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1.
Environ Entomol ; 49(2): 364-369, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025701

RESUMO

The viburnum leaf beetle (VLB), Pyrrhalta viburni (Paykull), is an invasive chrysomelid in North America where it infests native Viburnum shrubs in woody areas and managed landscapes. Despite its invasive and destructive nature, little is known about the chemical ecology of this beetle, and efficient chemical lures for monitoring and trapping this insect have yet to be developed. Using two of the main host plants of VLB in its native range, Viburnum opulus L. (Caprifoliaceae) and V. lantana L., we examined the olfactory preferences of adult females of VLB under laboratory conditions and measured volatile emissions of Viburnum twigs with and without VLB damage. VLB females had a clear preference for V. opulus and V. lantana twigs compared to blank odor sources. In addition, twigs with foliar damage and fresh egg masses were found to be more attractive than noninfested twigs in V. opulus when VLB infestation was recent, but not when twigs had been infested for several weeks. Chemical analyses revealed consistent treatment-specific blends of compounds, which may be used for the elaboration of attractive lures. Future research should focus on the identification of these compounds and on exploring the olfactory preferences of VLB with Viburnum species present in North America.


Assuntos
Besouros , Viburnum , Animais , Ecologia , Feminino , América do Norte , Plantas
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e920265, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Viburnum grandiflorum is a medicinal herb known for its wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, but its anti-cancer properties against lung cancer cells have not been previously investigated. The present study elucidated the antitumor effect and associated mechanism of methanol extract of Viburnum grandiflorum extract (VGE) against lung cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS The viability of H1650, HCC827, and H1299 cells was measured using MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle progression were determined by flow cytometry using annexin-V/PI and JC-1 stains, respectively. The Lipofectamine Plus reagent (Invitrogen) was used for transfection of caspase-9 plasmid to H1650 and H1299 cells. RESULTS The results showed decreased H1650, HCC827, and H1299 cell viability by VGE, which occurred in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The VGE treatment significantly increased the rate of apoptosis in H1650 (P<0.05) and H1299 (P<0.02) cells at 48 and 72 h. Treatment of H1650 and H1299 cells with 10 µM of VGE significantly enhanced the number of cells in sub-G1 phase. The VGE treatment cleaved pro-caspase-8/-9 and-3 in H1650 and HCC827 cells at 72 h. The VGE treatment of H1650 and HCC827 cells reduced Mcl-1 protein expression. Treatment of H1650 and HCC827 cells with VGE markedly decreased the level of p-Akt. However, dominant-negative caspase-9 (caspase-9 dN) plasmid transfection prevented the viability-inhibitory effect of VGE on H1650 and HCC827 cells. Treatment of H1650 and HCC827 cells with VGE increased levels of cytochrome c in the cytosol. CONCLUSIONS VGE inhibited lung carcinoma cell viability by apoptosis activation through a caspase-dependent pathway. Therefore, VGE is a potent anti-cancer agent against lung cancer cells.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Viburnum/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 7, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931711

RESUMO

PREMISE: A key question in plant dispersal via animal vectors is where and why fruit colors vary between species and how color relates to other fruit traits. To better understand the factors shaping the evolution of fruit color diversity, we tested for the existence of syndromes of traits (color, morphology, and nutrition) in the fruits of Viburnum. We placed these results in a larger phylogenetic context and reconstructed ancestral states to assess how Viburnum fruit traits have evolved across the clade. RESULTS: We find that blue Viburnum fruits are not very juicy, and have high lipid content and large, round endocarps surrounded by a small quantity of pulp. Red fruits display the opposite suite of traits: they are very juicy with low lipid content and smaller, flatter endocarps. The ancestral Viburnum fruit may have gone through a sequence of color changes before maturation (green to yellow to red to black), though our reconstructions are equivocal. In one major clade of Viburnum (Nectarotinus), fruits mature synchronously with reduced intermediate color stages. Most transitions between fruit colors occurred in this synchronously fruiting clade. CONCLUSIONS: It is widely accepted that fruit trait diversity has primarily been driven by the differing perceptual abilities of bird versus mammal frugivores. Yet within a clade of largely bird-dispersed fruits, we find clear correlations between color, morphology, and nutrition. These correlations are likely driven by a shift from sequential to synchronous development, followed by diversification in color, nutrition, and morphology. A deeper understanding of fruit evolution within clades will elucidate the degree to which such syndromes structure extant fruit diversity.


