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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(14): 17258-17267, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152859

RESUMO

The occurrence and persistence of pharmaceutical products (PPs) in the environment have recently been well-documented and are a major concern for public health. Their incidence in aquatic ecosystems is the result of their direct release without any prior treatment or insufficient wastewater treatment. Therefore, an efficient and safe posttreatment process for removing PPs must be developed. In this study, we focused on the ability of photocatalysis or combined photocatalysis and biodegradation to effectively and safely remove diclofenac (DCF) and its by-products from water. The heterogeneous photocatalysis system was based on bio-sourced activated carbon obtained from Argania spinosa tree nutshells and Degussa P25 titanium dioxide (ACP-TiO2), and biodegradation involved Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Toxicity tests were conducted with zebrafish embryos to evaluate the applicability of the treatment processes. The results showed that photocatalytic treatment with 0.1 mg/L of ACP-TiO2 9% for 7.5 h is sufficient to eliminate DCF (50 mg L-1) and its by-products from water. Low levels of malformation (< 20%) were detected in zebrafish embryos treated with photocatalyzed DCF solutions at 1, 5, and 7 mg L-1 after 4 days of exposure. After 3 h of incubation, P. aeruginosa was found to reduce the toxicity of DCF (10 mg L-1) photocatalyzed for 2 and 4 h. Additional studies should be conducted to elucidate the biodegradation mechanism.


Assuntos
Sapotaceae , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Catálise , Carvão Vegetal , Diclofenaco , Ecossistema , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Titânio , Árvores , Peixe-Zebra
2.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(2): 230-235, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100162

RESUMO

Argan oil is prepared by cold pressing argan kernels collected from fully ripe fruit. Argan oil market price is particularly elevated. Consequently, efficient methods to ascertain its authenticity and quality are looked for by industrials as well as individual consumers. Argan oil element profile has already been shown to be sufficiently singular to be used to certify its authenticity. Quantification of eleven elements (Ca, P, Mg, Mn, K, Cu, Fe, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Sn) indicated a 55 to 60% increase in global metal content in argan oil prepared from fully ripe fruit, compared to argan oil prepared from unripe fruit. Individual variations are herein reported and our study demonstrates that argan oil element profile allows to certify the degree of maturity of the argan fruit at its harvest time and hence to guarantee the respect of one essential parameter necessary to get an argan oil of high nutritional quality.


Assuntos
Frutas , Sapotaceae , Valor Nutritivo , Óleos Vegetais
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190396, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531554

RESUMO

Amazonia is often cited as having the most diverse flora on the planet. However, the total number of species of higher plants in the region has been largely a matter of guesswork. Some recent publications have estimated the total number of species present, which indicate a lower overall diversity than was estimated in the past. However, analysis of the sampling density across the region, and data from various sources suggest that there may be reason why the recent figures may be considerable underestimates. I believe that much more investment in extensive collecting of quality plant specimens is needed to encounter the very large number of rare and local species that might never have been collected. Unfortunately the tendencies of investment in botany, in terms of geography and types of project, suggest that we will probably not be able to accurately assess the real diversity of the region.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Plantas/classificação , Brasil , Florestas , Geografia , Magnoliopsida/classificação , Sapotaceae/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 24: 2515690X19865166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394920

