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1.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936059

RESUMO

In attempt to broaden the use of cyclodextrin polymer for catalytic purposes, a novel covalent hybrid system was prepared through growth of multi-nitrogen atom containing polymer (PMelamine) derived from reaction of ethylenediamine and 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine on the functionalized cyclodextrin polymer (CDNS). The resulting hybrid system was then utilized as a catalyst support for the immobilization of silver nanoparticles through using Cuscuta epithymum extract as a naturally-derived reducing agent. The catalytic activity of the catalyst, Ag@CDNS-N/PMelamine, for the synthesis of xanthenes through reaction of aldehydes and dimedone in aqueous media was examined. The results showed high catalytic activity and recyclability of the catalyst. It was believed that cyclodextrin in the backbone of the catalyst could act both as a capping agent for Ag nanoparticles and phase transfer agent to bring the hydrophobic substrates in the vicinity of the catalytic active sites and accelerate the reaction rate. Multi-nitrogen atoms on the polymer, on the other hand, could improve the Ag NPs anchoring and suppress their leaching.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Ciclodextrinas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nitrogênio/química , Prata/química , Xantenos/síntese química , Catálise , Cuscuta/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polímeros/síntese química , Polímeros/química , Triazinas/química , Xantenos/química
3.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(12): e8754, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826180

RESUMO

Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae) is an important herbal medicine widely used to improve sexual function, treat osteoporosis, and prevent aging, and has been reported to exhibit anti-osteoporotic effects in vitro. However, the activity of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis still remains unclear. The present study aimed to assess the protective effect and the underlying mechanism of action of Cuscuta chinensis extract (CCE) against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: control group, osteoporosis group, and 2 CCE-treated osteoporosis groups (100 mg·kg-1·day-1). Blood samples and femur bones were collected for immunohistochemistry, biochemical, mRNA expression, and western blot analysis. HPLC analysis revealed that chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and hyperin were the major constituents of CCE. The results indicated that CCE increased bone length, bone weight, and bone mineral density and suppressed dexamethasone (DEX)-induced reduction in body weight. In addition, TRAP staining indicated that CCE reduced osteoclasts in DEX-induced osteoporosis rats. Mechanistically, CCE treatment alleviated the increase of bone resorption markers and the decline of osteogenic markers, which might be partially mediated by regulation of RANKL/OPG and RunX2 pathways. These results suggest that CCE showed promising effects in the protection against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis through protecting osteoblasts and suppressing osteoclastogenesis.


Assuntos
Cuscuta/química , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Imuno-Histoquímica , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Osteoprotegerina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante RANK/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 540, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dodder (Cuscuta spp., Convolvulaceae) species are obligate leaf- and rootless parasites that totally depend on hosts to survive. Dodders naturally graft themselves to host stems to form vascular fusion, from which they obtain nutrients and water. In addition, dodders and their hosts also exchange various other molecules, including proteins, mRNAs, and small RNAs. It is very likely that vascular fusion also allows inter-plant translocation of systemic signals between dodders and host plants and these systemic signals may have profound impacts on the physiology of dodder and host plants. Herbivory is a common biotic stress for plants. When a dodder parasite is attacked by lepidopteran insects, how dodder responds to caterpillar feeding and whether there are inter-plant communications between the host plants and the parasites is still poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, wild-type (WT) tobacco and a tobacco line in which jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis was silenced (AOC-RNAi) were used as the hosts, and the responses of dodders and their host plants to herbivory by Spodoptera litura caterpillars on the dodders were investigated. It was found that after caterpillar attack, dodders grown on AOC-RNAi tobacco showed much a smaller number of differentially expressed genes, although the genotypes of the tobacco plants did not have an effect on the simulated S. litura feeding-induced JA accumulation in dodders. We further show that S. litura herbivory on dodder also led to large changes in transcriptome and defensive metabolites in the host tobacco, leading to enhanced resistance to S. litura, and the JA pathway of tobacco host is critical for these systemic responses. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that during caterpillar attack on dodder, the JA pathway of host plant is required for the proper transcriptomic responses of both dodder and host plants. This study highlights the importance of the host JA pathway in regulating the inter-plant systemic signaling between dodder and hosts.


