased number of mitochondria and reorganization of the vacuolar compartment, changes in nucleus shape, and chloroplast organization and distribution. The most significant structural changes were observed in cell wall in the form of amoeboid protrusions and folds leading to its irregular shape. These structural alterations were accompanied by an oxidative stress in tissues of treated wheat seedlings, reflected as increased level of H2O2 and other ROS molecules, an increase of radical scavenging capacity and total phenolic content. Accordingly, the retardation of wheat seedling growth by C. murale allelochemicals may represent a consequence of complex activity involving both cell structure alteration and physiological processes.


Assuntos
Chenopodium/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Plântula/fisiologia , Plântula/ultraestrutura , Triticum/fisiologia , Triticum/ultraestrutura , Alelopatia , Germinação , Estresse Oxidativo , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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