RESUMO

Wound healing involves the interaction of blood cells, proteins, proteases, growth factors, and extracellular matrix components. Inflammation is one of the first events occurring during this process. Previously, we showed that the N-Methyl-(2S,4R)-trans-4-Hydroxy-L-Proline (NMP) from Sideroxylon obtusifolium leaves (a Brazilian medicinal species) presents an anti-inflammatory action. Considering inflammation as an important event in the wound healing process, the objectives were to investigate the topical effects of the NMP gel on a mice wound-induced model. Male Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups: Sham (surgical procedure only), Control (gel-base treated), and 3% or 10% NMP gel-treated groups. Measurements of wound areas and microscopic analyses (HE [hematoxylin-eosin] and PSR [picrosirius red] stainings) were carried out, at the 7th and 12th, days after the wound induction. Furthermore, immunohistochemical assays for iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) and COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) and biochemical measurements for TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), GSH (glutathione), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also performed, at the second day after the wound induction. The work showed that NMP decreases the wound areas, after topical application, relatively to the Sham and Control groups. In addition, microscopic alterations were reduced and collagen deposition was increased, at the 7th and 12th days, in the 10% NMP group. While iNOS and COX-2 immunostainings and GSH contents increased, in relation to the Sham and Control groups, TBARS and MPO decreased. Altogether, the results showed NMP to improve the wound healing process, by upregulating iNOS and COX-2 activities, reducing lipid peroxidation and MPO activity, and increasing GSH contents. In addition, NMP certainly contributes to the increased collagen deposition. These data may stimulate translational studies dealing with the possible use of NMP from Sideroxylon obtusifolium or from other sources for the management of wound healing.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Prolina/administração & dosagem , Sapotaceae/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Colágeno/genética , Colágeno/imunologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/imunologia , Glutationa/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/imunologia , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Ferimentos e Lesões/genética , Ferimentos e Lesões/imunologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia
5.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(6): 446-460, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262457

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of the Vitellaria paradoxa nutshell as a new medicinal resource for treating diabetes. A total of forty-one compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS and phytochemical methods in V. paradoxa nutshell methanol extract. Based on HPLC fingerprints, four characteristic constituents were quantified and the origin of twenty-eight V. paradoxa nutshells from seven sub-Saharan countries was compared, which were classified into three groups with chemometric method. Twenty-eight samples contained high total phenolic content, and exhibited moderate-higher antioxidant activity and strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Furthermore, all fractions and isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, and α-glucosidase inhibitory action mechanism of four characteristic constituents including protocatechuic acid, 3, 5, 7-trihydroxycoumarin, (2R, 3R)-(+)-taxifolin and quercetin was investigated via molecular docking method, which were all stabilized by hydrogen bonds with α-glucosidase. The study provided an effective approach to waste utilization of V. paradoxa nutshell, which would help to resolve waste environmental pollution and provide a basis for developing potential herbal resource for treating diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sapotaceae/química , África ao Sul do Saara , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diabetes Mellitus/enzimologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 297: 124749, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253289

RESUMO

Argan oil is precious oil with food and cosmetic uses. In recent years, this oil has been subject to an increasing national and international demand. The present work aims at studying the effect of clones and age, year of harvest and geographical origin on Argan oil quality and chemical composition. The results indicate that age does not affect Argan oil quality and fatty acids content. However, clones had a significant effect on fatty acids and tocopherol levels. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were highly influenced by the year of harvest and geographical origin, presumably due to climatic conditions. Unsaturated fatty acids varied from 78.28% to 81.77%. Depending on clones, total tocopherols varied from 687.40 mg/kg to 1068 mg/kg. This study is useful for the choice of clones with the aim of developing Argan trees orchards destined to oil production.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/química , Sapotaceae/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Clima , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Sapotaceae/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Tocoferóis/análise
7.
Syst Biol ; 68(6): 1020-1033, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157892

