Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.201
Filtrar
1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(22): 27885-27892, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405939

RESUMO

In this study, the toxic effects of 1,4-dioxane, a common contaminant, and the protective property of Ceratonia siliqua L. pod extract (Cspe) against this toxicity are aimed to be demonstrated with a versatile model. For this purpose, Allium toxicity test was used and six different experimental groups were formed. While the control group was germinated in tap water, the application groups were germinated in mediums containing 750 mg/L Cspe, 1500 mg/L Cspe, 100 mg/L 1,4-dioxane, 750 mg/L Cspe+100 mg/L 1,4-dioxane, and 1500 mg/L Cspe+100 mg/L 1,4-dioxane. Each group was germinated in related solution for 72 h and alterations in physiological, biochemical, genetic, and anatomical parameters were investigated. Germination percentage, relative injury rate, root length, and weight gain parameters were examined as physiological parameters, and no significant difference was observed in the control group and only-Cspe-treated groups. In groups treated with 100 mg/L 1,4-dioxane, germination percentage, root length, and weight gain were significantly decreased, and the relative injury rate reached the highest value as 0.48. It was determined that all physiological parameters improved in the groups where Cspe and 1,4-dioxane treated together, and the relative injury rate decreased to 0.22 in the group treated with 1500 mg/L Cspe+1,4-dioxane. Genotoxic effects were tested by the micronucleus and chromosomal abnormality frequency, and statistically insignificant micronucleus formation was found in control group and Cspe-treated groups. Micronucleus frequency were found to be 58.00 ± 12.12 and 31.00 ± 07.38 in 1,4-dioxane and 1500 mg/L Cspe+1,4-dioxane-treated groups, respectively. This result showed that the application of 1500 mg/L Cspe had a 46.5% reduction in the frequency of 1,4-dioxane-induced micronucleus and had a protective effect on genomic integrity. It has been found that 1,4-dioxane application induces lipid peroxidation and increases malondialdehyde level 4.5 times compared with control group. Oxidative stress, which was proved by increased malondialdehyde levels in 1,4-dioxane-treated group caused induction of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes, and it was determined that enzyme activities increased by 1.99 and 4.9 times, respectively, compared with the control group. Cspe treatment with 1,4-dioxane caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde level, superoxide dismutase, and catalase enzyme activities, indicating that oxidative stress formation in the cells was repressed. Abnormalities such as cell deformation, cell wall thickening, and flattened cell nuclei were seen in 1,4-dioxane-treated group in the cross sections of root tips, and the frequency of these abnormalities decreased with Cspe application. As a result, it was determined that 1,4-dioxane caused a versatile toxicity in the test material Allium cepa, whereas Cspe application had a dose-dependent protective feature against toxicity in all tested parameters.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Raízes de Plantas , Antioxidantes , Catalase , Dioxanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Malondialdeído , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais , Superóxido Dismutase
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365065

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of incorporating different legume flours (faba bean, lentil or split pea flours) on the pasta protein network and its repercussion on in vitro protein digestibility, in comparison with reference dairy proteins. Kinetics and yields of protein hydrolysis in legume enriched pasta and, for the first time, the peptidomes generated by the pasta at the end of the in vitro gastric and intestinal phases of digestion are presented. Three isoproteic (21%) legume enriched pasta with balanced essential amino acids, were made from wheat semolina and 62% to 79% of legume flours (faba bean or F-pasta; lentil or L-pasta and split pea or P-pasta). Pasta were prepared following the conventional pastification steps (hydration, mixing, extrusion, drying, cooking). Amino acid composition and protein network structure of the pasta were determined along with their culinary and rheological properties and residual trypsin inhibitor activity (3-5% of the activity initially present in raw legume flour). F- and L-pasta had contrasted firmness and proportion of covalently linked proteins. F-pasta had a generally weaker protein network and matrix structure, however far from the weakly linked soluble milk proteins (SMP) and casein proteins, which in addition contained no antitrypsin inhibitors and more theoretical cleavage sites for digestive enzymes. The differences in protein network reticulation between the different pasta and between pasta and dairy proteins were in agreement in each kinetic phase with the yield of the in vitro protein hydrolysis, which reached 84% for SMP, and 66% for casein at the end of intestinal phase, versus 50% for L- and P-pasta and 58% for F-pasta. The peptidome of legume enriched pasta is described for the first time and compared with the peptidome of dairy proteins for each phase of digestion. The gastric and intestinal phases were important stages of peptide differentiation between legumes and wheat. However, peptidome analysis revealed no difference in wheat-derived peptides in the three pasta diets regardless of the digestion phase, indicating that there was a low covalent interaction between wheat gluten and legume proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacocinética , Animais , Culinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Fabaceae/química , Farinha/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Hidrólise , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Lens (Planta)/química , Proteínas do Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/farmacocinética , Valor Nutritivo , Ervilhas/química , Agregados Proteicos , Triticum/química , Vicia faba/química
3.
J Environ Manage ; 268: 110610, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383643