Assuntos
Cuscuta/fisiologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Tabaco/parasitologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Cuscuta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tabaco/genética
5.
Elife ; 82019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845648

RESUMO

Trans-species small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are delivered to host plants from diverse pathogens and parasites and can target host mRNAs. How trans-species sRNAs can be effective on diverse hosts has been unclear. Multiple species of the parasitic plant Cuscuta produce trans-species sRNAs that collectively target many host mRNAs. Confirmed target sites are nearly always in highly conserved, protein-coding regions of host mRNAs. Cuscuta trans-species sRNAs can be grouped into superfamilies that have variation in a three-nucleotide period. These variants compensate for synonymous-site variation in host mRNAs. By targeting host mRNAs at highly conserved protein-coding sites, and simultaneously expressing multiple variants to cover synonymous-site variation, Cuscuta trans-species sRNAs may be able to successfully target multiple homologous mRNAs from diverse hosts.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Cuscuta/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequência de Bases , Códon , Biologia Computacional , Sequência Conservada , Cuscuta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cuscuta/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/classificação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/classificação , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/parasitologia
6.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842363

RESUMO

Since arginase has been shown to compete with nitric oxide (NO) synthase, emerging evidence has reported that arginase inhibition improves obesity by increasing NO production. Semen cuscutae (SC), which is a well-known Chinese medicine, has multiple biological functions such as anti-oxidant function and immune regulation. In this study, we investigated whether the SC as a natural arginase inhibitor influences hepatic lipid abnormalities and whole-body adiposity in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The lipid accumulation was significantly reduced by SC treatment in oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro. Additionally, SC supplementation substantially lowered HFD-induced increases in arginase activity and weights of liver and visceral fat tissue, while increasing hepatic NO. Furthermore, elevated mRNA expressions of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP-1c), fatty-acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ)1, and PPAR-γ2 in HFD-fed mice were significantly attenuated by SC supplementation. Taken together, SC, as a novel natural arginase inhibitor, showed anti-obesity properties by modulating hepatic arginase and NO production and metabolic pathways related to hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Cuscuta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Arginase/antagonistas & inibidores , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Obesidade/terapia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo
7.
Andrologia ; 51(11): e13427, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583719

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widespread environmental endocrine disruptor that has multiple effects on reproductive organ development. To investigate the effect of Cuscuta chinensis flavonoids (CCFs) on testicular apoptosis induced by BPA in male mice offspring, pregnant mice were administered intragastrically with BPA and CCF at gestation day (GD) 0.5-17.5. The testes of male offspring (F1 males) were collected at post-natal day (PND) 21 and PND 56 for the detection of related indicators. The results showed that compared with the BPA group, the testicular index in CCF groups was significantly increased at PND 21 (p < .01). For the mice of different concentrations of CCF groups, the expression levels of bax, caspase-9 and caspase-7 proteins were significantly decreased at PND 21 and PND 56, while the expression level of bcl-2 protein was significantly increased, and testicular apoptotic cells were also decreased significantly (p < .01 or p < .05). Forty mg/kg CCF has no significant difference compared with the control group. The results indicated that CCF could protect the testis development of F1 male mice by alleviating the apoptosis of testicular cells induced by BPA.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cuscuta , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Feminino , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenóis , Fitoterapia , Gravidez
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3478-3485, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602912

RESUMO

Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets has good anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities,but its reproductive damage is significant. Previous studies of the research group have found that Cuscutae Semen flavonoids can improve spermatogenic cell damage caused by Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets by regulating spermatogenic cell cycle,apoptosis and related protein expression,but the mechanism of action at the gene level is still unclear. In this study,Illumina high-throughput sequencing platform was applied in transcriptional sequencing of spermatogenic cells of rats after the intervention of Cuscutae Semen flavonoids and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets. Differentially expressed genes were screened out and the GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes were conducted to explore the mechanism of Cuscutae Semen flavonoids in improving reproductive injury caused by Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets. The results showed that 794 up-regulated genes and 491 down-regulated genes were screened in Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets group compared with the blank group. Compared with Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets,440 up-regulated genes and 784 down-regulated genes were screened in the Cuscutae Semen flavonoids+Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets group. Among them,the gene closely related to reproductive function is DNMT3 L. Analysis of GO function and KEGG signaling pathway enrichment showed that the above differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in cell,cell process,catalytic activity,binding,ovarian steroid synthesis,thyroid hormone and other functions and pathways. The thyroid hormone signaling pathway was the common enrichment pathway of the two control groups. In a word,Cuscutae Semen flavonoids has a good treatment effect on male reproductive damage caused by Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets. The mechanism may be closely related to up-regulation of DNMT3 L genes and intervention of thyroid hormone signaling pathway. At the same time,the discovery of many different genes provides valuable information for study on the mechanism of Cuscutae Semen flavonoids and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets compatibility decreasing toxicity and increasing efficiency.