RESUMO

Oceanic islands originate from volcanism or tectonic activity without connections to continental landmasses, are colonized by organisms, and eventually vanish due to erosion and subsidence. Colonization of oceanic islands occurs through long-distance dispersals (LDDs) or metapopulation vicariance, the latter resulting in lineages being older than the islands they inhabit. If metapopulation vicariance is valid, island ages cannot be reliably used to provide maximum age constraints for molecular dating. We explore the relationships between the ages of members of a widespread plant genus (Planchonella, Sapotaceae) and their host islands across the Pacific to test various assumptions of dispersal and metapopulation vicariance. We sampled three nuclear DNA markers from 156 accessions representing some 100 Sapotaceae taxa, and analyzed these in BEAST with a relaxed clock to estimate divergence times and with a phylogeographic diffusion model to estimate range expansions over time. The phylogeny was calibrated with a secondary point (the root) and fossils from New Zealand. The dated phylogeny reveals that the ages of Planchonella species are, in most cases, consistent with the ages of the islands they inhabit. Planchonella is inferred to have originated in the Sahul Shelf region, to which it back-dispersed multiple times. Fiji has been an important source for range expansion in the Pacific for the past 23 myr. Our analyses reject metapopulation vicariance in all cases tested, including between oceanic islands, evolution of an endemic Fiji-Vanuatu flora, and westward rollback vicariance between Vanuatu and the Loyalty Islands. Repeated dispersal is the only mechanism able to explain the empirical data. The longest (8900 km) identified dispersal is between Palau in the Pacific and the Seychelles in the Indian Ocean, estimated at 2.2 Ma (0.4-4.8 Ma). The first split in a Hawaiian lineage (P. sandwicensis) matches the age of Necker Island (11.0 Ma), when its ancestor diverged into two species that are distinguished by purple and yellow fruits. Subsequent establishment across the Hawaiian archipelago supports, in part, progression rule colonization. In summary, we found no explanatory power in metapopulation vicariance and conclude that Planchonella has expanded its range across the Pacific by LDD. We contend that this will be seen in many other groups when analyzed in detail.


Assuntos
Dispersão Vegetal , Sapotaceae/classificação , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Ilhas , Oceano Pacífico , Sapotaceae/genética , Tempo
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(8): 2437-2445, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187409

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to study the effect of the incorporation of argane by-products (meal and pulp) in ewe's diet on the production and quality of milk and the performance of lambs in the lactation phase. Twenty ewes were divided into two equal groups. The first one has been fed with argane by-product diet (AD), and the second with a control diet (CD). The results showed an improvement in milk production with an average of 26.3% for AD compared with the CD group. AD group lambs showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) compared with the CD group during lactation phase. The ash and protein levels were not affected by treatments; however, fat, lactose, density, and fusion point content show more fluctuations for both treatments (p < 0.05). The physicochemical parameters of sheep milk showed high (p < 0.01) to very high (p < 0.001) significant change, along the lactation weeks. Except the Zn which showed no significant difference (p > 0.05), the mineral composition of both milks (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, and Fe) was significant (p < 0.05). It is concluded that, in terms of performances, argane by-products could replace the conventional diet for ewes without substantial detrimental effects. Therefore, argane by-product could be used as a cost-effective feed for sheep in dry areas.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Lactação , Leite/química , Sapotaceae , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Ovinos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187714

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Argania spiniosa L. (Sapotaceae) is an endemic species from south-western Morocco. This plant has many traditional uses including its use in the treatment of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Argania spiniosa Leaf Aqueous Extract (A.S.L.A.E). METHODS: The antidiabetic effect of A.S.L.A.E was evaluated in both normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats treated at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. The histopathological changes in the liver were evaluated. In addition, the antioxidant activity of this extract was also studied. RESULTS: Single oral administration of A.S.L.A.E (20 mg/kg) showed no significant change in blood glucose levels in both normal and STZ induced diabetic rats after 6 hours of administration. Furthermore, in normal rats, repeated oral administration of A.S.L.A.E reduced blood glucose levels. Moreover, blood glucose levels decreased in STZ diabetic rats after fifteen days of treatment. According to the oral glucose tolerance test, the A.S.L.A.E (20 mg/kg) was shown to prevent significantly the increase in blood glucose levels in normal treated rats. Moreover, A.S.L.A.E showed antioxidant activity. CONCLUSION: The results show that Argania spiniosa leaf aqueous extract possesses significant antihyperglycemic activity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sapotaceae/química , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos Wistar
10.
Andrologia ; 51(7): e13307, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058348