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is one of the most restrictive essential elements to crop growth and development due to less availability in the soil system. Previous studies have reported the synergistic effects between molybdenum (Mo) and P fertilizer on P uptake in various crops. However, an induced long term effect of Mo on soil P dynamics in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere has not been reported yet in leguminous crops. In this study, a long term field experiment was conducted to explore the P transformation characteristics and bioavailability in Mo-deficient (-Mo) and Mo-enriched (+Mo) soil under leguminous (broad bean-soybean) cropping system. The results indicated that long-term Mo application increased the plant dry matter accumulation (14.23%-35.27%, for broad bean; 24.40%-37.46%, for soybean) from March-September. In rhizosphere soil, the percent decrease in pH (8.10%) under +Mo treatment of the soybean crop was recorded more during September as compared to broad bean crop. Under Mo supply, H2O-Pi fraction increased up to 28.53% and 43.67% while for NaHCO3-Pi this increase was up to 5.61% and 11.98%, respectively in the rhizosphere soil of broad bean and soybean, whereas, residual-P exhibited the highest proportion of P fractions. Moreover, compared with -Mo, +Mo treatments significantly increased the soil acid phosphatase (broad bean = 17.43 µmol/d/g; soybean = 28.60 µmol/d/g), alkaline phosphatase (broad bean = 3.34 µmol/d/g; soybean 6.35 µmol/d/g) and phytase enzymes activities (broad bean = 2.45 µmol/min/g; soybean = 5.91 µmol/min/g), transcript abundance of phoN/phoC genes and microbial biomass P (MBP) in rhizosphere soil. In crux, the findings of this study suggest that long term Mo application enhanced P bioavailability through increased available P, MBP, P related enzymes activities and their genes expressions which may represent a strategy of Mo to encounter P deficiencies in the soil system.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Solo , Molibdênio , Fósforo , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232453, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369501

RESUMO

Soil-based microorganisms assume a direct and crucial role in the promotion of soil health, quality and fertility, all factors known to contribute heavily to the quality and yield of agricultural products. Cover cropping, used in both traditional and organic farming, is a particularly efficient and environmentally favorable tool for manipulating microbiome composition in agricultural soils and has had clear benefits for soil quality and crop output. Several long-term investigations have evaluated the influence of multi-mix (multiple species) cover crop treatments on soil health and microbial diversity. The present study investigated the short-term effects of a seven species multi-mix cover crop treatment on soil nutrient content and microbial diversity, compared to a single-mix cover crop treatment and control. Analysis of 16S sequencing data of isolated soil DNA revealed that the single-mix cover crop treatment decreased overall microbial abundance and diversity, whereas the control and multi-mix treatments altered the overall microbial composition in similar fluctuating trends. Furthermore, we observed significant changes in specific bacteria belonging to the phyla Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucombicrobia for all treatments, but only the single-mix significantly decreased in abundance of the selected bacteria over time. Our findings indicate that the control and multi-mix treatments are better at maintaining overall microbial composition and diversity compared to the single-mix. Further study is required to elucidate the specific difference between the treatment effect of the multi-mix treatment and the control, given that their microbial composition changes over time were similar but they diverge into two populations of unique bacterial types by the end of this short-term study.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Agricultura/métodos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota/genética , Nitrogênio/análise , Filogenia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo/química
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(6): 378, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424709