Assuntos
Cuscuta/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Genitália/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Feminino , Genitália/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Ratos , Sementes/química , Transdução de Sinais , Comprimidos , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Transcriptoma
9.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661844

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia in the elderly. It is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aß) and progressive cognitive impairment. To alleviate the symptoms of AD, functional foods and nutrients have been used for centuries. In this study, we investigated whether Cuscutae Japonicae Semen (CJS), a medicinal food traditionally used in East Asia, has effects on memory improvement and synapse protection in AD. We orally administered CJS to 5x familiar AD (5xFAD) transgenic mice and performed the Morris water maze test. The results showed that CJS treatment ameliorated the decline of memory function. Then, we demonstrated that CJS attenuated the degeneration of pre- and post-synaptic proteins in the hippocampi of 5xFAD mice. To demonstrate the effects of CJS in vitro, we treated Aß in primary neuronal culture with CJS and observed that CJS rescued the loss of functional synapses. The protective effects of CJS on the synapse were due to the inhibition of activated caspase-3 expression. Additionally, CJS inhibited the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß and tau proteins, which contribute to synaptic dysfunction. Taken together, our results suggest that CJS is efficient in alleviating memory loss by rescuing caspase-3-mediated synaptic damage in AD treatment.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Cuscuta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Sementes , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Extratos Vegetais/química
10.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 6727-6735, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. on germ cell apoptosis in a rat model of unilateral cryptorchidism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty male SD rats were randomly and equally divided into a control group, a model group, and a Cuscuta group (5.0 g/kg/d) (n=10). The rat model of unilateral cryptorchidism in the model and Cuscuta groups was established by removal of the right gubernaculum, while rats in the control group received no treatment. After modeling, rats in the Cuscuta chinensis group were intragastrically administered Cuscuta chinensis extract (5.0 g/kg/d), while rats in the control group and model group were administered an equal volume of normal saline. After 90 days, all the rats were sacrificed and the testicles were separated and weighed, followed by TUNEL staining to detect germ cell apoptosis, flow cytometry to measure JC-1, ROS, and MDA, and Western blot analysis to evaluate the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase3. RESULTS Ninety days after the operation, Cuscuta chinensis Lam significantly minimized the damage caused by modeling by increasing weight of testis, reducing the germ cell apoptosis, and enhancing the mitochondrial membrane potential of testicles, as shown by levels of JC-1, ROS, and MDA, as well as elevating the level of Bcl-2/Bax and reducing the level of cleaved caspase3 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Treatment with Cuscuta chinensis Lam reduced the germ cell apoptosis in rats with unilateral cryptorchidism, which provides new insight for the development of cryptorchidism therapy in the future.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Cuscuta/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Criptorquidismo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/patologia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
11.
Nat Plants ; 5(9): 991-1001, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332314

RESUMO

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the movement and genomic integration of DNA across species boundaries, is commonly associated with bacteria and other microorganisms, but functional HGT (fHGT) is increasingly being recognized in heterotrophic parasitic plants that obtain their nutrients and water from their host plants through direct haustorial feeding. Here, in the holoparasitic stem parasite Cuscuta, we identify 108 transcribed and probably functional HGT events in Cuscuta campestris and related species, plus 42 additional regions with host-derived transposon, pseudogene and non-coding sequences. Surprisingly, 18 Cuscuta fHGTs were acquired from the same gene families by independent HGT events in Orobanchaceae parasites, and the majority are highly expressed in the haustorial feeding structures in both lineages. Convergent retention and expression of HGT sequences suggests an adaptive role for specific additional genes in parasite biology. Between 16 and 20 of the transcribed HGT events are inferred as ancestral in Cuscuta based on transcriptome sequences from species across the phylogenetic range of the genus, implicating fHGT in the successful radiation of Cuscuta parasites. Genome sequencing of C. campestris supports transfer of genomic DNA-rather than retroprocessed RNA-as the mechanism of fHGT. Many of the C. campestris genes horizontally acquired are also frequent sources of 24-nucleotide small RNAs that are typically associated with RNA-directed DNA methylation. One HGT encoding a leucine-rich repeat protein kinase overlaps with a microRNA that has been shown to regulate host gene expression, suggesting that HGT-derived parasite small RNAs may function in the parasite-host interaction. This study enriches our understanding of HGT by describing a parasite-host system with unprecedented gene exchange that points to convergent evolution of HGT events and the functional importance of horizontally transferred coding and non-coding sequences.