RESUMO

The prevalence of male infertility is a well-known public health issue with majority of cases due to deficient sperm production of unknown origin. Studies have associated dietary habits with male factor infertility. Chrysophyllum albidum is a common plant that produces a popular fruit, widely consumed for its nutritional and medicinal values. This study investigates the effects of C. albidum fruit methanol extract on the reproductive functions of male Wistar rats. Ripe C. albidum fruit was extracted using methanol and subjected to phytochemical screening. Fifteen male Wistar rats (100-120 g) divided into three (n = 5) received distilled water (control), 1.0 and 6.4 g kg-1  day-1 extract, respectively, for 28 days via oral gavage. The sperm count, motility, percentage sperm aberration, histology of testes and epididymides were examined by microscopy. Serum levels of luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone were quantified using ELISA. Data were analysed using ANOVA at p < 0.05 significance. Sperm count significantly increased in 6.4 g kg-1  day-1 extract. Serum testosterone level decreased in 1.0 and 6.4 g kg-1  day-1 extract. The architecture of sections of testes and epididymides showed anomalies. C. albidum fruit adversely altered reproductive functions of male Wistar rat.


Assuntos
Infertilidade/induzido quimicamente , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Sapotaceae/química , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/patologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Infertilidade/sangue , Masculino , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/patologia , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue
11.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(2): 601-606, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081772

RESUMO

Experimental based evidence suggests that most of the medicinal plants possess a wide-ranging pharmacological and biological activity that may possibly protect tissues against O2-induced damages. The objectives of the current study are: first, to investigate the effects of Monotheca buxifolia and Bosea amherstiana on H2O2 induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and second, to determine its effect on oxidative enzymes. Cells were treated at concentration of 100µg/mL with both plants. Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis/comet assay were used for DNA damage analysis. Activities of antioxidant enzymes TBARS, SOD, CAT and POD were assayed on treatment with the extracts. Both plants species possess the protective role against H2O2-induced lymphocytes DNA. Dichloromethane (DCM) fraction of Monotheca buxifolia (H DNA 94.79±0.29%) and methanolic fraction of Bosea amherstiana (H DNA 93.63±2.23%) possess high protection Significantly decrease occur in status of antioxidant enzymes. This study indicates that both plants have potential in preventing oxidative damages/stress related diseases and would be suitably used as supplements in combination with conventional drug for the treatment of cancer like diseases.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzimas/metabolismo , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Adulto , Amaranthaceae/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Sapotaceae/química
12.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0201329, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964859

RESUMO

Vitellaria paradoxa provides many benefits to farmers within the Shea belt. However, increased threats to it necessitate its conservation, and one common approach is the practice of agroforestry. A number of studies have shown that Shea tree has influence on crop production, and yet, some of these studies were done using single season experiments or bioassays using mature Shea tree components. In this study, the seasonal influence of young and mature Shea trees on Maize and Soybean yields was investigated using field experiments in Otuke district of northern Uganda, where, Shea tree parklands are dominant and Maize and Soybean are used for food security and income. Our results show that there are differential responses of maize and soybean yield to rainy seasons and physiological variations of Vitellaria paradoxa with age. We find yield reduction for maize more pronounced than yield reduction for soybeans under different Shea age (Mature and Young) for two rainy seasons. We attribute the variance to the differential maize and soybean responses to Vitellaria paradoxa shading and its differential allelopathic inhibition of these crops. We recommend that Soybeans should be preferred to maize when planting under Shea canopy.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Sapotaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(9): 3727-3736, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915502