Assuntos
Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Viburnum/anatomia & histologia , Viburnum/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Aves , Frutas/química , Frutas/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Mamíferos , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Viburnum/classificação , Viburnum/fisiologia
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112161, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419499

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Viburnum pichinchense Benth. Mainly found in Ecuador and Colombia has been ethnopharmacologically utilized as a remedy for various female disorders with kidney inflammation and uterine relaxant. AIM OF THE STUDY: The pharmacological activity of Viburnum pichinchense has never been studied, therefore, this study explored anti-inflammatory activity of Viburnum pichinchense methanol extract (Vp-ME). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-inflammatory activities of Vp-ME were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis mice by MTT assay, nitric oxide (NO) production assay, semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), luciferase reporter assay, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Anti-inflammatory compounds in Vp-ME were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Vp-ME inhibited NO production in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with pam3CSK4, poly I:C or LPS and in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages without cytotoxicity and downregulated mRNA expression of inflammatory enzymes, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and IL-6. The anti-inflammatory activity was accomplished by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activation, upstream signaling molecules in the NF-κB pathway, and caspase-11 non-canonical inflammasome in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, Vp-ME exhibited in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by ameliorating gastritis symptoms, inhibiting iNOS and IL-6 mRNA expression and IκBα activation in mice. HPLC analysis identified resveratrol, quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol as the anti-inflammatory components in Vp-ME. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated Vp-ME has the anti-inflammatory activity via targeting NF-κB and caspase-11 non-canonical inflammasome pathways in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses, suggesting Vp-ME could be developed as anti-inflammatory ethnopharmacological remedies to prevent and treat inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Caspases Iniciadoras/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Viburnum , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Citocinas/genética , Etanol , Gastrite/induzido quimicamente , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ácido Clorídrico , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Metanol/química , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Células RAW 264.7 , Solventes/química
5.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110764, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437471

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of Cornus mas, Sorbus aucuparia and Viburnum opulus fruit extracts on arginase activity and arterial vasodilation. V. opulus fruit extract exerted the highest vasorelaxant activity in phenylephrine precontracted rat aortic rings (EC50 = 6.31 ±â€¯1.61 µg/mL) and a significant inhibition of arginase (IC50 = 71.02 ±â€¯3.06 µg/mL). By contrast, S. aucuparia and C. mas fruit extracts showed no important anti-arginase activity and a significantly weaker activity in the rat aortic rings relaxation assay (EC50 = 100.9 ±â€¯11.63 and 78.52 ±â€¯8.59 µg/mL, respectively). For all extracts, the main mechanism of vasodilation was proven to be endothelium-dependent. HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS studies revealed a very complex metabolite profiling in all three extracts with chlorogenic acid accounting for 30.89, 0.72 and 2.03 mg/g in V. opulus, C. mas and S. aucuparia fruit extracts, respectively. All extracts were declared non-toxic in the brine shrimp acute toxicity test. Our study highlights potential benefits of V. opulus fruit extract in diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired vasodilation.


Assuntos
Arginase/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cornus/química , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/toxicidade , Masculino , Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sorbus/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vasodilatadores/toxicidade , Viburnum/química
6.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 436-442, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321622

RESUMO

In this work, the profiles of phenolics, fiber, pectins, sugars, organic acids and carotenoids, vitamin C, ash, protein and fat contents, as well as antioxidant capacity were compared in fruits, flowers, and bark of Viburnum opulus (VO). Antioxidant capacity was evaluated against ABTS, hydroxyl, peroxyl and superoxide free radicals, and as a reducing power by using in vitro test. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of the VO morphological parts tested. Fruits contained the highest concentrations of fat, organic acids, sugars, soluble dietary fiber (10.57 ± 0.54; 7.34 ± 0.06; 32.27 ± 1.25; 6.82 ± 0.38 g/100 g DW, respectively) and carotenoids (2.70 ± 0.07 mg/100 g DW). Whereas, the bark exceeded the remaining parts of the VO in terms of antioxidant capacity, ash (9.32 ± 0.17 g/100 g DW), total (59.34 ± 0.75 g/100 g DW) and insoluble dietary fiber (58.20 ± 0.73 g/100 g DW) contents as well as phenolic compounds (3.98 ± 0.04 g/100 g DW). Among the phenolic compounds quantified in this study, chlorogenic acid and (+)-catechin had the highest concentrations (> 1 g/100 g DW) in the flowers and bark, respectively.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Fenóis/análise , Viburnum/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Catequina/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Flores/química , Frutas/química , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pectinas/análise , Casca de Planta/química , Açúcares/análise
7.
Plant Dis ; 103(7): 1651-1656, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115269