RESUMO

The exploitation of forest resources, especially non-timber forest products, has effects on different biological levels, from the biochemical level of an organism to the ecosystem level. The present study addresses the effects of different management strategies (protected area, managed area, and an area where the species is cultivated in agroforestry systems) in reproductive phenology, fruit features, and phytochemical profiles of Dimorphandra gardneriana (Leguminosae), a tree species, pioneer, and socioeconomically important plant of the Brazilian Savanna. Its fruits are exploited by extractivist communities to obtain rutin and quercetin, which are internationally traded bioflavonoids (two of the ten most exported phytochemicals in Brazil). The results showed that the effects on these parameters were characterized as positive, increasing according to the level of exploitation. The agroforestry system had higher yields of flavonoids of economic interest, viable fruits and seeds, followed by the management area and the protected area. Finally, knowledge about the planting effects on fava d'anta fruit production can be a great ally for effectively managing forest resources. A varied system of exploitation implies greater and more stable economic returns for extractive communities, favoring the conservation of the species in protected areas.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fabaceae , Flavonoides , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Árvores , Clima Tropical
6.
Gene ; 753: 144803, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446917

RESUMO

R2R3-type MYBs are a key group of regulatory factors that control diverse developmental processes and stress tolerance in plants. Soybean is a major legume crop with the richness of seed protein and edible vegetable oil, and 244 R2R3-type MYBs have been identified in soybean. However, the knowledge regarding their functional roles has been greatly limited as yet. In this study, a novel R2R3-type MYB (GmMYB81) was functionally characterized in soybean, and it is closely related to two abiotic stress-associated regulators (AtMYB44 and AtMYB77). GmMYB81 transcripts not only differentially accumulated in soybean tissues and during embryo development, but also were significantly enhanced by drought, salt and cold stress. Histochemical GUS assay in Arabidopsis indicated that GmMYB81 promoter showed high activity in seedlings, rosette leaves, inflorescences, silique wall, mature anthers, roots, and germinating seeds. Further investigation indicated that over-expression of GmMYB81 in Arabidopsis caused auxin-associated phenotypes, including small flower and silique, more branch, and weakened apical dominance. Moreover, over-expression of GmMYB81 significantly elevated the rates of seed germination and green seedling under salt and drought stress, indicating that GmMYB81 might confer plant tolerance to salt and drought stress during seed germination. Additionally, protein interaction analysis showed that GmMYB81 interacts with the abiotic stress regulator GmSGF14l. Further observation indicated that they displayed similar expression patterns under drought and salt stress, suggesting GmMYB81 and GmSGF14l might cooperatively affect stress tolerance. These findings will facilitate future investigations of the regulatory mechanisms of GmMYB81 in response to plant stress tolerance, especially seed germination under abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Soja/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Secas , Fabaceae/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Germinação/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
Phytochemistry ; 176: 112414, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446133

RESUMO

Five undescribed phenolics named pithecellobiumin C-G, along with thirteen known ones were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Archidendron clypearia (Jack) I.C.Nielsen. Their structures were elucidated based on comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, combined with computer-assisted structure elucidation software (ACD/Structure Elucidator) and gauge-independent atomic orbitals (GIAO) NMR chemical shift calculations. The absolute configurations were determined by comparison of experimental and calculated specific rotation and ECD curves. These compounds were tested for their neuroprotective activities against H2O2-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by MTT assay. Pithecellobiumin C-E exhibited noticeable neuroprotective effect. Further pharmacological study demonstrated that they could prevent cell death through inhibiting the apoptosis induction. Flow cytometry assays also proved that these compounds could attenuate reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
8.
Phytochemistry ; 175: 112376, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304910

RESUMO

Three undescribed isoflavones, derriscandenon A, B, and C, together with seven known isoflavones were isolated and structurally characterized during a study of the chemical constituents in the leaves of Derris scandens (Roxb.) Benth (Leguminosae, Fabaceae) collected in Bangladesh. The inhibitory activity of the compounds against activation of Epstein-Barr virus antigen (EBV-EA) by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbo-13-acetate (TPA) was measured to identify possible chemopreventive agents. Mild inhibitory effects (IC50 278-290 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA) against EBV-EA induction compared with curcumin (IC50 341 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA) were observed for four known compounds (lupalbigenin, isopalbigenin, glyurallin, and isangustone A). Next, we focused on antitumor effects and investigated cell viability, cell proliferation, and mitochondria membrane potential by using an MTT assay, a live cell monitoring system, and fluorescence staining. Of the seven isoflavones tested for cell viability, a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed for four isoflavones (derriscandenon B and C, derrubone, and glyurallin) in KB cells and two compounds (derriscandenon B and isochandaisone) in NALM6-MSH+ cells. In addition, the proliferation of KB cells was significantly inhibited by these four compounds at a concentration of 5 µM. The mitochondria membrane potentials of KB cells treated with derriscandenon C, derrubone, and glyurallin at the IC50 concentration were decreased by about 55%, whereas undescribed compound derriscandenon B had no effect. Our results show that some of the compounds isolated from D. scandens may be suitable as seed compounds for cancer prevention and therapy.