RESUMO

Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) is one economically important plant species that mainly distributes in West Africa. Shea butter extracted from shea fruit kernels can be used as valuable products in the food and cosmetic industries. The most valuable composition in shea butter was one kind of triacylglycerol (TAG), 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). However, shea butter production is limited and little is known about the genetic information of shea tree. In this study, we tried to reveal genetic information of shea tree and identified shea TAG biosynthetic genes for future shea butter production in yeast cell factories. First, we measured lipid content, lipid composition, and TAG composition of seven shea fruits at different ripe stages. Then, we performed transcriptome analysis on two shea fruits containing obviously different levels of SOS and revealed a list of TAG biosynthetic genes potentially involved in TAG biosynthesis. In total, 4 glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) genes, 8 lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPAT) genes, and 11 diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) genes in TAG biosynthetic pathway were predicted from the assembled transcriptome and 14 of them were cloned from shea fruit cDNA. Furthermore, the heterologous expression of these 14 potential GPAT, LPAT, and DGAT genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae changed yeast fatty acid and lipid profiles, suggesting that they functioned in S. cerevisiae. Moreover, two shea DGAT genes, VpDGAT1 and VpDGAT7, were identified as functional DGATs in shea tree, showing they might be useful for shea butter (SOS) production in yeast cell factories.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sapotaceae/genética , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , Leveduras/genética , Leveduras/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Sapotaceae/enzimologia , Sapotaceae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
14.
J Food Sci ; 84(4): 762-769, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875441

RESUMO

The triacylglycerol (TAG) matrix of argan oil (AO) bodies (AOB) along with the TAGs of AO extracted from the same kernels using an organic solvent, were identified and quantified using the ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Generally, both samples showed a similar TAGs profile but AO found to have three extra TAGs in low amount. In total 23 and 26 different TAGs were identified in AOBs and AO, respectively. The most abundant TAGs were OOL, POO, OOO, and POL in both samples. Furthermore, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid were the major fatty acids in both AOBs and AO. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research that studied the TAGs matrix of an oil body revealing no major difference between the TAGs profile protected by the AOBs membrane and the oil extracted from the whole seed. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Seed and kernels oil bodies emulsion tend to be the new source of emulsified oil in food and cosmetic industries. However, before replacing a product with another, we have to make sure that the new alternative can offer better or at least similar benefits. Our results showed that the triacylglycerols (TAGs) matrix and the argan oil (AO) share the same TAGs profile with a relatively close percentage. Therefore, AO bodies can be the perfect pre-emulsified oil for some food products like sauces and creams.


Assuntos
Gotículas Lipídicas/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sapotaceae/química , Triglicerídeos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Triglicerídeos/análise
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818884

RESUMO

Ultraviolet (UV) exposure causes skin photoaging leading to skin wrinkling and sagging via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). For this reason, protection from photoaging is an important feature in cosmeceutical and dermatological products. Natural product-derived biomaterials are highly desired as future possible ingredients, because these biomaterials are often safe and effective. In this study, we aimed to characterize the skin protective activity of Pradosia mutisii, traditionally used to treat sunburn and erythema. We determined the free radical scavenging, anti-melanogenic, and moisturizing effects of a methanol extract of Pradosia mutisii (Pm-ME) in keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), melanocytes (B16F10 cells), and fibroblasts (human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs)) at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Pradosia mutisii methanol extract contains coumaric acid as a major component, and the extract exhibited protective activity against UVB- and H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. This extract also suppressed the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in HaCaT cells. A reduction of Sirt-1 expression under UVB- and H2O2-treated conditions was recovered in HaCaT cells by Pm-ME. This extract displayed significant free radical scavenging activity according to the 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay. The Pm-ME also upregulated the expression levels of hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS) and transglutaminase-1 (TGM-1) in HaCaT cells, indicating a putative moisturizing activity. Interestingly, the expression of collagen type 1 (Col1A1) gene and its promoter activity, as assessed by a reporter gene assay, were found to be increased in HDF and HEK293 cells. Similarly, Pm-ME helped recover collagen levels after UVB and H2O2 treatment in HDFs as well as decreased the synthesis and secretion of melanin from B16F10 melanoma cells, which may indicate a beneficial whitening cosmetic value. The p38 inhibitor SB203580 and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 suppressed MMP-9 and COX-2 expression in H2O2-treated HaCaT cells. Similarly, the ERK inhibitor U0126 inhibited HAS-2 in Pm-ME/H2O2-treated HaCaT cells. These findings suggested that inhibition of JNK and p38 and activation of ERK could be targeted by Pm-ME. Therefore, Pm-ME may exert anti-photoaging and anti-melanogenic properties via the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, which could be beneficial in the cosmeceutical industry.