Assuntos
Cuscuta/genética , Cuscuta/fisiologia , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Ácidos Nucleicos/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita
12.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323947

RESUMO

A sensitive and effective method was developed for clarifying the pharmacokinetic properties of six compounds (including hyperin, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, astragalin, and isoquercitrin) in two processed Cuscutae Semen samples by high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The six compounds were separated by acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid-water on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (4.6 mm × 100 mm, 1.8 µm). All compounds were analyzed with negative ion mode in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) of hyperin, astragalin, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, and p-coumaric acid were 1, 0.1, 4, 0.1, 2, and 4 ng·mL-1, respectively. The validated approach was effectively used for the pharmacokinetics of six compounds of two processed Cuscutae Semen samples after oral administration to rat. The results indicated that salt processing could improve the adsorption and bioavailability of astragalin in Cuscutae Semen.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cuscuta/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163646

RESUMO

The genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae) comprises well-known parasitic plants. Cuscuta species are scientifically valuable, as their life style causes extensive crop damage. Furthermore, dried seeds of C. chinensis are used as a Korean traditional herbal medicine. Despite the importance of Cuscuta species, it is difficult to distinguish these plants by the naked eye. Moreover, plastid sequence information available for Cuscuta species is limited. In this study, we distinguished between C. chinensis and C. japonica using morphological characterisation of reproductive organs and molecular characterisation of chloroplast genomes. The differences in morphological characteristics of reproductive organs such as style, stigma, infrastaminal scale, seed shape and testa ornamentation were useful for distinguishing between C. japonica and C. chinensis. Analysis of chloroplast genomes revealed drastic differences in chloroplast genome length and gene order between the two species. Although both species showed numerous gene losses and genomic rearrangements, chloroplast genomes showed highly similar structure within subgenera. Phylogenetic analysis of Cuscuta chloroplast genomes revealed paraphyletic groups within subgenera Monogynella and Grammica, which is consistent with the APG IV system of classification. Our results provide useful information for the taxonomic, phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of Cuscuta and accurate identification of herbal medicine.


Assuntos
Cuscuta/fisiologia , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Cuscuta/citologia , Cuscuta/ultraestrutura , Ordem dos Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Filogenia
14.
Plant Mol Biol ; 100(6): 621-634, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140020

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: An exhaustive analysis of a group of closely related parasitic plants shows a predominantly gradual reduction in plastid genome composition and provides the most reduced plastomes in the genus Cuscuta. Parasitic plants have a diminished to completely absent reliance on photosynthesis, and are characterized by sweeping morphological, physiological, and genomic changes. The plastid genome (plastome) is highly conserved in autotrophic plants but is often reduced in parasites, and provides a useful system for documenting the genomic effects of a loss of photosynthesis. Previous studies have shown a substantial degree of heterogeneity in plastome length and composition across the species of the genus Cuscuta. Specifically, species in Cuscuta sect. Ceratophorae were suspected to exhibit even more dynamic plastome evolution than the rest of the genus. This complex of eight closely related species was exhaustively sampled here, and one accession per species was sequenced via a high-throughput approach. Complete plastid genomes were assembled and annotated for each of these species and were found to be 61-87 kbp in length, representing a 45-60% reduction relative to autotrophic Convolvulaceae. The most reduced plastomes on this spectrum have lost the bulk of their photosynthetic genes and are the first fully holoparasitic plastomes described for Cuscuta. The fine-scale nature of the system introduced here allowed us to phylogenetically triangulate the locations of gene loss and pseudogenization events precisely, and to construct a step-by-step model of plastome evolution in these plants. This model reveals an intense burst of gene loss along the branch leading to the most reduced plastomes, and a few idiosyncratic changes elsewhere, allowing us to conclude that the tempo of plastid evolution in sect. Ceratophorae is a blend of gradual and punctuated mode.