Assuntos
Derris , Fabaceae , Isoflavonas , Neoplasias , Bangladesh , Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231543, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282828

RESUMO

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a proteolytic enzyme responsible for the rapid degradation of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) that is required for the secretion of insulin. DPP-4 also influences activation of node like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome under diabetic conditions. Although several polyphenols are reported for various bioactivities, they are consumed as part of the food matrix and not in isolation. Horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) is a rich source of myricetin (Myr) (35 µg/g flour), reported for its anti-hyperglycemic effect. In this investigation, we aimed to study the effect of Myr, singly, and in the presence of co-nutrient horsegram protein (HP) on DPP-4 activity and its consequential impact on GLP-1, insulin, and NLRP3 inflammasome in high-fat diet and single low dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. In diabetic control (DC), the activity of DPP-4 and its expression were higher compared to treated groups. The consequential decrease in the circulating GLP-1 levels in the DC group, but not treated groups, further indicated the effectiveness of our test molecules under diabetic conditions. Specifically, Myr decreased DPP-4 activity and its expression levels with enhanced circulating GLP-1 and insulin levels. Myr administration also resulted in a lessening of diabetes-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. HP also proved to be efficient in reducing elevated blood glucose levels and enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities. However, Myr, in the presence of HP as a co-nutrient, had diminished capacity to inhibit DPP-4 and, consequently, reduced potential in ameliorating diabetic conditions. Myr proved to be a potent inhibitor of DPP-4 in vitro and in vivo, resulting in enhanced circulating GLP-1 and insulin levels, thereby improving diabetic conditions. Though Myr and HP, individually ameliorate diabetic conditions, their dietary combination had reduced efficiency.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Fabaceae , Feminino , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Fígado/enzimologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar
10.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 104(3): e21687, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342573

RESUMO

The economic loss in soybean crops caused by the Lepidoptera insects has encouraged the search for new strategies to control this pest, which are currently based on synthetic insecticides. This paper evaluated the ability of ApTI (Adenanthera pavonina trypsin inhibitor) to inhibit trypsin-like proteins from Anticarsia gemmatalis by docking, molecular dynamics, and enzymatic and survival assay. The docking and molecular dynamic simulation between trypsin and ApTI were performed using the program CLUSPRO and NAMD, respectively. The inhibitory constant Ki and the inhibition type were determined through chromogenic assays. The survival assay of neonatal larvae under treatment with artificial diet supplemented with ApTI was also performed. The ApTI binding site was predicted to block substrate access to trypsin due to four interactions with the enzyme, producing a complex with a surface area of 1,183.7 Å2 . The kinetic analysis revealed a noncompetitive tight-binding mechanism. The survival curves obtained using Kaplan-Meier estimators indicated that the highest larvae mortality was 60%, using 1.2 mg of ApTI per 100 ml of artificial diet. The in vitro, in vivo, and in silico studies demonstrated that ApTI is a strong noncompetitive inhibitor of trypsin with biotechnological potential for the control of A. gemmatalis insect.