Assuntos
Melaninas/metabolismo , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sapotaceae/química , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , alfa-MSH/farmacologia
16.
C R Biol ; 342(1-2): 7-17, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595494

RESUMO

This study was carried out in order to investigate the ability of tissues of Argania spinosa (L.) to undergo unlimited cell divisions by triggering their proliferative potential via callogenesis. Axenic cultures were efficiently established using axillary buds cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium after 20min of surface sterilization with sodium hypochlorite 6% (v/v). The highest callus rate was achieved with 1.0mgL-1 of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 1.0mgL-1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) or similarly with 0.01mgL-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1.0mgL-1 of 2,4D at pH of 5.8, under dark conditions. The results of this study show also a significant increase in the callus's antioxidant power under abiotic pressure induced by NaCl. Catalase (CAT), peroxidase (PO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significantly triggered, which protected the cells from the stimulated oxidative stress, under hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significant release. This reaction favors subsequently the tissue recover process linked to the low abundance of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. This work proves the efficiency of salt stress in boosting the argan cell's antioxidant status, which could be commercially applied in the field of cells regenerative therapy.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Sapotaceae/classificação , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 111: 613-623, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611985

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of using the crude methanolic extract of Chrysophyllum cainito L. leaves (C. cainito L.); as a source of natural antioxidant compounds; to compensate the oxidative stress induced by ionizing radiation exposure in male rats. Phytochemical investigations of C. cainito L. leaves extract led to the isolation of phytocobstituents such as: Gallic acid (1), together with six flavonoids; 3//Galloyl myrecetrin (2), Rutin (3), Quercetrin (4), Myrecetrin (5), Myricetin (6), and Quercetin (7). In addition to two triterpenoids; ß -amyrin (8), and Lupeol (9). All metabolites were isolated for the first time from the genus Chrysophyllum. The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (UV, ESI-MS, 1H and 13CNMR). These compounds reflected its beneficial effect to ameliorate the alterations induced by γ-irradiation via the adjustment of the antioxidant status, decreasing of MDA level, and an improvement in liver, kidney functions and lipid profile, as well as histological alterations of liver were reduced. We can conclude that C. cainito L. extract reduces the liver and kidney toxicity induced by exposure to gamma radiation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Raios gama/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sapotaceae , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos
18.
Inflammopharmacology ; 27(5): 985-996, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222687

RESUMO

The gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extracts from peels (MEPe), seeds (MESe) and pulp (MEPu) of Chrysophyllum cainito L. (Sapotaceae) fruits was evaluated in mice using ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer, as well as the antiulcer effect of the juice and flour from this fruit. The lowest oral gastroprotective dose of MEPe, MESe and MEPu against ethanol/HCl was 3, 3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, all extracts increased mucin secretion at 176, 198 and 193%. Intraperitoneal administration of MEPe (0.3 mg/kg), MESe (0.3 mg/kg) and MEPu (1 mg/kg) also promoted gastroprotection against ethanol/HCl. In addition, MEPe (3 mg/kg, p.o), MESe (3 mg/kg, p.o) and MEPu (10 mg/kg, p.o) reduced indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice by 78, 70 and 50%, respectively. Regarding the mode of action, the gastroprotective effect of MEPe was decreased by the pre-administration of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, a sulfhydryl group chelator, 10 mg/kg, i.p), glibenclamide (a potassium channel blocker, 10 mg/kg, i.p), yohimbine (10 mg/kg, i.p, an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg, i.p) and indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 10 mg/kg, i.p). The gastroprotective effect of MESe was reduced by the pre-administration of NEM, glibenclamide, N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 70 mg/kg, i.p) and yohimbine, while MEPu had the gastroprotective effect decreased in animals pretreated with NEM and L-NAME. However, the extracts did not reduce gastric acid secretion. The supplementation with the flour from C. cainito fruit at 10% by 7 days, but not the juice intake, displayed gastroprotective potential, evidencing the fruit as a promising functional food. Together, the antiulcer effect of extracts of the C. cainito fruit in different experimental models was confirmed by the favoring of mucosal protective mechanisms among different, but complementary, modes of action. In parallel, the gastroprotective effects of the flour from C. cainito fruit were also described.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sapotaceae/química , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/química , Feminino , Indometacina/farmacologia , Camundongos , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
19.
Braz J Biol ; 79(1): 22-28, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694562