Assuntos
Cuscuta/genética , Genomas de Plastídeos , Plantas/parasitologia , Plastídeos/genética , Southern Blotting , DNA de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Fotossíntese/genética , Filogenia , Pseudogenes , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Genome ; 62(7): 467-475, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071271

RESUMO

Interspecific hybridization and genome duplication to form allopolyploids are major evolutionary events in angiosperms. In the parasitic genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae), molecular data suggested the existence of species of hybrid origin. One of them, C. veatchii, has been proposed as a hybrid between C. denticulata and C. nevadensis, both included in sect. Denticulatae. To test this hypothesis, a cytogenetic analysis was performed with CMA/DAPI staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization using 5S and 35S rDNA and genomic probes. Chromosomes of C. denticulata were small with a well-defined centromeric region, whereas C. nevadensis had larger, densely stained chromosomes, and less CMA+ heterochromatic bands. Cuscuta veatchii had 2n = 60 chromosomes, about 30 of them similar to those of C. denticulata and the remaining to C. nevadensis. GISH analysis confirmed the presence of both subgenomes in the allotetraploid C. veatchii. However, the number of rDNA sites and the haploid karyotype length in C. veatchii were not additive. The diploid parentals had already diverged in their chromosomes structure, whereas the reduction in the number of rDNA sites more probably occurred after hybridization. As phylogenetic data suggested a recent divergence of the progenitors, these species should have a high rate of karyotype evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cuscuta/genética , Genoma de Planta , Ploidias , Arizona , DNA de Plantas/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , México
16.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 50: 76-81, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029811

RESUMO

Parasitic plants make direct contact with their host's vasculature. In parasitism by Cuscuta, RNA and other macromolecules regularly move between host and parasite. Recently, trans-species microRNA from Cuscuta have been shown to functionally target host genes which have essential roles in host defense. Known pathways for the evolution of microRNAs, and the prevalence of horizontal gene transfer events in the Cuscuta lineage, hint that trans-species microRNAs could originate from captured host genes. It is unknown how the delivery of microRNAs from the parasite to the host takes place. One exciting possibility is through apoplastic export using extracellular vesicles, a process which has recently been shown to transport select small RNAs in plants and fungi. These discoveries represent the initial findings of what may be a widespread mechanism of interactions between species.


Assuntos
Cuscuta , MicroRNAs , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Plantas , RNA de Plantas
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 179-190, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901576

RESUMO

The effect of silicon (Si) on tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) development and dodder (Cuscuta europaea) - tobacco interaction were studied. Three Si application approaches were tested: tobacco seed priming (2.5 mM Si and 5 mM Si; 2.5S, 5S), watering tobacco plants with Si solution (2.5 mM Si and 5 mM Si; 2.5W, 5W) and foliar application (1 mM Si and 2.5 mM Si; 1F, 2.5F). Dodder was not able to infect the host plant in almost all Si treatments. Only in the control and 2.5W treatments was dodder able to infect its host. A significant increase in all observed antioxidant enzymes activities (POX, CAT and SOD) occurred in the plants of 2.5W treatment after infection in comparison with the uninfected 2.5W treatment and control plants, which indicated the importance of antioxidant enzymes activities in the plant parasite - host interaction. Resistance of Si treated plants to dodder could have been due to the changes in the cell wall properties of the epidermis and cortex where activity of POX was confirmed histochemically. The growth and development of tobacco shoots were evaluated after four and eight weeks of cultivation in the individual Si treatments. The development of shoots was enhanced after eight weeks of cultivation in the 2.5S, 5S, 2.5W and 5W treatments in comparison with the control treatment. However, a negative effect of Si was observed in 1F and 2.5F treatments. In the majority of cases, the plants treated with Si had decreased chlorophyll content when compared to control, except for chl a in 5W plants after 8 weeks of cultivation. Contrary to this, carotenoids increased in all Si treated plants after eight weeks cultivation in comparison with the control. The secondary xylem formation in tobacco was enhanced after 4 and 8 weeks cultivation in shoots of plants receiving the 2.5S, 5S, 2.5W and 5W treartments. The cambium was the most active in producing secondary xylem in the 2.5S treatment. Protein profile and antioxidant enzymes activities (POX, CAT and SOD) were altered by Si treatment. After 8 weeks of cultivation, activities of POX were significantly decreased in 2.5S, 5S, 2.5W and 5W in comparison with control. Catalase was decreased in 2.5S, 5S and 5W in comparison with the control, however, 1F and 2.5F treatments had significantly increased CAT and SOD activities. The specific activity of POX was confirmed histochemically in Si treated plants in the cell walls of several stem tissues like the epidermis, cortex and pith. A small amount of H2O2 was detected in leaves in the control and Si treated plants. The amount of O2- decreased in all treatments with time. The highest Si concentration in the plants (almost 800 mg . kg-1 d. w.) was detected in the 2.5W, 5W treatments.