Assuntos
Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia , Animais , Fabaceae/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/enzimologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mariposas/enzimologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tripsina/metabolismo
11.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(2): 142-153, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239331

RESUMO

Chickpea is one of the most consumed legumes worldwide. Among their benefits are the high protein concentration that reflects not only at the nutritional level but also on the supply of active peptides; besides, it presents different metabolites with pharmacological activities. Some biological activities identified in the different compounds of chickpea are antioxidant, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, and anticancer. Although most reports are based on the effects of the proteins and their hydrolysates, alcoholic extracts have also been proven that contain phenolic compounds, saponins, phytates, among others; therefore, their consumption has been dubbed as an alternative for the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. In the present review, we summarize the nutritional composition of the chickpea and describe the main biological activities reported for this legume, revealing some of its beneficial effects on health, of which there is still much to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Cicer , Fabaceae , Antioxidantes , Humanos , Fenóis
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1384-1392, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281352

RESUMO

The chemical compounds in water extract of Spatholobi Caulis were further studied. The compounds were systematically isolated and purified by using various separation and analysis techniques including silica gel, macroporous adsorptive resins and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, as well as reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography(RP-HPLC). Twenty-three flavonoids and one chromone were identified by the spectroscopic analysis techniques combining their physicochemical properties, they were identified as isoduartin(1), sativan(2), 8-O-methylretusin(3), 7-hydroxydihydroflavone(4), odoratin(5), butesuperin A(6), biochanin A(7), 3'-methoxydaidzein(8), 7-hydroxychromone(9), calycosin(10), naringenin(11), dihydrocajanin(12),(6 aR,11 aR)-maackiain(13), 2'-hydroxygenistein(14),(6 aR,11 aR)-medicarpin-3-O-glucopyranoside(15),(-)-epiafzelechin(16),(-)-catechin(17),(-)-epicatechin(18), 4',8-dimethoxy-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranosylisoflavone(19), ononin(20),(-)-gallocatechin(21), rutin(22), daidzin(23) and sphaerobioside(24). Compounds 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14-16, 19 and 22-24 were isolated from Spatholobi Caulis for the first time.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Fabaceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9822-9831, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317381

RESUMO

Legumes tend to be nodulated by competitive rhizobia that do not maximize nitrogen (N2) fixation, resulting in suboptimal yields. Rhizobial nodulation competitiveness and effectiveness at N2 fixation are independent traits, making their measurement extremely time-consuming with low experimental throughput. To transform the experimental assessment of rhizobial competitiveness and effectiveness, we have used synthetic biology to develop reporter plasmids that allow simultaneous high-throughput measurement of N2 fixation in individual nodules using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and barcode strain identification (Plasmid ID) through next generation sequencing (NGS). In a proof-of-concept experiment using this technology in an agricultural soil, we simultaneously monitored 84 different Rhizobium leguminosarum strains, identifying a supercompetitive and highly effective rhizobial symbiont for peas. We also observed a remarkable frequency of nodule coinfection by rhizobia, with mixed occupancy identified in ∼20% of nodules, containing up to six different strains. Critically, this process can be adapted to multiple Rhizobium-legume symbioses, soil types, and environmental conditions to permit easy identification of optimal rhizobial inoculants for field testing to maximize agricultural yield.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/genética , Fixação de Nitrogênio/genética , Rhizobium leguminosarum/genética , Simbiose/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ervilhas/genética , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/genética , Rhizobium leguminosarum/metabolismo , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Biologia Sintética
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 584-595, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237517

RESUMO

A method was established for simultaneous determination of 21 active constituents including flavanols, isoflavones, flavonols, dihydroflavones, dihydroflavonols, chalcones, pterocarpan, anthocyanidins and phenolic acids in Spatholobi Caulis by ultra fast liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry(UFLC-QTRAP-MS/MS). Then, it was employed to analyze and evaluate the dynamic accumulation of multiple bioactive constituents in Spatholobi Caulis. The chromatographic separation was performed on a XBridge®C_(18)(4.6 mm×100 mm, 3.5 µm) at 30 ℃ with a gradient elution of 0.3% formic acid aqueous solution-methanol, and the flow rate was 0.8 mL·min~(-1), using multiple-reaction monitoring(MRM) mode. A comprehensive evaluation of the multiple bioactive constituents was carried out by gray correlation analysis(GRA). The 21 target components showed good linearity(r>0.999 0) in the range of the tested concentrations. The average recovery rates of the 21 components were from 97.46% to 103.6% with relative standard deviations less than 5.0%. There were differences in the contents of 21 components in Spatholobi Caulis at diffe-rent harvest periods. Spatholobi Caulis had high quality from early November to early December, which is consistent with the local tradi-tional harvest period. This study reveals the rule of the dynamic accumulation of 21 components in Spatholobi Caulis and provides basic information for the suitable harvest time. At the same time, it provides a new method reference for the comprehensive evaluation of the internal quality of Spatholobi Caulis.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Caules de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1120-1127, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237455