RESUMO

We performed studies using zoospore inoculum combined from nine isolates of Phytophthora ramorum and determined the effect of leaf wetness on infection of whole plants of Rhododendron 'Cunningham's White' and Viburnum tinus. The mean percentage of infected leaves for both host species increased gradually across a dew chamber moisture period of 1 to 6 h, reaching approximately 80% infection by 6 h. We also evaluated the effect of a postinoculation drying period on infectivity of the two host species with zoospore inoculum. With a 30-min postinoculation drying period, Rhododendron 'Cunningham's White' sustained less than 40% infected leaves, whereas V. tinus had an infection rate of almost 75% infected leaves. Disease percentages for both host species declined sharply with drying periods longer than 30 min. Knowledge of infectivity parameters for P. ramorum will provide a better understanding of epidemic development and lead to improved recommendations for control.


Assuntos
Phytophthora , Rhododendron , Viburnum , Água , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Rhododendron/parasitologia , Viburnum/parasitologia , Água/química
8.
Am J Bot ; 106(6): 833-849, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124135

RESUMO

PREMISE: We take an integrative approach in assessing how introgression and Pleistocene climate fluctuations have shaped the diversification of the core Lentago clade of Viburnum, a group of five interfertile species with broad areas of sympatry. We specifically tested whether flowering time plays a role in maintaining species isolation. METHODS: RAD-seq data for 103 individuals were used to infer the species relationships and the genetic structure within each species. Flowering times were compared among species on the basis of historical flowering dates documented by herbarium specimens. RESULTS: Within each species, we found a strong relationship between flowering date and latitude, such that southern populations flower earlier than northern ones. In areas of sympatry, the species flower in sequence rather than simultaneously, with flowering dates offset by ≥9 d for all species pairs. In two cases it appears that the offset in flowering times is an incidental consequence of adaptation to differing climates, but in the recently diverged sister species V. prunifolium and V. rufidulum, we find evidence that reinforcement led to reproductive character displacement. Long-term trends suggest that the two northern-most species are flowering earlier in response to recent climate change. CONCLUSIONS: We argue that speciation in the Lentago clade has primarily occurred through ecological divergence of allopatric populations, but differences in flowering time were essential to maintain separation of incipient species when they came into secondary contact. This combination of factors may underlie diversification in many other plant clades.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Flores/fisiologia , Viburnum/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , América do Norte , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Simpatria/fisiologia , Viburnum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Am J Bot ; 106(3): 389-401, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860611

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: There have been relatively few phylogeographic studies of eastern North American plants, especially of animal-dispersed shrubby species, and this leaves a significant gap in our understanding of how such species were affected by glacial events. Here, we analyzed the phylogeography of the widespread understory shrub Viburnum lantanoides. METHODS: We generated RADseq data and paleoclimatic species distribution models (SDMs) to identify the locations of refugia where V. lantanoides may have survived the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and how its range expanded as glaciers receded. KEY RESULTS: Genetic diversity falls off with increasing latitude and longitude, indicating that range expansion likely occurred via serial founder events from southern source populations. Samples from the southern Appalachians form a grade, while those from the north form a clade, suggesting that a single genetic lineage recolonized the north. SDMs indicate that V. lantanoides probably survived the LGM in refugia on the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain and/or the interior Gulf Coastal Plain. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses indicate that V. lantanoides survived the LGM in refugia south of the glacier but north of the extensive refugium along the Gulf Coast. Following the LGM, a single population expanded northward along the Appalachian Mountains and eventually into eastern Canada. The patterns observed here suggest that range expansion occurred in a stepwise manner, similar to postglacial dynamics observed in a number of European plant species.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Dispersão Vegetal , Viburnum/fisiologia , Canadá , Filogeografia , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Estados Unidos , Viburnum/genética
10.
Ann Bot ; 123(2): 381-390, 2019 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982369

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Enlarged sterile flowers on the periphery of inflorescences increase the attractiveness of floral displays, and previous studies have generally demonstrated that these have positive effects on insect visitation and/or reproductive success. However, experiments have not specifically been designed to examine the benefits of sterile flowers under conditions that reflect the early stages in their evolution, i.e. when plants that produce sterile flowers are at low frequency. Methods: Over three years, three experiments were performed in natural populations of Viburnum lantanoides, which produces sterile marginal flowers (SMFs). The first experiment established that fruit production in V. lantanoides increases with the receipt of outcross pollen. The second tested the role of SMFs under extant conditions, comparing fruit production in two populations composed entirely of intact plants or entirely of plants with the SMFs removed. The third was designed to mimic the presumed context in which SMFs first evolved; here, SMFs were removed from all but a few plants in a population, and rates of insect visitation and fruit set were compared between plants with intact and denuded SMFs. Key Results: In comparing whole populations, the presence of SMFs nearly doubled fruit set. Under simulated 'ancestral' conditions within a population, plants with intact SMFs received double the insect visits and produced significantly more fruits than denuded plants. There was no significant effect of the number of inflorescences or fertile flowers on insect visitation or fruit set, indicating that the presence of SMFs accounted for these differences. Conclusions: The presence of SMFs significantly increased pollinator attraction and female reproductive success both in contemporary and simulated ancestral contexts, indicating that stabilizing selection is responsible for their maintenance, and directional selection likely drove their evolution when they first appeared. This study demonstrates a novel approach to incorporating historically relevant scenarios into experimental studies of floral evolution.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polinização , Seleção Genética , Viburnum/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Autofertilização , Viburnum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Syst Biol ; 68(2): 187-203, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521050

RESUMO

Species are the starting point for most studies of ecology and evolution, but the proper circumscription of species can be extremely difficult in morphologically variable lineages, and there are still few convincing examples of molecularly informed species delimitation in plants. Here, we focus on the Viburnum nudum complex, a highly variable clade that is widely distributed in eastern North America. Taxonomic treatments have mostly divided this complex into northern (V. nudum var. cassinoides) and southern (V. nudum var. nudum) entities, but additional names have been proposed. We used multiple lines of evidence, including RADseq, morphological, and geographic data, to test how many independently evolving lineages exist within the V. nudum complex. Genetic clustering and phylogenetic methods revealed three distinct groups-one lineage that is highly divergent, and two others that are recently diverged and morphologically similar. A combination of evidence that includes reciprocal monophyly, lack of introgression, and discrete rather than continuous patterns of variation supports the recognition of all three lineages as separate species. These results identify a surprising case of cryptic diversity in which two broadly sympatric species have consistently been lumped in taxonomic treatments. The clarity of our findings is directly related to the dense sampling and high-quality genetic data in this study. We argue that there is a critical need for carefully sampled and integrative species delimitation studies to clarify species boundaries even in well-known plant lineages. Studies following the model that we have developed here are likely to identify many more cryptic lineages and will fundamentally improve our understanding of plant speciation and patterns of species richness.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/genética , Viburnum/classificação , Viburnum/genética , DNA de Plantas/química , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Mapeamento por Restrição , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Estados Unidos , Viburnum/anatomia & histologia
12.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(11): 1612-1616, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368956

RESUMO

Three new compounds (1-3) and seven known compounds (4-10) have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of Viburnum macrocephalum f. keteleeri using bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as methyl (2-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)acetate (1), methyl (2R-3-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)glycerate (2), methyl (3R-4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy-3-hydroxy)butanoate (3), bridelionoside B (4), (6S,7E,9R)-roseoside (5), linarionoside A (6), 3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6-dodecadien-3,10,11-triol (7), (+)-8-hydroxylinalool (8), ß-sitosterol (9) and daucosterol (10). The structures of 1-3, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic data (1H and 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC and ORD) and chemical methods. In addition, compounds 1-8 were assayed for their insecticidal and antimicrobial activities. Compounds 7 and 8 exhibited moderately insecticidal effects against Mythimna separata with LD50 values of 180 and 230 µg g-1, respectively. Compounds 2, 3, 7 and 8 showed varying antimicrobial activities with IC50 values ranging from 125 to 529 µM.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Viburnum/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Inseticidas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sitosteroides/análise
13.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(18): 2662-2667, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703100