Assuntos
Cuscuta , Silício/farmacologia , Tabaco/parasitologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cuscuta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(4): 3321-3329, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816501

RESUMO

Cuscuta chinensis Lamak (CCL) has traditionally been used in Korea to treat sexual disorders and skin problems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CCL extract on surgical injury­induced ischemia in the hind limbs of mice. Specifically, female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized, and their hind­limb vessels were ligated with surgical silk (6­0) and excised. CCL (150 or 450 mg/kg/BW) was then administered to the mice for 3 weeks, and the blood flow rate was evaluated using a laser Doppler system at ­7, 0, 7, 14 and 21 days following hind­limb ischemia. The serum expression profiles of angiogenic and inflammatory mediators were measured using an antibody array, and the transcript levels were reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The rate of hind limb blood flow was normalized to non­ischemic lesions and revealed to be markedly elevated at 14 and 21 days following ischemia when compared with the vehicle group. The density of capillaries in the hind limbs was also significantly increased following treatment with CCL in a dose­dependent manner. In addition, the transcriptional expression of angiogenetic factors were upregulated, whereas that of inflammatory cytokines were downregulated. Finally, vascular endothelial cell migration and tube formation were evaluated in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and identified to be significantly increased following treatment with CCL. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that CCL extract exhibits therapeutic potential for the treatment of hind­limb ischemia as it promotes peripheral angiogenic and anti­inflammatory effects in mice.


Assuntos
Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Cuscuta/química , Membro Posterior/irrigação sanguínea , Membro Posterior/patologia , Isquemia/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Indutores da Angiogênese/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Biomarcadores , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Membro Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia/etiologia , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(4): 544-547, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098872

RESUMO

The present study is aimed to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and free phenolic compounds of acetone extract of Cuscuta reflexa grown on five different hosts: Coccinia grandis, Ficus racemosa, Samanea saman, Streblus asper and Zollingeria dongnaiensis, and to explore the antioxidant activities, α-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory properties of the extracts. The highest level of total phenolic and flavonoid contents were observed in the extract of C. reflexa that was grown on S. asper (65.45 mg GAE/g extract) and C. grandis (97.83 mg QE/g extract), respectively. According to HPLC results, vanillic acid, rutin and quercetin were found in all extracts of C. reflexa grown on diversified hosts. The extract of C. reflexa grown on C. grandis possessed the greatest antioxidant activities (DPPH; 251.64 µg/mL, FRAP; 26.44 mg GAE/g extract), α-glucosidase inhibition accounted for 84.36 per cent and antityrosinase activity was at 18.29 mg KAE/g sample.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cuscuta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Acetona/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ficus/parasitologia , Flavonoides/análise , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fenóis/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 231: 555-569, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522939

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L. (C. epithymum; Convolvulaceae) is a parasitic plant that has long been used locally and traditionally in Asia, Europe and other regions. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The study intends to reflect the significance of the C. epithymum in traditional medicine. This review aims to grant insight into the species' botany, pharmacological activities and phytochemistry with distinctive emphasis on its ethnomedicinal and traditional applications in all over the world. The review endeavors to rule out any inconsistency between the species' traditional application and its pharmacological activity, and presenting any coherence existing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The books on ethnomedicine and the main medieval Persian medicine textbooks including Makhzan Al- Advieh, The canon of medicine, Zakhireh kharazmshahi and etc were explored for C. epithymum. Additionally, information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, morphology, taxonomy, modern medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities were collected in electronic databases including Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, and PubMed using the keywords "Cuscuta epithymum," "traditional medicine," "ethnomedicine," "phytochemistry," "pharmacology" and "activity." Then, the available articles from 1975 to 2017 were employed for this study. RESULTS: C. epithymum is a rootless plant, widely distributed and available in every continent except Antarctica. It was used traditionally in formularies or by rural people and as geriatric drug, detergent, purgative, disorders in the melancholic humor, joint, kidney, urinary tract, gastrointestinal system, nervous system, etc. In modern medicine, the extract of C. epithymum showed anti-microbial, cytotoxic, anticonvulsant, anti-urease, immune stimulatory, hepatoprotective effect, and antioxidant activity. The main phytochemical constituents are alkaloids; saponins; tannins; triterpenoids; steroids; carbohydrates; aromatic compounds; flavonoids and the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. CONCLUSION: The modern pharmacological studies have validated the traditional and ethnobotanical uses of C. epithymum. However, many aspects of this herb have not been studied yet. In addition, information about the phytochemistry and toxicological profile is insufficient. Owing to the extensive traditional uses of C. epithymum. Hence further studies on pharmacological activities, phytochemistry, and toxicity and adverse effects seem to be necessary to appraise the medicinal values of C. epithymum.


Assuntos
Cuscuta , Fitoterapia , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
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