RESUMO

To study the non-flavonoids chemical constituents in water extract of Spatholobi Caulis. Some purification and analysis techniques like silica gel, D101-macroporous adsorptive resins, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies as well as reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate and analyze the phenolic acid esters and other type compounds from Spatholobi Caulis integrally. The structures of these compounds were identified by spectroscopic techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and high resolution mass spectrometries. Twenty-seven compounds, including phenolic acid, coumarin, lignan, terpene, alkaloid, and steroid compounds, were isolated from ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions in water extract of Spatholobi Caulis, and they were identified as ß-sitosterol(1), feruli acid methyl ester(2), syringaresinol(3),(+)-medioresinol(4),(+)-epipinoresinol(5), p-acetylphenol(6), bolusanthin Ⅳ(7), evofolin B(8), salicylic acid(9), trans-p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid(10), abscisic acid(11), m-hydroxyphenol(12), C-veratroylglycol(13), p-hydroquinone(14), 8,9-dihydroxymegastigma-4,6-dien-3-one(15), p-hydroxybenzoic acid(16), 6,9-dihydroxymegastigma-4,7-dien-3-one(17), protocatechuic acid(18), protocatechuic acid methyl ester(19), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin(20), isolariciresinol(21), nicotinic acid(22), daucosterol(23),(+)-pinoresinol(24), stigmasterol(25), allantoin(26) and koaburaside(27), respectively. Furthermore, compounds 2-15, 19-22, 24 and 26 were isolated from genus Spatholobus for the first time.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Fabaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Ésteres/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas
16.
Nat Genet ; 52(4): 428-436, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231277

RESUMO

Adaptive changes in plant phenology are often considered to be a feature of the so-called 'domestication syndrome' that distinguishes modern crops from their wild progenitors, but little detailed evidence supports this idea. In soybean, a major legume crop, flowering time variation is well characterized within domesticated germplasm and is critical for modern production, but its importance during domestication is unclear. Here, we identify sequential contributions of two homeologous pseudo-response-regulator genes, Tof12 and Tof11, to ancient flowering time adaptation, and demonstrate that they act via LHY homologs to promote expression of the legume-specific E1 gene and delay flowering under long photoperiods. We show that Tof12-dependent acceleration of maturity accompanied a reduction in dormancy and seed dispersal during soybean domestication, possibly predisposing the incipient crop to latitudinal expansion. Better understanding of this early phase of crop evolution will help to identify functional variation lost during domestication and exploit its potential for future crop improvement.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Domesticação , Fabaceae/genética , Fotoperíodo , Sementes/genética
17.
Zootaxa ; 4748(3): zootaxa.4748.3.6, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230065

RESUMO

We discuss seven species of tortricid moths that are leafminers at least in early instars. These include Grapholita thermopsidis Eiseman Austin, new species, which feeds on Thermopsis rhombifolia (Pursh) Richardson (Fabaceae), along with two others for which larval hosts were previously unknown: Catastega triangulana Brown (Ericaceae: Arctostaphylos pungens Kunth) and Sparganothis xanthoides (Walker) (Polemoniaceae: Phlox divaricata L.). Parasitoids of G. thermopsidis include Dolichogenidea sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Zagrammosoma mirum Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). The female genitalia of Epinotia nigralbana (Walsingham), a species that mines leaves of Arctostaphylos throughout larval development, are illustrated for the first time. Rhopobota finitimana (Heinrich), which feeds on Ilex spp. (Aquifoliaceae), is confirmed to mine leaves as has been documented previously in R. dietziana (Kearfott). Talponia plummeriana (Busck), which is known to feed in the developing ovaries of pawpaw (Annonaceae: Asimina spp.), also feeds in leaves before boring in the twigs and stems. Cenopis lamberti (Franclemont), previously reported from Persea sp. (Lauraceae), was reared from Symplocos tinctoria (L.) L'Hér. (Symplocaceae). Apart from the two exceptions noted above, all of these species exit their mines in later instars to feed in leaf shelters.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Himenópteros , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Feminino , Larva , América do Norte
18.
Zootaxa ; 4748(3): zootaxa.4748.3.8, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230067