RESUMO

The ethanolic extract of the stems of Viburnum fordiae Hance showed insecticidal and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and then was fractionated by bioactivity-guided fractionation to obtain a rare C13-norisoprenoid (1), together with a new phenolic glycoside (2), and seven known compounds, alangionoside C (3), pisumionoside (4), koaburaside (5), 3,5-dimethoxy-benzyl alcohol 4-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (6), 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl-ß-d-glucopyranoside (7), arbutin (8), and salidroside (9). The previously undescribed compounds were elucidated as (3R,9R)-3-hydroxy-7,8-didehydro-ß-ionyl 9-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-ß-d-glucopyranoside (1) and 2-(4-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl)syringylpropane-1,3-diol (2) by spectroscopic data (1H and 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC-TOCSY, HRESIMS, IR and ORD) and chemical methods. Compound 1 showed potent insecticidal effect against Mythimna separata with LD50 value of 140 µg g-1. Compounds 2, 5, 6, 8 and 9 showed varying α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging from 148.2 to 230.9 µM.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Viburnum/química , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(40): 10421-10430, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231607

RESUMO

Nine new neolignan glycosides (1-9), viburfordosides A-I, two new neolignans, fordianes A and B (10, 11), and seven known analogues (12-18) have been isolated and identified from the fruits of Viburnum fordiae Hance. The structures and absolute configurations of undescribed neolignan constituents were identified by chemical methods and spectroscopic analyses. The α-glucosidase inhibitory, ABTS•+ and DPPH• scavenging, and anti-inflammatory activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated. Some of them exhibited significant potency in inhibiting α-glucosidase and scavenging free radicals. Among the 14 metabolites that were found to have the capacity to inhibit NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells, compounds 2, 4, 6, 10, 11, 14, 17, and 18 were potent with IC50 values of 10.88-41.10 µM. These results support that V. fordiae fruits possessing the neolignan compounds may serve as both a functional food and a medicinal resource to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2D).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Lignanas/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Viburnum/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Humanos , Lignanas/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(14): 2950-2955, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111054

RESUMO

This experiment was to study the constituents of the roots of Viburnum setigerum through various column chromatographic techniques. Thirteen compounds were obtained and their structures were identified using chemical and spectroscopic methods as (7αH, 8'αH)-4, 4', 8α-trihydroxy-3, 3', 9-trimethoxy-7, 9'-epoxylignan (1), (7αH, 8'αH)-4, 4', 8α, 9-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxy-7, 9'-epoxylignan (2), alashinol G (3), alashinol F (4), (-)-secoisolariciresinol (5), (7R, 7'R, 8R, 8'S)-3, 3'-dimethoxy-7, 7'-epoxylignane -4, 4', 9, 9'-tetraol (6), (7αH, 8αH, 8'ßH)-4, 4', 7'α, 9-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxy-7, 9'-epoxylignan (7), loganin (8), dihydroquercetin (9), protocatechuic acid (10), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoic acid (11), adoxoside (12), and catechin (13). Compound 1 was a new compound. Compounds 3-7 and 11 were reported from the genus Viburnum for the first time. All compounds were separated from this plant for the first time.


Assuntos
Viburnum , Lignanas , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas
16.
Arch Pharm Res ; 41(6): 625-632, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29619674

RESUMO

Three new neolignans, fordianoles A-C (1-3), characterized as (7S,8R)-4-hydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8',9'-dinor-8,4'-oxyneolignan-7,7',9-triol, (7R,8R)-4-hydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8',9'-dinor-8,4'-oxyneolignan-7,7',9-triol, and (7R,8R)-4-hydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneolignan-7,9,9'-triol-7'-one, together with an unusual γ-lactone, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-pentanolide (4), and twenty-five known compounds (5-29) were isolated from the aerial parts of Viburnum fordiae Hance. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Among them, compounds 6, 7, 11-15, 17-28 were isolated from the Viburnum genus for the first time. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of all compounds were evaluated in vitro. Compounds 15, 19, 20 and 29 showed significant inhibitory activity on NO production in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS with IC50 values ranging from 8.60 to 13.92 µM. Meanwhile, compounds 1-4, 15, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26 and 29 exhibited varying antioxidant activities through DPPH, ABTS free radical scavenging and FRAP assays.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Viburnum/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7
17.
Chem Biodivers ; 15(5): e1800049, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603623

RESUMO

Four new vibsane-type diterpenoids, vibsanol I (1), 15-hydroperoxyvibsanol A (2), 14-hydroperoxyvibsanol B (3), 15-O-methylvibsanin U (4), and a new natural product, 5,6-dihydrovibsanin B (5), as well as six known analogues, were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Viburnum odoratissimum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and chemical derivatization method. All compounds showed different levels of cytotoxicity against five cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW480). Remarkably, 14,18-O-diacetyl-15-O-methylvibsanin U (4a) showed significant cytotoxicity against HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW480, with IC50 values of 0.15 ± 0.01, 0.69 ± 0.01, 0.41 ± 0.02, 0.75 ± 0.03, and 0.48 ± 0.03 µm, respectively. In addition, vibsanin K (10) was identified as a HSP90 inhibitor with an IC50 value of 19.16 µm.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Viburnum/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 14(2): 314-320, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29516912

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of study was to investigate anticancer effect of Viburnum opulus (VO) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice that treated with different concentrations of VO. Materials and Methods: For tumor transplantation; mice were inoculated with 1 × 106 EAC cells intraperitoneally and than divided into five groups (n = 9). Two hours after inoculation; experimental groups were treated daily with VO extract at doses of 1000 mg/kg, 2000 mg/kg, 4000 mg/kg. Results: Extracts obtained from gilaburu juice can have hinder effect on tumor cell growth. Conclusion: As far as we known, this is the first study about in vivo antitumoral activity of VOon Ehrlich ascites tumor model, and consequently VO extract exhibited anticancer activity against EAC-bearing mice.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Ehrlich/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Ehrlich/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Viburnum/química , Aloenxertos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma de Ehrlich/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imuno-Histoquímica , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos
19.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 59(10): 2414-2422, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334822

RESUMO

Identifying novel differentiating agents to promote leukemia-cell differentiation is a pressing need. Here, we demonstrated that vibsanol A, a vibsane-type diterpenoid, inhibited the growth of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells via induction of cell differentiation, which was characterized by G1 cell cycle arrest. The differentiation-inducing effects of vibsanol A were dependent upon protein kinase C (PKC) activation, and subsequent activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Furthermore, vibsanol A treatment increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and the ROS scavenger NAC reversed the vibsanol A-induced cell differentiation, indicating an important role for ROS in the action of vibsanol A. Finally, vibsanol A exhibited a differentiation-enhancing effect when used in combination with all-trans retinoic acid in AML cells. Overall results suggested that vibsanol A induces AML cell differentiation via activation of the PKC/ERK signaling and induction of ROS. Vibsanol A may prove to be an effective differentiating agent against AML.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Viburnum/química
20.
Am Nat ; 191(2): 235-249, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351013

RESUMO

Few studies have critically evaluated how morphological variation within individual organisms corresponds to variation within and among species. Subindividual variation in plants facilitates such studies because their indeterminate modular growth generates multiple serially homologous structures along growing axes. Focusing on leaf form, we evaluate how subindividual trait variation relates to leaf evolution across Viburnum, a clade of woody angiosperms. In Viburnum we infer multiple independent origins of wide/lobed leaves with toothed margins from ancestors with elliptical, smooth-margined leaves. We document leaf variation along the branches of individual plants of 28 species and among populations across the wide range of Viburnum dentatum. We conclude that when novel leaf forms evolved in Viburnum, they were intercalated at the beginning of the seasonal leaf sequence, which then generated a repeated spectrum of leaf forms along each branch (seasonal heteroblasty). We hypothesize that the existence of such a spectrum then facilitated additional evolutionary shifts, including reversions to more ancestral forms. We argue that the recurrent production of alternative phenotypes provides opportunities to canalize the production of particular forms and that this phenomenon has played an important role in generating macroscale patterns.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica , Evolução Biológica , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Viburnum/genética , Viburnum/anatomia & histologia
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