RESUMO

Macroinvertebrate shredders consume preferably leaves conditioned by fungi and bacteria which offer greater palatability to them. Plant species in Cerrado present high concentration of chemical elements such as lignin and cellulose, phenols and tanins thus making them less attractive for shredders consumption and limiting the palatability. This study aimed to evaluate the feeding preference of a macroinvertebrate shredder of the genus Phylloicus for plant material from two different biomes (Cerrado and Mata Atlântica), after conditioning in a stream of Mata Atlântica and observing their physical and chemical characteristics. Senescent leaves were collected, monthly from the litterfall of riparian vegetation in a 500 m stretch of a stream in each biome from August 2014 to January 201. The most abundant species in each stream was selected for the experiment. The experimental design consisted in with two treatments. The first (T1) comprised leaf discs from Chrysophyllum oliviforme (Cerrado species) together with leaf discs of Miconia chartacea (Atlantic Forest species) which were conditioned in the Atlantic Forest stream. The second treatment (T2) involved leaf discs of Miconia chartacea conditioned in Mata Altlântica and Cerrado streams. Both tests had showed significant differences between the two treatments (T1 and T2). For T1, there was consumption of M. chartacea leaf discs by Phylloicus sp., but there was no consumption of C. oliviforme discs. For T2, there was preference for M. chartaceae leaves conditioned in a stream of Mata Atlântica than in Cerrado stream. The results showed that Phylloicus sp., had presented preference for food detritus of the Mata Antlântica biome and rejection to the one from Cerrado biome.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Insetos/fisiologia , Melastomataceae , Folhas de Planta , Rios , Sapotaceae , Animais , Brasil , Dieta , Preferências Alimentares , Melastomataceae/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/classificação , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Rios/química , Sapotaceae/fisiologia , Árvores/classificação , Árvores/fisiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421687

RESUMO

AIMS: Arganimide A (4,4-dihydroxy-3,3-imino-di-benzoic acid) is a compound belonging to a family of aminophenolics found in fruit of Argania spinosa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the glucose and lipid lowering activity of Arganimide A (ARG A). METHODS: The effect of a single dose and daily oral administration of Arganimide A (ARG A) on blood glucose levels and plasma lipid profile was tested in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. RESULTS: Single oral administration of ARG A reduced blood glucose levels from 26.50±0.61 mmol/L to 14.27±0.73 mmol/L (p<0.0001) six hours after administration in STZ diabetic rats. Furthermore, blood glucose levels were decreased from 5.35±0.30 mmol/L to 3.57±0.17 mmol/L (p<0.0001) and from 26.50±0.61 mmol/L to 3.67±0.29 mmol/L (p<0.0001) in normal and STZ diabetic rats, respectively, after seven days of treatment. Moreover, no significant changes in body weight in normal and STZ rats were shown. According to the lipid profile, the plasma triglycerides levels were decreased significantly in diabetic rats after seven days of ARG treatment (p<0.05). Moreover, seven days of ARG A treatment decreased significantly the plasma cholesterol concentrations (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: ARG A possesses glucose and lipid-lowering activity in diabetic rats and this natural compound may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sapotaceae , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Frutas , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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