RESUMO

Uroleucon (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) is a highly diverse and widely distributed genus. Most of its species are hosted by plants of the Asteraceae or Campanulaceae, but three species from the southern end of South America have specialized to live on plants of the genus Adesmia (Fabaceae). New morphological and chorological data are provided for U. adesmiae Mier Durante and Ortego and U. naheulhuapense Nieto Nafría von Dohlen, with a description of the alate viviparous female of the latter species. U. australe Nieto Nafría Mier Durante, sp. n. is described from apterous viviparous females, oviparous females and males from four localities in the Chilean regions of Aysén and Magallanes; it is very close to U. nahuelhuapense, both morphologically and genetically. Contrary to what is typical for aphids, the males of U. australe have a greater number of distinguishing characters than are found in viviparous females. A modification of the identification key to the apterous viviparous females of the known Uroleucon species in South America by Nieto Nafría et al. (2019) is presented.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Asteraceae , Besouros , Fabaceae , Animais , Chile , Feminino , Masculino
19.
Zootaxa ; 4733(1): zootaxa.4733.1.1, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230234

RESUMO

The Detarieae, a small tribe of tropical arborescent Leguminosae, has been reported as host of two species of jumping plant-lice: the Neotropical Macrocorsa beeryi (Caldwell) on Hymenaea courbaril and the Afrotropical Retroacizzia mopanei (Pettey) on Colophospermum mopane. Here we add from Brazil 18 new species of Colophorina, Jataiba gen. nov. and Mitrapsylla from Copaifera, as well as nine species of Jataiba gen. nov. and Platycorypha from Hymenaea. In addition to Jataiba, a new genus which is created for five new species on Copaifera and one on Hymenaea, we erect the new genus Apsyllopsis for Psyllopsis mexicana, which is synonymised with Psyllia beeryi Caldwell. Two new combinations are proposed: Apsyllopsis mexicana (Crawford), comb. nov. from Psyllopsis, and Epiacizzia favis (Brown Hodkinson), comb. nov. from Euphalerus. The new taxa are described and illustrated, and keys are provided for the identification of adults and immatures, as far as known. Immatures of Apsyllopsis and Colophorina induce galls on the leaves whereas those of the other taxa are free-living. Colophorina spp. seem to be monophagous whereas members of the other genera tend to be oligophagous. All host species are associated with two or more psyllid species. Copaifera langsdorffii, which hosts 11 species of three genera, constitutes a super-host.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Fabaceae , Hemípteros , Animais
20.
Am J Bot ; 107(3): 498-509, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200549

RESUMO

PREMISE: Few studies have addressed the evolutionary history of tree species from African savannahs. Afzelia contains economically important timber species, including two species widely distributed in African savannahs: A. africana in the Sudanian region and A. quanzensis in the Zambezian region. We aimed to infer whether these species underwent range fragmentation and/or demographic changes, possibly reflecting how savannahs responded to Quaternary climate changes. METHODS: We characterized the genetic diversity and structure of these species across their distribution ranges using nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) markers. Six SSR loci were genotyped in 241 A. africana and 113 A. quanzensis individuals, while 2800 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in 30 A. africana individuals. RESULTS: Both species appeared to be mainly outcrossing. The kinship between individuals decayed with the logarithm of the distance at similar rates across species and markers, leading to relatively small Sp statistics (0.0056 for SSR and 0.0054 for SNP in A. africana, 0.0075 for SSR in A. quanzensis). The patterns were consistent with isolation by distance expectations in the absence of large-scale geographic gradients. Bayesian clustering of SSR genotypes did not detect genetic clusters within species. In contrast, SNP data resolved intraspecific genetic clusters in A. africana, illustrating the higher resolving power of GBS. However, these clusters revealed low levels of differentiation and no clear geographical entities, so that they were interpreted as resulting from the isolation by distance pattern rather than from past population fragmentation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that populations have remained connected throughout the large, continuous savannah landscapes. The absence of clear phylogeographic discontinuities, also found in a few other African savannah trees, indicates that their distribution ranges have not been significantly fragmented during the climatic oscillations of the Pleistocene, in contrast to patterns commonly found in African rainforest trees.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Metagenômica , Teorema de Bayes , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogeografia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA